Donald Burden

Queen's University Belfast, Béal Feirste, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

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Publications (56)68.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This review summarises updated clinical guidelines produced by the Clinical Standards Committee of the Faculty of Dental Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons of England (FDSRCS). This guideline on the management of the palatally ectopic maxillary canine illustrates the information contained in the recently updated online version. The timely recognition of ectopic canines is important for the overall management of the dentition. This review illustrates five management strategies for ectopic permanent canines: interceptive treatment by extraction of the deciduous canine, surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment, surgical removal of the palatally ectopic permanent canine, auto-transplantation and no active treatment/leave and observe. The current available evidence for each of these management options has been evaluated and awarded a grade used by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.
    British dental journal official journal of the British Dental Association: BDJ online 08/2012; 213(4):171-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.bdj.2012.726 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine which factors were predictive of good long-term outcomes after fixed appliance treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Two hundred seven patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion were examined in early adulthood at a mean of 4.6 years after treatment with fixed appliances. The peer assessment rating index was used to evaluate dental alignment and occlusal relationships. The soft-tissue profile was assessed with the Holdaway angle. Logistic regression identified 3 pretreatment variables that were predictive of a good facial profile (Holdaway angle) at recall: the lower lip to E-plane distance (P <0.001; smaller distance behind the E-plane means a better outcome), ANB angle (P = 0.001; smaller ANB means a better outcome), and extraction pattern (P = 0.026). Linear regression analysis showed that 2 pretreatment variables were predictive of a favorable PAR score at recall: SNB angle (P = 0.001; larger SNB means a better outcome) and extraction pattern (P = 0.034). Three pretreatment cephalometric measures (lower lip to E-plane distance, ANB angle, and SNB angle) were predictive of the outcome in the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. The extraction pattern was also found to be a predictor of outcome.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 03/2011; 139(3):362-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.05.035 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that the self-perception of dental and facial attractiveness among patients requiring orthognathic surgery is no different from that of control patients. Happiness with dental and facial appearance was assessed using questionnaires completed by 162 patients who required orthognathic treatment and 157 control subjects. Visual analog scale, binary, and open response data were collected. Analysis was carried out using a general linear model, logistic regression, and chi-square tests. Orthognathic patients were less happy with their dental appearance than were controls. Class II patients and women had lower happiness scores for their dental appearance. Among orthognathic patients, the "shape" and "prominence" of their teeth were the most frequent causes of concern. Older subjects, women, and orthognathic patients were less happy with their facial appearance. Class III orthognathic patients, older subjects, and women were more likely to have looked at their own face in profile. A greater proportion of Class II subjects than Class III subjects wished to change their appearance. The hypothesis is rejected. The findings indicate that women and patients requiring orthognathic surgery had lower levels of happiness with their dentofacial appearance. Although Class II patients exhibited the lowest levels of happiness with their dental appearance, there was some evidence that concerns and awareness about their facial profile were more pronounced among the Class III patients.
    The Angle Orthodontist 03/2010; 80(2):361-6. DOI:10.2319/051209-252.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • International Association of Dental Research, Divisional Meeting; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the extent of psychological problems among patients who require orthognathic treatment. Five aspects of psychological functioning were assessed for 162 patients who required orthognathic treatment and compared with 157 control subjects. Analysis of variance did not detect any significant difference in the five psychological scores recorded for the skeletal II, skeletal III, and control groups. The proportion of subjects with one or more psychological measure beyond the normal range was 27% for skeletal II subjects, 25% for skeletal III subjects, and 26% for control subjects. One skeletal II subject (1.5%), three skeletal III subjects (3%), and five control subjects (3%) required referral for psychological counseling. The orthognathic patients did not differ significantly from the control subjects in their psychological status.
    The Angle Orthodontist 01/2010; 80(1):43-8. DOI:10.2319/022709-114.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Anjli Patel, Donald J Burden, Jonathan Sandler
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    ABSTRACT: The orthodontic treatment of patients with medical disorders is becoming an increasing aspect of modern day practice. This article will draw attention to some of the difficulties faced when orthodontic treatment is provided and will make recommendations on how to avoid potential problems.
