[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenoviruses (Onc.Ads) produce significant antitumor effects but as single agents they rarely eliminate tumors. Investigators have therefore incorporated sequences into these vectors that encode immunomodulatory molecules to enhance antitumor immunity. Successful implementation of this strategy requires multiple tumor immune inhibitory mechanisms to be overcome, and insertion of the corresponding multiple functional genes reduces the titer and replication of Onc.Ads, compromising their direct ant-tumor effects. By contrast, helper-dependent (HD) Ads are devoid of viral coding sequences, allowing inclusion of multiple transgenes. HDAds, however, lack replicative capacity. Since HDAds encode the adenoviral packaging signal, we hypothesized that the coadministration of Onc.Ad with HDAd would allow to be amplified and packaged during replication of Onc.Ad in transduced cancer cells. This combination could provide immunostimulation without losing oncolytic activity. We now show that coinfection of Onc.Ad with HDAd subsequently replicates HDAd vector DNA in trans in human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, amplifying the transgenes the HDAd encode. This combinatorial treatment significantly suppresses the tumor growth compared to treatment with a single agent in an immunocompetent mouse model. Hence, combinatorial treatment of Onc.Ad with HDAd should overcome the inherent limitations of each agent and provide a highly immunogenic oncolytic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic immunotherapy with cytokine armed replication competent viruses is an emerging approach in cancer treatment. In a recent randomized trial an increase in response rate was seen but the effect on overall survival is not known with any virus. To facilitate randomized trials, we performed a case-control study assessing the survival of 270 patients treated in an Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), in comparison to matched concurrent controls from the same hospital. The overall survival of all virus treated patients was not increased over controls. However, when analysis was restricted to GMCSF-sensitive tumor types treated with GMSCF-coding viruses, a significant improvement in median survival was present (From 170 to 208 days, P = 0.0012, N=148). An even larger difference was seen when analysis was restricted to good performance score patients (193 versus 292 days, P = 0.034, N=90). The survival of ovarian cancer patients was especially promising as median survival nearly quadrupled (P = 0.0003, N=37). These preliminary data lend support to initiation of randomized clinical trials with GMCSF-coding oncolytic adenoviruses.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.218.
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 11/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours.
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 10/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Population-based data on metastatic sites and survival in site-specific metastases are lacking for lung cancer and for any cancer because most cancer registries do not record metastases. This study uses a novel population-based approach to identify metastases from both death certificates and national inpatient data to describe metastatic pathways in lung cancer patients.
Material and methods
17,431 deceased lung cancer patients diagnosed 2002-2010 were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry, which is based on compulsory reports. The influence of age at diagnosis, sex, and histological subtype on metastatic spread was investigated. Survival in metastatic lung cancer was assessed by histology and metastatic site.
The most frequent metastatic sites were the nervous system, bone, liver, respiratory system, and adrenal gland. Liver (35%) and nervous system (47%) metastases were common in patients with metastases from small cell lung cancer, and bone (39%) and respiratory system (22%) metastases in adenocarcinoma. Women (43% vs. 35%) and younger patients had more metastases to the nervous system. Median survival after diagnosis was 13 months for non-metastatic and five months for metastatic lung cancer. In this novel data, liver metastases conferred the worst prognosis (three months), especially for large cell histology. Bone metastases also featured poor survival, whereas survival in respiratory and nervous system metastases was better.
Metastatic sites and survival in metastatic lung cancer is influenced by sex, histological subtype, and age at diagnosis. Liver and bone metastases signal poor survival, compared with nervous system metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a fatal cancer, accounting for 3-5% of all diagnosed cancers. Finding the primary site is important for therapeutic choices and we believe that the organ which is designated as the cause of death may give clues about the primary site.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):439. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following a century of preclinical and clinical work, oncolytic viruses are now proving themselves in randomized phase 3 trials. Interestingly, human data indicates that these agents have potent immunostimulatory activity, raising the possibility that the key consequence of oncolysis might be induction of antitumor immunity, especially in the context of viruses harboring immunostimulatory transgenes. While safety and efficacy of many types of oncolytic viruses, including adenovirus, herpes, reo, and vaccinia seem promising, few mechanisms of action studies have been performed with human substrates. Thus, the relative contribution of "pure" oncolysis, the immune response resulting from oncolysis, and the added benefit of adding a transgene remain poorly understood. Here, the available clinical data on oncolytic viruses is reviewed, with emphasis on immunological aspects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic vaccinia virus is an attractive platform for immunotherapy. Oncolysis releases tumor antigens and provides co-stimulatory danger signals. However, arming the virus can improve efficacy further. CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) can induce apoptosis of tumor cells and it also triggers several immune mechanisms. One of these is a T-helper type 1 (Th1) response that leads to activation of cytotoxic T-cells and reduction of immune suppression. Therefore, we constructed an oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing hCD40L (vvdd-hCD40L-tdTomato), which in addition features a cDNA expressing the tdTomato fluorochrome for detection of virus, potentially important for biosafety evaluation. We show effective expression of functional CD40L both in vitro and in vivo. In a xenograft model of bladder carcinoma sensitive to CD40L treatment, we show that growth of tumors was significantly inhibited by the oncolysis and apoptosis following both intravenous and intratumoral administration. In a CD40-negative model, CD40L expression did not add potency to vaccinia oncolysis. Tumors treated with vvdd-mCD40L-tdtomato showed enhanced efficacy in a syngenic mouse model and induced recruitment of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes at the tumor site. In summary, oncolytic vaccinia virus coding for CD40L mediates multiple antitumor effects including oncolysis, apoptosis and induction of Th1 type T-cell responses.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 5 December 2013; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.73.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used radiological response evaluation method in contemporary oncology. However, it may not be optimally suitable for assessment of oncolytic virus treatments due to paradoxical inflammatory tumor swellings, which result from virus treatments, particularly when viruses are armed with immunostimulatory molecules. Here we investigated the prognostic utility of CT and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oncolytic virus treatments. We also investigated possible appearance of false positive FDG-signals in FDG-PET imaging of humans and hamsters treated with oncolytic adenoviruses. First, Immunocompetent Syrian hamsters were treated with intratumoral adenovirus injections, tumor growth was followed up and [18F]-FDG-uptake was quantitated with small animal PET/CT. Second, we describe a retrospective patient series, essentially 17 individual case reports, of advanced cancer patients, treated with oncolytic adenoviruses in the context of an Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), who underwent radiological response evaluation with both contrast enhanced CT and FDG-PET. Third, we collected a retrospective case series of radiological response and survival data of 182 patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses in ATAP to evaluate the prognostic reliability of CT and FDG-PET. Overall, responses in CT and FDG-PET correlated well with each other and are equally reliable as prognostic markers for long survival after oncolytic adenovirus treatment. Interestingly, we observed that new FDG-avid lymph nodes appearing in FDG-PET after virus treatments may represent inflammatory responses and therefore should not be interpreted as treatment failure in absence of other signs or verification of disease progression. We also observed indications that FDG-PET might be more sensitive in detection of responses than tumor size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic viruses have shown potential as cancer therapeutics, but not all patients seem to benefit from therapy. Polymorphisms in Fc gamma receptors (FcgRs) lead to altered binding affinity of IgG between the receptor allotypes and therefore contribute to differences in immune defense mechanisms. Associations have been identified between FcgR polymorphisms and responsiveness to different immunotherapies. Taken together with the increasing understanding that immunological factors might determine the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy we studied whether FcgR polymorphisms would have prognostic and/or predictive significance in the context of oncolytic adenovirus treatments.
235 patients with advanced solid tumors were genotyped for two FcgR polymorphisms, FcgRIIa-H131R (rs1801274) and FcgRIIIa-V158F (rs396991), using TaqMan based qPCR. The genotypes were correlated with patient survival and tumor imaging data.
In patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses, overall survival was significantly shorter if the patient had an FcgRIIIa-VV/ FcgRIIa-HR (VVHR) genotype combination (P = 0,032). In contrast, patients with FFHR and FFRR genotypes had significantly longer overall survival (P = 0,004 and P = 0,006, respectively) if they were treated with GM-CSF-armed adenovirus in comparison to other viruses. Treatment of these patients with unarmed virus correlated with shorter survival (P < 0,0005 and P = 0,016, respectively). Treating FFHH individuals with CD40L-armed virus resulted in longer survival than treatment with other viruses (P = 0,047).
Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that individual differences in effector cell functions, such as NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and tumor antigen presentation by APCs caused by polymorphisms in FcgRs could play role in the effectiveness of oncolytic virotherapies. If confirmed in larger populations, FcgR polymorphisms could have potential as prognostic and predictive biomarkers for oncolytic adenovirus therapies to enable better selection of patients for clinical trials. Also, putative associations between genotypes, different viruses and survival implicate potentially important mechanistic issues.
Journal of Translational Medicine 08/2013; 11(1):193. · 3.46 Impact Factor