[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) tumors often contain a wild-type p53. However, the function of this tumor suppressor in KS tumor cells is inhibited by both MDM2 and latent nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV). Here, we report that MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3 efficiently reactivates p53 in telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (TIVE) that had been malignantly transformed by KSHV as well as in KS tumor cells. Reactivation of p53 results in a G 1 cell cycle arrest, leading to inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Nutlin-3 inhibits the growth of "KS-like" tumors resulting from xenografted TIVE-KSHV cells in nude mice. In addition, Nutlin-3 strongly inhibits expression of the pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). It also disrupts viral latency by inducing expression of KSHV lytic genes. These results suggest that Nutlin-3 might serve as a novel therapy for KS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally linked to several acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Control of viral lytic replication is essential for KSHV latency, evasion of the host immune system and induction of tumours. Here, we show that deletion of a 14 microRNA (miRNA) cluster from the KSHV genome significantly enhances viral lytic replication as a result of reduced NF-kappaB activity. The miRNA cluster regulates the NF-kappaB pathway by reducing expression of IkappaBalpha protein, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB complexes. Computational and miRNA seed mutagenesis analyses were used to identify KSHV miR-K1, which directly regulates the IkappaBalpha protein level by targeting the 3'UTR of its transcript. Expression of miR-K1 is sufficient to rescue NF-kappaB activity and inhibit viral lytic replication, whereas inhibition of miR-K1 in KSHV-infected PEL cells has the opposite effect. Thus, KSHV encodes an miRNA to control viral replication by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. These results demonstrate an important role for KSHV miRNAs in regulating viral latency and lytic replication by manipulating the host survival pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by ORF50 is a lytic switch protein for viral reactivation from latency. The expression of RTA activates the expression of downstream viral genes, and is necessary for triggering the full viral lytic program. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay coupled with a KSHV whole-genome tiling microarray (ChIP-on-chip) approach, we identified a set of 19 RTA binding sites in the KSHV genome in a KSHV-infected cell line BCBL-1. These binding sites are located in the regions of promoters, introns, or exons of KSHV genes including ORF8, ORFK4.1, ORFK5, PAN, ORF16, ORF29, ORF45, ORF50, ORFK8, ORFK10.1, ORF59, ORFK12, ORF71/72, ORFK14/ORF74, and ORFK15, the two origins of lytic replication OriLyt-L and OriLyt-R, and the microRNA cluster. We confirmed these RTA binding sites by ChIP and quantitative real-time PCR. We further mapped the RTA binding site in the first intron of the ORFK15 gene, and determined that it is RTA-responsive. The ORFK15 RTA binding sequence TTCCAGGAA TTCCTGGAA consists of a palindromic structure of two tandem repeats, of which each itself is also an imperfect inverted repeat. Reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the binding of the RTA protein to this sequence in vitro. Sequence alignment with other RTA binding sites identified the RTA consensus binding motif as TTCCAGGAT(N)(0-16)TTCCTGGGA. Interestingly, most of the identified RTA binding sites contain only half or part of this RTA binding motif. These results suggest the complexity of RTA binding in vivo, and the involvement of other cellular or viral transcription factors during RTA transactivation of target genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) promotes the progression of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a dominant malignancy in patients with AIDS. While 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced KSHV reactivation from latency is mediated by the protein kinase C delta and MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, we have recently shown that the MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways modulate KSHV lytic replication during productive primary infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells [Pan, H., Xie, J., Ye, F., Gao, S.J., 2006. Modulation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and replication by MEK/ERK, JNK, and p38 multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during primary infection. J. Virol. 