    Journal of Orthodontics 12/2009; 36 Suppl:1-21. DOI:10.1179/14653120723346
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: 1) Measure orthodontic patient self-esteem and quality of life at the conclusion of orthodontic treatment and at retention 2) measure the difference between orthodontic patient self-esteem at the conclusion of treatment and at retention 3) measure the difference between orthodontic patient quality of life at the conclusion of treatment and at retention. Methods: This was a multi-centre study co-ordinated by Queen's University Belfast and University College Cork. A longitudinal study design was used. Sample group participants (n=401) were between 11 and 21 years old. Patients were recruited from 13 orthodontic practices, one regional orthodontic clinic, one dental teaching hospital and three private practices. Convenience sampling was used to recruit consecutive orthodontic patients as they entered treatment for upper and lower fixed appliances. Participants completed the Self-Esteem Index (SEI) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedQOL) at the conclusion of treatment and again at retention. A maximum score of 320 and 100 respectively indicates high self-esteem and quality of life on these instruments. Results: Mean SEI score at the conclusion of treatment was 263 (SD = 30). Mean PedQOL score at the conclusion of treatment was 85 (SD = 12). Mean SEI score at retention was 267 (SD = 28). Mean PedQOL score at retention was 86 (SD = 9). t-test results indicated a non-significant difference between SEI scores from de-bond to retention (p=0.640) and between PedQOL scores from de-bond to retention (p=0.701). Conclusions: Orthodontic patient self-esteem and quality of life at the conclusion of treatment does not appear to be significantly different from self-esteem and quality of life at retention.
    J.Dent.Res 2008, Vol 87, Special Issue C, 810. International Association for Dental Research, Pan European Conference, Presented at Pan European Conference of IADR, London, September 12th 2008; 09/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Measure and assess the relationship between 1) pre-treatment patient self-esteem and quality of life and 2) professionally defined pre-treatment need for a selected group of orthodontic patients. Methods: A longitudinal study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 357 consecutive patients aged 11 to 21 years old about to commence orthodontic treatment. Patients were recruited from community orthodontic clinics, a dental teaching hospital and private practices. Self-esteem and quality of life were measured using the Self-Esteem Index (SEI) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedQOL). A maximum score of 320 and 100 respectively indicates high self-esteem and quality of life. Pre-treatment study models were scored by calibrated orthodontists using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) scales. A minimum score of 1 on the DHC and AC scales represents the most favourable scores. Results: Mean SEI score was 256 (SD = 23). Mean PedQOL score was 84 (SD = 15). Median DHC score was 4 (range = 5 to 2). Median AC score was 7 (range = 10 to 2). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a non-significant relationship between mean SEI and AC scores (p=0.381) and between mean SEI and DHC scores (p=0.383). ANOVA further indicated a non-significant relationship between PedQOL and AC scores (p=0.124) and between PedQOL and DHC scores (p=0.274). When AC and DHC scores were categorised into little, moderate or high treatment need categories, a further non-significant relationship was found between SEI and treatment need category (p=0.366) and between PedQOL and treatment need category (p=0.069). Conclusions: Orthodontic patient pre-treatment self-esteem and quality of life do not appear to be significantly related to professionally defined pre-treatment need.
    J Dent Res 2008, Vol 87, Special Issue B, 2036. Annual World Assemby of International Association of Dental Research, Toronto.., Toronto. Presented at Annual World Assemby of International Association of Dental Research.; 07/2008
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    ABSTRACT: (1) to determine the opinion of parents regarding the psychosocial functioning of their child with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP); (2) to identify predictors of psychosocial functioning; and (3) to determine the level of agreement between children with CLP and their parents. Participants: One hundred twenty-nine parents of children with CLP and 96 parents of children without CLP participated in this cross-sectional study. Parental opinion of the child's self-esteem, anxiety, happiness, and problems caused by facial appearance were assessed using visual analogue scales. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and were interviewed. Children with CLP were more anxious (p < 0.05), less happy with their appearance (p < 0.001), and in general (p < 0.05) had lower self-esteem (p < 0.05) and greater behavioral problems (p < 0.001) compared with non-CLP children. Parents reported that their child with CLP was teased more often (p < 0.001) and was less satisfied with his/her speech (p < 0.01) compared with reports of parents in the control group. A number of factors affected parents' ratings of their child's psychosocial functioning (presence of CLP, appearance happiness, previous history of CLP, and visibility of scar). Children who had been teased were more anxious (p < or = 0.01), less happy with their appearance (p < 0.001) and had greater behavioral problems (p < 0.001). Parents of children with CLP reported various psychosocial problems among their children. Parents considered children who had been teased to have greater psychosocial problems.
    The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 06/2007; 44(3):304-11. DOI:10.1597/05-205 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Donald J. Burden
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    ABSTRACT: In health care today there is a need to ensure that the advice given by orthodontists to patients and their parents is accurate and evidence-based. Historically, it has been claimed that orthodontic treatment may confer benefits beyond the psychosocial gains achieved by the improvement in dental appearance. Oral health-related benefits such as reduced susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorder, and traumatic dental injury have been reported in the literature. However, this review of the literature reveals that the oral health benefits of orthodontic intervention are quite limited.
    Seminars in Orthodontics 06/2007; 13(2):76-80. DOI:10.1053/j.sodo.2007.03.002
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    ABSTRACT: Class II malocclusion is often associated with retrognathic mandible. Some of these problems require surgical correction. The purposes of this study were to investigate treatment outcomes in patients with Class II malocclusions whose treatment included mandibular advancement surgery and to identify predictors of good outcomes. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs of 90 patients treated with mandibular advancement surgery by 57 consultant orthodontists in the United Kingdom before September 1998 were digitized, and cephalometric landmarks were identified. Paired samples t tests were used to compare the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric values for each patient. For each cephalometric variable, the proportion of patients falling within the ideal range was identified. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of achieving ideal range outcomes for the key skeletal (ANB and SNB angles), dental (overjet and overbite), and soft-tissue (Holdaway angle) measurements. An overjet within the ideal range of 1 to 4 mm was achieved in 72% of patients and was more likely with larger initial ANB angles. Horizontal correction of the incisor relationship was achieved by a combination of 75% skeletal movement and 25% dentoalveolar change. An ideal posttreatment ANB angle was achieved in 42% of patients and was more likely in females and those with larger pretreatment ANB angles. Ideal soft-tissue Holdaway angles (7 degrees to 14 degrees ) were achieved in 49% of patients and were more likely in females and those with smaller initial SNA angles. Mandibular incisor decompensation was incomplete in 28% of patients and was more likely in females and patients with greater pretreatment mandibular incisor proclination. Correction of increased overbite was generally successful, although anterior open bites were found in 16% of patients at the end of treatment. These patients were more likely to have had initial open bites. Mandibular surgery had a good success rate in normalizing the main dental and skeletal relationships. Less ideal soft-tissue profile outcomes were associated with larger pretreatment SNA-angle values, larger final mandibular incisor inclinations, and smaller final maxillary incisor inclinations. The use of mandibular surgery to correct anterior open bite was associated with poor outcomes.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 02/2007; 131(1):7.e1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.05.027 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this retrospective study, we investigated treatment outcomes in Class III surgical-orthodontic patients. Records of 151 consecutively completed Class III surgical-orthodontic patients (overjet, 0 mm or less) were obtained from 87 consultant orthodontists in the United Kingdom. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Bimaxillary surgical patients (75%) had more negative initial ANB-angle values and smaller initial SNA-angle values than those treated with single-jaw mandibular surgery. Mandibular surgery patients (15%) had greater pretreatment mandibular prominence (SNB angle) than maxillary patients. Maxilla-only patients (10%) had lower negative initial overjet values than bimaxillary patients. An overjet within the ideal range of 1 to 4 mm was achieved in 83% of the patients. Logistic regression identified no predictors of ideal overjet outcome. SNB angle was corrected to within the ideal range of 75 degrees to 81 degrees in 44% of the patients. This was less likely in those treated with maxillary surgery only and larger initial SNB-angle values. An ideal posttreatment ANB angle (1 degrees to 5 degrees) was achieved in 40% of the patients and was more likely in those with bimaxillary surgery, lower negative pretreatment ANB angles, and presurgical orthodontic extractions in the maxillary arch. Ideal posttreatment unadjusted Holdaway angles (7 degrees to 14 degrees) were achieved in 59% of the patients and were more likely when single-jaw mandibular surgery was used. Incisor decompensation was incomplete in 46% of the patients and was associated with mandibular arch extractions. Surgical-orthodontic treatment had a high success rate in normalizing the overjet and soft-tissue profile to within ideal ranges in Class III patients. Bimaxillary surgery was the most frequently used procedure and was associated with an increased likelihood of an ideal correction of the anteroposterior skeletal discrepancy.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 10/2006; 130(3):300-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.01.023 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aimed to: 1) assess the relationship between social class, age and gender and orthodontic patients' reasons for seeking treatment and subjective treatment need and 2) measure the impact of orthodontic treatment on patients' self-esteem and quality of life at three discrete intervals: the beginning of treatment, three months and six months into treatment. Methods: A longitudinal study design was used. Sample group participants (n=224) were between 11 and 18 years old. Convenience sampling was used to recruit consecutive orthodontic patients as they entered treatment. Baseline data on a range of psycho-social variables were collected immediately before treatment commenced. Participants completed two self-administered instruments - the Self-Esteem Index (SEI) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedQOL)- at the beginning of treatment, at three months and at six months into treatment. Results: Chi-square analysis found no statistically significant association between social class and reason for seeking treatment (P=0.249). A statistically significant association was found between age (over 16 years old) and outcome expectation (belief that having straight teeth would make a positive difference) (P=0.016) and gender (female) and outcome expectation (P=0.017). Mean SEI scores were higher than normative scores at each administration. Mean PedQOL scores were in the upper quartile at each administration. There were no statistically significant differences in SEI and PedQOL scores across administration of each instrument. Conclusion: Female patients over 16 years old were significantly more likely to believe they would benefit from orthodontic treatment than females under 16 or males of any age. Sample group participants achieved above average scores on the SEI and PedQOL immediately before, three months and six months into orthodontic treatment.
    J Dent Res 2006, Vol 85, Special Issue C, 789. Pan European Meeting of International Association of Dental Research,, Trinity College Dublin.; 09/2006
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was employed to determine the psychosocial effects of cleft lip and/or palate among children and young adults, compared with a control group of children and young adults without cleft lip and palate. The study comprised 160 children and young adults with cleft lip and/or palate and 113 children and young adults without cleft lip and/or palate. All participants were between 8 and 21 years of age. Psychological functioning (anxiety, self-esteem, depression, and behavioral problems) was assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Happiness with facial appearance was rated using a visual analog scale. Social functioning, including experience of teasing/bullying and satisfaction with speech, was assessed using a semistructured interview. Participants with cleft lip and/or palate reported greater behavioral problems (p < .001) and more symptoms of depression (p < .01); they were teased more often (p < .001) and were less happy with their facial appearance (p < .01) and speech (p < .001), compared with controls. There were no significant difference between subjects with cleft lip and/or palate and subjects without cleft lip and/or palate in terms of anxiety (p > .05) or self-esteem (p > .05). Having been teased was a significant predictor of poor psychological functioning, more so than having a cleft lip and/or palate per se (p < .001). Teasing was greater among participants who had cleft lip and/ or palate and it was a significant predictor of poorer psychosocial functioning. Children and young adults with cleft lip and/or palate require psychological assessment, specifically focusing on their experience of teasing, as part of their routine cleft care.
    The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 09/2006; 43(5):598-605. DOI:10.1597/05-080 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess age-related changes in sagittal jaw relationship during pre-pubertal and pubertal development on the basis of angular [ANB, anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI) and A-B plane angle] and linear (Wits, AF-BF, App-Bpp, and App-Pgpp) measurements. Lateral cephalograms of orthodontically untreated subjects were evaluated at 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Cephalometric standards and age-related changes were determined on the basis of Class I subjects with a good occlusion (n = 18, 10 males and 8 females). With respect to changes related to growth, the main findings were, in both genders, a statistically significant age-related decrease in ANB angle, App-Bpp and App-Pgpp, a significant increase in APDI, but no age-related change in Wits. A reduction of sagittal jaw distance during pre-pubertal and pubertal development was observed arising from a relative dominance of sagittal mandibular growth. For an evaluation of differences concerning jaw relationship in Class II subjects, a group with Class II division 1 malocclusions (n = 17) and a group with Class II division 2 malocclusions (n = 12 were compared with two control groups, i.e. the good occlusion group and a Class I group (n = 37). Conclusions about the sagittal discrepancy in Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 subjects depended on the geometric reference used in the various parameters, and further research is called for with respect to the diagnostic performance of the various measurements. Differences between Class II subjects and controls present at 15 years of age were already established at 7 years of age, but were less pronounced.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 01/2006; 27(6):568-78. DOI:10.1093/ejo/cji061 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of changing lower face vertical proportion on the attractiveness ratings scored by lay people.Ninety-two social science students rated the attractiveness of a series of silhouettes with normal, reduced or increased lower face proportions. The random sequences of 10 images included an image with the Eastman normal lower face height relative to total face height [lower anterior face height/total anterior face height (LAFH/TAFH) of 55 per cent], and images with LAFH/TAFH increased or decreased by up to four standard deviations (SD) from the Eastman norm. All the images had a skeletal Class I antero-posterior (AP) relationship. A duplicate image in each sequence assessed repeatability. The participants scored each image using a 10 point numerical scale and also indicated whether they would seek treatment if the image was their own profile. The profile image with normal vertical facial proportions was rated by the lay people as the most attractive. Attractiveness scores reduced as the vertical facial proportions diverged from the normal value. Images with a reduced lower face proportion were rated as significantly more attractive than the corresponding images with an increased lower face proportion. Images with a reduced lower face proportion were also significantly less likely to be judged as needing treatment than the corresponding images with an increased lower face proportion.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 09/2005; 27(4):349-54. DOI:10.1093/ejo/cji023 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review examined the published scientific research on the psychosocial impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) among children and adults. The primary objective of the review was to determine whether having CLP places an individual at greater risk of psychosocial problems. Studies that examined the psychosocial functioning of children and adults with repaired non-syndromal CLP were suitable for inclusion. The following sources were searched: Medline (January 1966-December 2003), CINAHL (January 1982-December 2003), Web of Science (January 1981-December 2003), PsycINFO (January 1887-December 2003), the reference section of relevant articles, and hand searches of relevant journals. There were 652 abstracts initially identified through database and other searches. On closer examination of these, only 117 appeared to meet the inclusion criteria. The full text of these papers was examined, with only 64 articles finally identified as suitable for inclusion in the review. Thirty of the 64 studies included a control group. The studies were longitudinal, cross-sectional, or retrospective in nature.Overall, the majority of children and adults with CLP do not appear to experience major psychosocial problems, although some specific problems may arise. For example, difficulties have been reported in relation to behavioural problems, satisfaction with facial appearance, depression, and anxiety. A few differences between cleft types have been found in relation to self-concept, satisfaction with facial appearance, depression, attachment, learning problems, and interpersonal relationships. With a few exceptions, the age of the individual with CLP does not appear to influence the occurrence or severity of psychosocial problems. However, the studies lack the uniformity and consistency required to adequately summarize the psychosocial problems resulting from CLP.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 07/2005; 27(3):274-85. DOI:10.1093/ejo/cji004 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the attractiveness of facial profiles. One hundred and two social science students (28 males and 74 females) rated the attractiveness of a series of silhouettes with normal, Class II or Class III profiles. A random sequence of 10 images included an image with the Eastman normal SNB value of 78 degrees, and images with SNB values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 degrees above and below normal. A duplicate image in each sequence was used to assess reproducibility. The participants scored the attractiveness of each image and also indicated whether they would seek treatment if each image was their own profile. The profile with the normal SNB angle of 78 degrees was rated as the most attractive. Attractiveness scores reduced as the mandibular profile diverged from the normal SNB value. The +5 degree profile (SNB = 83 degrees) was rated as significantly more attractive than the -5 degree profile (SNB = 73 degrees; P = 0.004). No other significant differences between the scores for Class II and Class III profile pairs of equal severity were found. At 10 degrees below the normal SNB (Class II), 74 per cent of the sample would elect to have treatment, while 78 per cent would elect to have treatment at 10 degrees above the normal SNB (Class III).
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 05/2005; 27(2):129-33. DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjh093 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the prevalence of bacteraemia on removal of fixed appliances. Venous blood samples were taken before and after debonding and debanding for 30 patients (mean age 17 years 8 months) who had worn fixed appliances for an average of 19 months. Before removal of the fixed appliances, bacteraemia was detected in one of the 30 subjects (3%) and in four subjects (13%) following removal of their fixed appliances. The 95 per cent confidence intervals for the prevalence of post-debanding bacteraemia were 3.8 and 30.7 per cent. No significant relationship was detected between the mean plaque scores (t = -0.65, P = 0.52) or the mean gingival scores (t = 0.75, P = 0.46) and the occurrence of bacteraemia. The prevalence of bacteraemia detected following debanding in this study is considerably lower than reported for dental procedures traditionally covered by antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 09/2004; 26(4):443-7. DOI:10.1093/ejo/26.4.443 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sagittal and vertical development of the jaws in Class II, Division 1 (II/1) and Class II, Division 2 (II/2) malocclusions. In addition, facial morphology was to be investigated in probands with these malocclusions. Maxillary and mandibular development was investigated with reference to lateral cephalograms of orthodontically untreated probands from the Belfast Growth Study at 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Moreover, development of facial width was assessed from the associated posteroanterior cephalograms, with radiographic magnifications being corrected in both the lateral and the posteroanterior cephalograms. A Class II/1 group (n = 17) and a Class II/2 group (n = 12) were compared with two control groups: a group with good occlusion (n = 18) and a Class I group (n = 37). With respect to the sagittal position of the maxilla, no significant differences between the Class II groups and the controls were found. In the Class II/1 group, mandibular retrognathism was observed. The posterior position of the mandible present at 15 years of age had been present even at 7 years of age, and growth increments in the Class I and Class II/1 subjects were similar. In the Class II/2 groups no uniform pattern with respect to mandibular position was found. With respect to vertical development, a deficit in lower anterior facial height was found in the Class II/2 groups. In addition, between 7 and 15 years of age, growth increments in lower anterior facial height were significantly smaller in the Class II/2 subjects than in the controls. Furthermore, the Class II/2 groups displayed a more euryprosopic facial form on average. The cause of this characteristic facial morphology was the vertical deficit in lower anterior facial height. Overall, however, the broad variability and the small sample sizes, in particular of the Class II/2 groups, in the present study have to be seen as limitations.
    Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie 08/2004; 65(4):290-311. DOI:10.1007/s00056-004-0336-9 · 0.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
68.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2012
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • • School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences
      • • Centre for Statistical Science and Operational Research (CenSSOR)
      Béal Feirste, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    • University of Dundee
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2006
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Orthodontics
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany