[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An essential event during the replication cycle of HIV-1 is the integration of the reverse transcribed viral DNA into the host cellular genome. Our former report revealed that HIV-1 integrase (IN), the enzyme that catalyzes the integration reaction, is positively regulated by acetylation mediated by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300.
In this study we demonstrate that another cellular HAT, GCN5, acetylates IN leading to enhanced 3'-end processing and strand transfer activities. GCN5 participates in the integration step of HIV-1 replication cycle as demonstrated by the reduced infectivity, due to inefficient provirus formation, in GCN5 knockdown cells. Within the C-terminal domain of IN, four lysines (K258, K264, K266, and K273) are targeted by GCN5 acetylation, three of which (K264, K266, and K273) are also modified by p300. Replication analysis of HIV-1 clones carrying substitutions at the IN lysines acetylated by both GCN5 and p300, or exclusively by GCN5, demonstrated that these residues are required for efficient viral integration. In addition, a comparative analysis of the replication efficiencies of the IN triple- and quadruple-mutant viruses revealed that even though the lysines targeted by both GCN5 and p300 are required for efficient virus integration, the residue exclusively modified by GCN5 (K258) does not affect this process.
The results presented here further demonstrate the relevance of IN post-translational modification by acetylation, which results from the catalytic activities of multiple HATs during the viral replication cycle. Finally, this study contributes to clarifying the recent debate raised on the role of IN acetylated lysines during HIV-1 infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration of the double-stranded DNA copy of the HIV-1 genome into host chromosomal DNA is a requirement for efficient viral replication. Integration preferentially occurs within active transcription units, however chromosomal site specificity does not correlate with any strong primary sequence. To investigate whether the nuclear architecture may affect viral integration we have developed an experimental system where HIV-1 viral particles can be visualized within the nuclear compartment. Fluorescently labeled HIV-1 virions were engineered by fusing integrase, the viral protein that catalyzes the integration reaction, to fluorescent proteins. Viral tests demonstrate that the infectivity of fluorescent virions, including the integration step, is not altered as compared to wild-type virus. 3-D confocal microscopy allowed a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the pre-integration complexes (PICs) within the nucleus at different moments following infection; the fluorescently labeled PICs preferentially distribute in decondensed areas of the chromatin with a striking positioning in the nuclear periphery, while heterochromatin regions are largely disfavored. These observations provide a first indication of how the nuclear architecture may initially orient the selection of retroviral integration sites.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(6):e2413. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration of HIV-1 into the human genome, which is catalyzed by the viral protein integrase (IN), preferentially occurs near transcriptionally active genes. Here we show that p300, a cellular acetyltransferase that regulates chromatin conformation through the acetylation of histones, also acetylates IN and controls its activity. We have found that p300 directly binds IN both in vitro and in the cells, as also specifically demonstrated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique analysis. This interaction results in the acetylation of three specific lysines (K264, K266, K273) in the carboxy-terminus of IN, a region that is required for DNA binding. Acetylation increases IN affinity to DNA, and promotes the DNA strand transfer activity of the protein. In the context of the viral replication cycle, point mutations in the IN acetylation sites abolish virus replication by specifically impairing its integration capacity. This is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IN activity is specifically regulated by post-translational modification.
The EMBO Journal 10/2005; 24(17):3070-81. · 9.82 Impact Factor