Baback Gharizadeh

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

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Publications (58)258.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To examine the significance of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH) of the androgen receptor gene (AR) in breast cancer, patient-matched samples of laser capture micro-dissected breast tumor cells, adjacent normal breast epithelia cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes were sequenced using a novel next generation sequencing protocol. This protocol measured the frequency of distribution of a variable AR CAG repeat length, a functional polymorphism associated with breast cancer risk. All samples exhibited some degree of ITGH with up to 30 CAG repeat length variants identified. Each type of tissue exhibited a different distribution profile of CAG repeat lengths with substantial differences in the frequencies of zero and 18-25 CAG AR variants. Tissue differences in the frequency of ARs with each of these CAG repeat lengths were significant as measured by paired, twin t-tests. These results suggest that preferential selection of 18-25 CAG repeat length variants in breast tumors may be associated with breast cancer, and support the observation that shorter CAG repeats may protect against breast cancer. They also suggest that merely identifying variant genes will be insufficient to determine the critical mutational events of oncogenesis, which will require measuring the frequency of distribution of mutations within cancerous and matching normal tissues.
    Human Mutation 02/2013; · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is epidemiologically associated with hepatocellular-carcinoma (HCC) but its role in HCC remains poorly understood due to technological limitations. Here, we systematically characterize HBV in HCC patients. HBV sequences were enriched from 48 HCC patients using an oligo-bead-based strategy, pooled together and sequenced using the FLX-Genome-Sequencer. In the tumors, preferential integration of HBV into promoters of genes (P<0.001) and significant enrichment of integration into chromosome 10 (P<0.01) was observed. Integration into chromosome 10 was significantly associated with poorly differentiated tumors (P<0.05). Notably, in the tumors, recurrent integration into the promoter of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene was found to correlate with increased TERT expression. The preferred region within the HBV genome involved in integration as well as viral structural alteration is at the 3'-end of HBx where viral replication/transcription initiates. Upon integration, the 3'-end of the HBx is often deleted. HBx-human chimeric transcripts, the most common type of chimeric transcripts, can be expressed as chimeric proteins. Sequence variation resulting in non-conservative amino acid substitutions are commonly observed in HBV genome. This study highlights HBV as highly mutable in HCC patients with preferential regions within the host and virus genome for HBV integration/structural alterations.
    Carcinogenesis 12/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains widely used for industrial fuel-ethanol production have been developed by selection, but their underlying beneficial genetic polymorphisms remain unknown. Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of the S. cerevisiae strain CAT-1, which is a dominant fuel-ethanol fermentative strain from the sugarcane industry in Brazil. Our results indicate that strain CAT-1 is a highly heterozygous diploid yeast strain, and the ~12-Mb genome of CAT-1, when compared with the reference S228c genome, contains ~36,000 homozygous and ~30,000 heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms, exhibiting an uneven distribution among chromosomes due to large genomic regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In total, 58 % of the 6,652 predicted protein-coding genes of the CAT-1 genome constitute different alleles when compared with the genes present in the reference S288c genome. The CAT-1 genome contains a reduced number of transposable elements, as well as several gene deletions and duplications, especially at telomeric regions, some correlated with several of the physiological characteristics of this industrial fuel-ethanol strain. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that some genes were likely associated with traits important for bioethanol production. Identifying and characterizing the allelic variations controlling traits relevant to industrial fermentation should provide the basis for a forward genetics approach for developing better fermenting yeast strains.
    MGG Molecular & General Genetics 05/2012; 287(6):485-94. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole genome comparisons identified introgression from archaic to modern humans. Our analysis of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, vital immune system components subject to strong balancing selection, shows how modern humans acquired the HLA-B*73 allele in west Asia through admixture with archaic humans called Denisovans, a likely sister group to the Neandertals. Virtual genotyping of Denisovan and Neandertal genomes identified archaic HLA haplotypes carrying functionally distinctive alleles that have introgressed into modern Eurasian and Oceanian populations. These alleles, of which several encode unique or strong ligands for natural killer cell receptors, now represent more than half the HLA alleles of modern Eurasians and also appear to have been later introduced into Africans. Thus, adaptive introgression of archaic alleles has significantly shaped modern human immune systems.