80 (11), 5371-5382]. Here, we report that, besides the MEK/ERK pathway, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways also mediate TPA-induced KSHV reactivation from latency. The MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways were constitutively activated in latent KSHV-infected BCBL-1 cells. TPA treatment enhanced the levels of activated ERK and p38 but not those of activated JNK. Inhibitors of all three MAPK pathways reduced TPA-induced production of KSHV infectious virions in BCBL-1 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitors blocked KSHV lytic replication at the early stage(s) of reactivation, and reduced the expression of viral lytic genes including RTA, a key immediate-early transactivator of viral lytic replication. Activation of MAPK pathways was necessary and sufficient for activating the promoter of RTA. Furthermore, we showed that the activation of RTA promoter by MAPK pathways was mediated by their downstream target AP-1. Together, these findings suggest that MAPK pathways might have general roles in regulating the life cycle of KSHV by mediating both viral infection and switch from viral latency to lytic replication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in cancer invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammatory infiltration. Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of proliferative endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In this study, we showed that KSHV infection increased the invasiveness of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a Matrigel-based cell invasion assay. KSHV-induced cell invasion was abolished by an inhibitor of MMPs, BB-94, and occurred in both autocrine- and paracrine-dependent fashions. Analysis by zymography and Western blotting showed that KSHV-infected HUVEC cultures had increased secretion of MMP-1, -2, and -9. KSHV increased the secretion of MMP-2 within 1 h following infection without upregulating its mRNA expression level. In contrast, the secretion of MMP-1 and -9 was not increased until 6 h after KSHV infection and was correlated with the upregulation of their mRNA expression levels. Promoter analysis by reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified an AP-1 cis-element as the dominant KSHV-responsive site in the MMP-1 promoter. Together, these results suggest that KSHV infection modulates the production of multiple MMPs to increase cell invasiveness and thus contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies.
Journal of Virology 08/2007; 81(13):7001-10. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, a dominant AIDS-related tumor of endothelial cells, and several other lymphoproliferative malignancies. While activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase C-MEK-ERK pathway is essential for KSHV infection, we have recently shown that KSHV also activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways during primary infection (J. Xie, H. Y. Pan, S. Yoo, and S.-J. Gao, J. Virol. 79:15027-15037, 2005). Here, we found that activation of both JNK and p38 pathways was also essential for KSHV infection. Inhibitors of all three MAPK pathways reduced KSHV infectivity in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and 293 cells. These inhibitory effects were dose dependent and occurred at the virus entry stage of infection. Consistently, inhibition of all three MAPK pathways with dominant-negative constructs reduced KSHV infectivity whereas activation of the ERK pathway but not the JNK and p38 pathways enhanced KSHV infectivity. Importantly, inhibition of all three MAPK pathways also reduced the yield of infectious virions during KSHV productive infection of HUVEC. While the reduction of infectious virions was in part due to the reduced infectivity, it was also the result of direct modulation of KSHV lytic replication by the MAPK pathways. Accordingly, KSHV upregulated the expression of RTA (Orf50), a master transactivator of KSHV lytic replication, and activated its promoter during primary infection. Furthermore, KSHV activation of RTA promoter during primary infection was modulated by all three MAPK pathways, predominantly through their downstream target AP-1. Together, these results indicate that, by modulating multiple MAPK pathways, KSHV manipulates the host cells to facilitate its entry into the cells and postentry productive lytic replication during primary infection.
Journal of Virology 07/2006; 80(11):5371-82. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma is an angioproliferative disseminated tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). AP-1 transcription factors are involved in diverse biological processes, including infection and replication of viruses, cell growth, oncogenesis, angiogenesis, and invasion of cancer cells. Here we show that KSHV activates AP-1 during primary infection. The activation of AP-1 at the early stage of KSHV infection is mainly mediated by virus entry events. Concurrently, KSHV infection strongly activates MEK, JNK, and to a lesser extent, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Specific inhibitors or dominant negative constructs of MEK and JNK completely abolish AP-1 activation by KSHV, while those of p38 reduce it by half. Furthermore, individual MAPK pathways differentially regulate KSHV activation of AP-1 components. KSHV activation of AP-1 leads to the transcriptional induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is inhibited by inhibitors or dominant negative constructs of MAPK pathways. Together, these results demonstrate that KSHV induces AP-1 and IL-6 during primary infection by modulating multiple MAPK pathways. Because of the diverse roles of IL-6, AP-1, and MAPK pathways in viral infection and tumor induction and promotion, these results have important implications in the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies.
Journal of Virology 01/2006; 79(24):15027-37. · 5.08 Impact Factor