    Science 08/2011; 334(6052):89-94. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patr-AL is an expressed, non-polymorphic MHC class I gene carried by ∼50% of chimpanzee MHC haplotypes. Comparing Patr-AL(+) and Patr-AL(-) haplotypes showed Patr-AL defines a unique 125-kb genomic block flanked by blocks containing classical Patr-A and pseudogene Patr-H. Orthologous to Patr-AL are polymorphic orangutan Popy-A and the 5' part of human pseudogene HLA-Y, carried by ∼10% of HLA haplotypes. Thus, the AL gene alternatively evolved in these closely related species to become classical, nonclassical, and nonfunctional. Although differing by 30 aa substitutions in the peptide-binding α(1) and α(2) domains, Patr-AL and HLA-A*0201 bind overlapping repertoires of peptides; the overlap being comparable with that between the A*0201 and A*0207 subtypes differing by one substitution. Patr-AL thus has the A02 supertypic peptide-binding specificity. Patr-AL and HLA-A*0201 have similar three-dimensional structures, binding peptides in similar conformation. Although comparable in size and shape, the B and F specificity pockets of Patr-AL and HLA-A*0201 differ in both their constituent residues and contacts with peptide anchors. Uniquely shared by Patr-AL, HLA-A*0201, and other members of the A02 supertype are the absence of serine at position 9 in the B pocket and the presence of tyrosine at position 116 in the F pocket. Distinguishing Patr-AL from HLA-A*02 is an unusually electropositive upper face on the α(2) helix. Stimulating PBMCs from Patr-AL(-) chimpanzees with B cells expressing Patr-AL produced potent alloreactive CD8 T cells with specificity for Patr-AL and no cross-reactivity toward other MHC class I molecules, including HLA-A*02. In contrast, PBMCs from Patr-AL(+) chimpanzees are tolerant of Patr-AL.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2011; 186(3):1575-88. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The construction of synthetic biological systems involving millions of nucleotides is limited by the lack of high-quality synthetic DNA. Consequently, the field requires advances in the accuracy and scale of chemical DNA synthesis and in the processing of longer DNA assembled from short fragments. Here we describe a highly parallel and miniaturized method, called megacloning, for obtaining high-quality DNA by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology as a preparative tool. We demonstrate our method by processing both chemically synthesized and microarray-derived DNA oligonucleotides with a robotic system for imaging and picking beads directly off of a high-throughput pyrosequencing platform. The method can reduce error rates by a factor of 500 compared to the starting oligonucleotide pool generated by microarray. We use DNA obtained by megacloning to assemble synthetic genes. In principle, millions of DNA fragments can be sequenced, characterized and sorted in a single megacloner run, enabling constructive biology up to the megabase scale.
    Nature Biotechnology 12/2010; 28(12):1291-4. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrosequencing is a DNA sequencing technique based on sequencing-by-synthesis enabling rapid and real-time sequence determination. Although ample genomic research has been undertaken using pyrosequencing, the requirement of relatively high amount of DNA template and the difficulty in sequencing the homopolymeric regions limit its key advantages in the applications directing towards clinical research. In this study, we demonstrate that pyrosequencing on homopolymeric regions with 10 identical nucleotides can be successfully performed with optimal amount of DNA (0.3125–5 pmol) immobilized on conventional non-porous Sepharose beads. We also validate that by using porous silica beads, the sequencing signal increased 3.5-folds as compared to that produced from same amount of DNA immobilized on solid Sepharose beads. Our results strongly indicate that with optimized quantity of DNA and suitable solid support, the performance of pyrosequencing on homopolymeric regions and its detection limit has been significantly improved.Research highlights► There is an optical DNA amount (0.3125–5 pmol) for pyrosequencing. ► Using optimal DNA amount is important for pyrosequencing on homopolymeric regions. ► Porous silica bead is a better matrix for DNA immobilization in pyrosequencing.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2010; 401(1):117-123. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developing T cells face a series of cell fate choices in the thymus and in the periphery. The role of the individual T cell receptor (TCR) in determining decisions of cell fate remains unresolved. The stochastic/selection model postulates that the initial fate of the cell is independent of TCR specificity, with survival dependent on additional TCR/coreceptor "rescue" signals. The "instructive" model holds that cell fate is initiated by the interaction of the TCR with a cognate peptide-MHC complex. T cells are then segregated on the basis of TCR specificity with the aid of critical coreceptors and signal modulators [Chan S, Correia-Neves M, Benoist C, Mathis (1998) Immunol Rev 165: 195-207]. The former would predict a random representation of individual TCR across divergent T cell lineages whereas the latter would predict minimal overlap between divergent T cell subsets. To address this issue, we have used high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the TCR distribution among key T cell developmental and effector subsets from a single donor. We found numerous examples of individual subsets sharing identical TCR sequence, supporting a model of a stochastic process of cell fate determination coupled with dynamic patterns of clonal expansion of T cells bearing the same TCR sequence among both CD4(+) and CD8+ populations.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2010; 107(4):1518-23. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used multiplexed high-throughput sequencing to characterize changes in small RNA populations that occur during viral infection in animal cells. Small RNA-based mechanisms such as RNA interference (RNAi) have been shown in plant and invertebrate systems to play a key role in host responses to viral infection. Although homologs of the key RNAi effector pathways are present in mammalian cells, and can launch an RNAi-mediated degradation of experimentally targeted mRNAs, any role for such responses in mammalian host-virus interactions remains to be characterized. Six different viruses were examined in 41 experimentally susceptible and resistant host systems. We identified virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) from all six viruses, with total abundance varying from "vanishingly rare" (less than 0.1% of cellular small RNA) to highly abundant (comparable to abundant micro-RNAs "miRNAs"). In addition to the appearance of vsRNAs during infection, we saw a number of specific changes in host miRNA profiles. For several infection models investigated in more detail, the RNAi and Interferon pathways modulated the abundance of vsRNAs. We also found evidence for populations of vsRNAs that exist as duplexed siRNAs with zero to three nucleotide 3' overhangs. Using populations of cells carrying a Hepatitis C replicon, we observed strand-selective loading of siRNAs onto Argonaute complexes. These experiments define vsRNAs as one possible component of the interplay between animal viruses and their hosts.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2010; 6(2):e1000764. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-resistance mutation, K65R confers intermediate to high-level resistance to the NRTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and tenofovir; and low-level resistance to stavudine. Several lines of evidence suggest that K65R is more common in HIV-1 subtype C than subtype B viruses. We performed ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and clonal dideoxynucleotide sequencing of plasma virus samples to assess the prevalence of minority K65R variants in subtype B and C viruses from untreated individuals. Although UDPS of plasma samples from 18 subtype C and 27 subtype B viruses showed that a higher proportion of subtype C viruses contain K65R (1.04% vs. 0.25%; p<0.001), limiting dilution clonal sequencing failed to corroborate its presence in two of the samples in which K65R was present in >1.5% of UDPS reads. We therefore performed UDPS on clones and site-directed mutants containing subtype B- and C-specific patterns of silent mutations in the conserved KKK motif encompassing RT codons 64 to 66 and found that subtype-specific nucleotide differences were responsible for increased PCR-induced K65R mutation in subtype C viruses. This study shows that the RT KKK nucleotide template in subtype C viruses can lead to the spurious detection of K65R by highly sensitive PCR-dependent sequencing techniques. However, the study is also consistent with the subtype C nucleotide template being inherently responsible for increased polymerization-induced K65R mutations in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e10992. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: K103N, the most common nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant mutation in patients with transmitted resistance and in patients receiving a failing NNRTI-containing regimen, is fully susceptible to the new NNRTI, etravirine. Therefore, we sought to determine how often NNRTI-resistant mutations other than K103N occur as minority variants in plasma samples for which standard genotypic resistance testing detects K103N alone. Methods: We performed ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS; 454 Life Sciences a Roche Company, Branford, CT) of plasma virus samples from 13 treatment-naive and 20 NNRTI-experienced patients in whom standard genotypic resistance testing revealed K103N but no other major NNRTI-resistance mutations. Results: Samples from 0 of 13 treatment-naive patients vs. 7 of 20 patients failing an NNRTI-containing regimen had minority variants with major etravirine-associated NNRTI-resistant mutations (P = 0.03, Fisher exact test): Y181C (7.0%), Y181C (3.6%) + G190A (3.2%), L100I (14%), L100I (32%) + 190A (5.4%), K101E (3.8%) + G190A (4.9%), K101E (4.0%) + G190S (4.8%), and G190S (3.1%). Conclusions: In treatment-naive patients, UDPS did not detect additional major NNRTI-resistant mutations suggesting that etravirine may be effective in patients with transmitted K103N. In NNRTI-experienced patients, UDPS often detected additional major NNRTI-resistant mutations suggesting that etravirine may not be fully active in patients with acquired K103N.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10/2009; 52(3):309-315. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamics of emerging nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) are not well understood because standard dideoxynucleotide direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing assays detect drug-resistance mutations only after they have become dominant. To obtain insight into NRTI resistance, we used a new sequencing technology to characterize the spectrum of low-prevalence NRTI-resistance mutations in HBV obtained from 20 plasma samples from 11 NRTI-treated patients and 17 plasma samples from 17 NRTI-naive patients, by using standard direct PCR sequencing and ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). UDPS detected drug-resistance mutations that were not detected by PCR in 10 samples from 5 NRTI-treated patients, including the lamivudine-resistance mutation V173L (in 5 samples), the entecavir-resistance mutations T184S (in 2 samples) and S202G (in 1 sample), the adefovir-resistance mutation N236T (in 1 sample), and the lamivudine and adefovir-resistance mutations V173L, L180M, A181T, and M204V (in 1 sample). G-to-A hypermutation mediated by the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family of cytidine deaminases was estimated to be present in 0.6% of reverse-transcriptase genes. Genotype A coinfection was detected by UDPS in each of 3 patients in whom genotype G virus was detected by direct PCR sequencing. UDPS detected low-prevalence HBV variants with NRTI-resistance mutations, G-to-A hypermutation, and low-level dual genotype infection with a sensitivity not previously possible.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2009; 199(9):1275-85. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T215 revertant mutations such as T215C/D/E/S that evolve from the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor mutations T215Y/F have been found in about 3% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected persons. We used a newly developed sequencing method-ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS; 454 Life Sciences)--to determine the frequency with which T215Y/F or other RT inhibitor resistance mutations could be detected as minority variants in samples from untreated persons that contain T215 revertants ("revertant" samples) compared with samples from untreated persons that lack such revertants ("control" samples). Among the 22 revertant and 29 control samples, UDPS detected a mean of 3.8 and 4.8 additional RT amino acid mutations, respectively. In 6 of 22 (27%) revertant samples and in 4 of 29 control samples (14%; P = 0.4), UDPS detected one or more RT inhibitor resistance mutations. T215Y or T215F was not detected in any of the revertant or control samples; however, 4 of 22 revertant samples had one or more T215 revertants that were detected by UDPS but not by direct PCR sequencing. The failure to detect viruses with T215Y/F in the 22 revertant samples in this study may result from the overwhelming replacement of transmitted T215Y variants by the more fit T215 revertants or from the primary transmission of a T215 revertant in a subset of persons with T215 revertants.
    Journal of Virology 09/2008; 82(21):10747-55. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diversity of virus populations within single infected hosts presents a major difficulty for the natural immune response as well as for vaccine design and antiviral drug therapy. Recently developed pyrophosphate-based sequencing technologies (pyrosequencing) can be used for quantifying this diversity by ultra-deep sequencing of virus samples. We present computational methods for the analysis of such sequence data and apply these techniques to pyrosequencing data obtained from HIV populations within patients harboring drug-resistant virus strains. Our main result is the estimation of the population structure of the sample from the pyrosequencing reads. This inference is based on a statistical approach to error correction, followed by a combinatorial algorithm for constructing a minimal set of haplotypes that explain the data. Using this set of explaining haplotypes, we apply a statistical model to infer the frequencies of the haplotypes in the population via an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We demonstrate that pyrosequencing reads allow for effective population reconstruction by extensive simulations and by comparison to 165 sequences obtained directly from clonal sequencing of four independent, diverse HIV populations. Thus, pyrosequencing can be used for cost-effective estimation of the structure of virus populations, promising new insights into viral evolutionary dynamics and disease control strategies.
    PLoS Computational Biology 05/2008; 4(4):e1000074. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrosequencing is a DNA sequencing method based on the principle of sequencing-by-synthesis and pyrophosphate detection through a series of enzymatic reactions. This bioluminometric, real-time DNA sequencing technique offers unique applications that are cost-effective and user-friendly. In this study, we have combined a number of methods to develop an accurate, robust and cost efficient method to determine allele frequencies in large populations for association studies. The assay offers the advantage of minimal systemic sampling errors, uses a general biotin amplification approach, and replaces dTTP for dATP-apha-thio to avoid non-uniform higher peaks in order to increase accuracy. We demonstrate that this newly developed assay is a robust, cost-effective, accurate and reproducible approach for large-scale genotyping of DNA pools. We also discuss potential improvements of the software for more accurate allele frequency analysis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(7):e2693. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Mostafa Ronaghi, Shadi Shokralla, Baback Gharizadeh
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    ABSTRACT: Since the invention of pyrosequencing, more than 500 articles have been published describing different applications of this technology, most notably for DNA structure variation and microbial detection. Technological advances have been made to enhance the robustness and accuracy of this technique as well as to reduce the cost and increase the throughput. This review intends to cover recent advances in this technology and discuss its application for low and high-throughput DNA variation studies.
    Pharmacogenomics 11/2007; 8(10):1437-41. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women once treated for high grade cervical dysplasia have a high long term risk for developing new dysplasia or cancer. To investigate if human papilloma virus (HPV)-negativity after treatment of cervical dysplasia reduces the need for frequent long term follow up. Case/control study based on archival smears. Women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasi (CIN)2-3, treated for dysplasia and with recurrence of CIN2+ more than 2 years after treatment were compared with controls without recurrence, matched for age and date of treatment. High risk-HPV-DNA were analysed with PCR from two archival smears per woman. Mean follow up time was 14.6 years. 24% (45/189) of cases and 11% (43/378) of controls were HPV-positive in any of two smears. Odds ratio (OR)=2.5 (1.6-3.8). HPV-status 6-12 months after treatment of high grade dysplasia is of limited value for the design of long term follow up.
    European Journal of Cancer 09/2007; 43(12):1849-55. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detection of mutant spectra within a population of microorganisms is critical for the management of drug-resistant infections. We performed ultra-deep pyrosequencing to detect minor sequence variants in HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes from clinical plasma samples. We estimated empirical error rates from four HIV-1 plasmid clones and used them to develop a statistical approach to distinguish authentic minor variants from sequencing errors in eight clinical samples. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing detected an average of 58 variants per sample compared with an average of eight variants per sample detected by conventional direct-PCR dideoxynucleotide sequencing. In the clinical sample with the largest number of minor sequence variants, all 60 variants present in > or =3% of genomes and 20 of 35 variants present in <3% of genomes were confirmed by limiting dilution sequencing. With appropriate analysis, ultra-deep pyrosequencing is a promising method for characterizing genetic diversity and detecting minor yet clinically relevant variants in biological samples with complex genetic populations.
    Genome Research 09/2007; 17(8):1195-201. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A highly discriminative and objective genetic characterization of N. gonorrhoeae, which increases our knowledge of strain populations in different geographic areas, is crucial for the development of improved control measures. In the present study, conventional phenotypic characterization and genetic characterization by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the entire porB gene, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and pyrosequencing of a quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene of Swedish ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae serovar IB-10 isolates (n=45) were performed. The genetic characterization identified one widely spread ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae ST147 strain. In addition, isolates with slightly different genetic characteristics, which presumably reflect the ongoing evolution only, were also identified. All the isolates contained single nucleotide polymorphisms in QRDR of the gyrA gene that are highly correlated with ciprofloxacin resistance. Consequently, comprehensive characterization identified the first confirmed large domestic transmission, mainly among young heterosexuals, of one ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain in Swedish society during 2002-2003. In conclusion, a precise, i.e. genetic, characterization for identification of individual strains is a very valuable support to the crucial active surveillance of the epidemiological characteristics and the antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in the effective treatment of gonorrhoea.
    Apmis 04/2007; 115(3):231-41. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections of the genital tract are sexually transmitted and prevalent worldwide. In this study, the role of HPV in 72 patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with in situ hybridization was used to identify HPV-DNA in the patients' biopsies. The HPV typing was conducted by pyrosequencing. Cell cycle and DNA content were analysed by cytometry. Ninety percent of the carcinoma biopsies carried high-risk oncogenic HPV in their malignant cells. Eighty-one percent of these demonstrated a single infection with HPV16, 18 or 33 and 19% were double infected with HPV16 and HPV18. Accumulations of viral genes were seen at the necrotic area of the tumours. The HPV genome in the tumour cell influenced significantly the host cell cycle progression, but not DNA aberrations. Within these patients, HPVstatus in the malignant cells was not found to be associated with patient survival time. High-risk oncogenic HPV may play an important role in the initiation of host cell proliferation in anal squamous cell carcinoma. However, infection with HPV may not have any direct influence itself on the clinical outcome of these patients considering the treatments currently available.
    Anticancer research 01/2007; 27(6C):4473-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
258.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2010
    • Stanford University
      • • Stanford Genome Technology Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2000–2007
    • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      • School of Biotechnology (BIO)
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2003–2006
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Institutionen för molekylär medicin och kirurgi
      • • Institutionen för medicin, Huddinge
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2003–2005
    • AlbaNova University Center
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden