Morag Park

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (78)602.96 Total impact

  • Serhiy Havrylov, Morag Park
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    ABSTRACT: Acquired capacity of cancer cells to penetrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of surrounding tissues is a prerequisite for tumour metastatic spread - the main source of cancer-associated mortality. Through combined efforts of many research groups we are beginning to understand that the ability of cells to invade through the ECM is a multifaceted phenomenon supported by variety of specialised protrusive cellular structures, primarily pseudopodia, invadopodia and podosomes. Additionally, secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) are being increasingly recognised as important mediators of invasive cell phenotypes and therefore may be considered bona fide invasive cell structures. Dissection of the molecular makings underlying biogenesis and function of all of these structures is crucial to identify novel targets for specific anti-metastatic therapies. Rapid advances and growing accessibility of MS/MS-based protein identification made this family of techniques a suitable and appropriate choice for proteomic profiling of invasive cell structures. In this review we provide a summary of current progress in the characterisation of protein composition and topology of protein interaction networks of pseudopodia, invadopodia, podosomes and EVs, as well as outline challenges and perspectives of the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Proteomics 10/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast carcinoma (BC) has been extensively profiled by high-throughput technologies for over a decade, and broadly speaking, these studies can be grouped into those that seek to identify patient subtypes (studies of heterogeneity) or those that seek to identify gene signatures with prognostic or predictive capacity. The sheer number of reported signatures has led to speculation that everything is prognostic in BC. Here, we show that this ubiquity is an apparition caused by a poor understanding of the interrelatedness between subtype and the molecular determinants of prognosis. Our approach constructively shows how to avoid confounding due to a patient's subtype, clinicopathological profile, or treatment profile. The approach identifies patients who are predicted to have good outcome at time of diagnosis by all available clinical and molecular markers but who experience a distant metastasis within 5 years. These inherently difficult patients (∼7% of BC) are prioritized for investigations of intratumoral heterogeneity.
    Cell reports. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Autocrine activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway occurs in several cancers, notably in breast tumors, and is associated with higher expression of various Wnt ligands. Using various inhibitors of the FZD/LRP receptor complex, we demonstrate that some adenosquamous carcinomas that develop in MMTV-CUX1 transgenic mice represent a model for autocrine activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. By comparing expression profiles of laser-capture microdissected mammary tumors, we identify Glis1 as a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the subset of tumors with elevated Wnt gene expression. Analysis of human cancer datasets confirms that elevated WNT gene expression is associated with high levels of CUX1 and GLIS1 and correlates with genes of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signature: VIM, SNAI1 and TWIST1 are elevated whereas CDH1 and OCLN are decreased. Co-expression experiments demonstrate that CUX1 and GLIS1 cooperate to stimulate TCF/β-catenin transcriptional activity and to enhance cell migration and invasion. Altogether, these results provide additional evidence for the role of GLIS1 in reprogramming gene expression and suggest a hierarchical model for transcriptional regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
    Biology open. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is activated or genetically amplified in some gastric cancers, but resistance to small-molecule inhibitors of Met often emerges in patients. We found that Met abundance correlated with a proliferation marker in patient gastric tumor sections, and gastric cancer cell lines that have MET amplifications depended on Met for proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in culture. Inhibition of Met induced temporal changes in gene expression in the cell lines, initiated by a rapid decrease in the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, followed by those encoding proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and finally those encoding cell cycle-related proteins. In the gastric cancer cell lines, microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed considerable overlap between genes regulated in response to Met stimulation and those regulated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The activity of STAT3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and the kinase Akt was decreased by Met inhibition, but only inhibitors of STAT3 were as effective as the Met inhibitor in decreasing tumor cell proliferation in culture and in xenografts, suggesting that STAT3 mediates the pro-proliferative program induced by Met. However, the phosphorylation of ERK increased after prolonged Met inhibition in culture, correlating with decreased abundance of the phosphatases DUSP4 and DUSP6, which inhibit ERK. Combined inhibition of Met and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-ERK pathway induced greater cell death in cultured gastric cancer cells than did either inhibitor alone. These findings indicate combination therapies that may counteract resistance to Met inhibitors.
    Science Signaling 01/2014; 7(322):ra38. · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancers are stratified into distinct subtypes, which influence therapeutic responsiveness and patient outcome. Patients with luminal breast cancers are often associated with a better prognosis relative to other subtypes. However, subsets of patients with luminal disease remain at increased risk of cancer-related death. A critical process that increases the malignant potential of breast cancers is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The p66ShcA adaptor protein stimulates the formation of reactive oxygen species in response to stress stimuli. In this study, we report a novel role for p66ShcA in inducing an EMT in HER2+ luminal breast cancers. p66ShcA increases the migratory properties of breast cancer cells and enhances signaling downstream of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase in these tumors. Moreover, Met activation is required for a p66ShcA-induced EMT in luminal breast cancer cells. Finally, elevated p66ShcA levels are associated with the acquisition of an EMT in primary breast cancers
    Molecular and Cellular Biology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ShcA (SHC1) is an adapter protein that possesses an SH2 and a PTB phosphotyrosine binding motif. ShcA generally utilizes its PTB domain to engage activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), but there has not been a definitive determination of the role of this domain in tumorigenesis. To address this question, we employed a ShcA mutant (R175Q) that no longer binds phospho-tyrosine residues via its PTB domain. Here we report that transgenic expression of this mutant delays mammary tumor onset in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model of breast cancer. Paradoxically, we observed a robust increase in the growth and angiogenesis of mammary tumors expressing ShcR175Q, which displayed increased secretion of fibronectin and expression of integrin α5/β1, the principle fibronectin receptor. Sustained integrin engagement activated Src, which in turn phosphorylated pro-angiogenic RTKs, including PDGFR, FGFR and Met, leading to increased VEGF secretion from ShcR175Q-expressing breast cancer cells. We defined a ShcR175Q-dependent gene signature that could stratify breast cancer patients with a high microvessel density. This study offers the first in vivo evidence of a critical role for intracellular signaling pathways downstream of the ShcA PTB domain, which both positively and negatively regulate tumorigenesis during various stages of breast cancer progression.
    Cancer Research 05/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progression of solid tumors to the metastatic stage is accountable for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing metastasis is essential for the development of antimetastatic regimens. Here, we aimed to identify Rac activators that could promote metastasis downstream of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We investigated if Dedicator of Cytokinesis 1 (DOCK1), based on its evolutionarily conserved role in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)-mediated Rac activation and cell invasion, could be a regulator of metastasis. We report that high expression of DOCK1 in HER2(+) and basal breast cancer subtypes inversely correlates with human patients' survival. Mechanistically, DOCK1 interacts with HER2 and promotes HER2-induced Rac activation and cell migration. To gain further insight, we developed a HER2 breast cancer mouse model with mammary-gland-specific inactivation of DOCK1. In this in vivo model, a significant decrease in tumor growth and metastasis in lungs was found in animals where DOCK1 is inactivated. Furthermore, we found that DOCK1 is required for maximal activation of two HER2 effectors, c-JUN and STAT3. Using an unbiased gene profiling approach, we identified a mammary tumor DOCK1-associated gene signature enriched for genes implicated in response to IFN type I. This analysis revealed a unique set of genes, including Receptor Transporter Protein 4 (RTP4) and STAT1, for which the expression levels can be used to independently predict breast cancer outcome in HER2(+) patients. Our work demonstrates DOCK1-Rac signaling as an HER2 effector pathway essential for HER2-mediated breast cancer progression to metastasis and offers a therapeutic opportunity to limit the spread of metastatic breast cancers.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progression of solid tumors to the metastatic stage is accountable for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing metastasis is essential for the development of antimetastatic regimens. Here, we aimed to identify Rac activators that could promote metastasis downstream of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We investi-gated if Dedicator of Cytokinesis 1 (DOCK1), based on its evolu-tionarily conserved role in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)-mediated Rac activation and cell invasion, could be a regulator of metastasis. We report that high expression of DOCK1 in HER2 + and basal breast cancer subtypes inversely correlates with human patients' survival. Mechanistically, DOCK1 interacts with HER2 and promotes HER2-induced Rac activation and cell migration. To gain further insight, we developed a HER2 breast cancer mouse model with mammary-gland–specific inactivation of DOCK1. In this in vivo model, a significant decrease in tumor growth and metastasis in lungs was found in animals where DOCK1 is inactivated. Fur-thermore, we found that DOCK1 is required for maximal activation of two HER2 effectors, c-JUN and STAT3. Using an unbiased gene profiling approach, we identified a mammary tumor DOCK1-asso-ciated gene signature enriched for genes implicated in response to IFN type I. This analysis revealed a unique set of genes, including Receptor Transporter Protein 4 (RTP4) and STAT1, for which the expression levels can be used to independently predict breast can-cer outcome in HER2 + patients. Our work demonstrates DOCK1–Rac signaling as an HER2 effector pathway essential for HER2-mediated breast cancer progression to metastasis and offers a therapeutic opportunity to limit the spread of metastatic breast cancers.
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    ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ∼20% of cases and contributes to basal and claudin-low molecular subclasses of the disease. TNBCs have poor prognosis, display frequent mutations in tumor suppressor gene p53 (TP53), and lack targeted therapies. The MET receptor tyrosine kinase is elevated in TNBC and transgenic Met models (Met(mt)) develop basal-like tumors. To investigate collaborating events in the genesis of TNBC, we generated Met(mt) mice with conditional loss of murine p53 (Trp53) in mammary epithelia. Somatic Trp53 loss, in combination with Met(mt), significantly increased tumor penetrance over Met(mt) or Trp53 loss alone. Unlike Met(mt) tumors, which are histologically diverse and enriched in a basal-like molecular signature, the majority of Met(mt) tumors with Trp53 loss displayed a spindloid pathology with a distinct molecular signature that resembles the human claudin-low subtype of TNBC, including diminished claudins, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signature, and decreased expression of the microRNA-200 family. Moreover, although mammary specific loss of Trp53 promotes tumors with diverse pathologies, those with spindloid pathology and claudin-low signature display genomic Met amplification. In both models, MET activity is required for maintenance of the claudin-low morphological phenotype, in which MET inhibitors restore cell-cell junctions, rescue claudin 1 expression, and abrogate growth and dissemination of cells in vivo. Among human breast cancers, elevated levels of MET and stabilized TP53, indicative of mutation, correlate with highly proliferative TNBCs of poor outcome. This work shows synergy between MET and TP53 loss for claudin-low breast cancer, identifies a restricted claudin-low gene signature, and provides a rationale for anti-MET therapies in TNBC.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Josie Ursini-Siegel, Morag Park
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    ABSTRACT: Using mortal non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells and fibroblasts, Fordyce and colleagues show that an epithelial stress response promotes pro-tumorigenic changes in mammary fibroblasts. Fibroblast reprogramming was dependent on activin A or prostaglandin E2 produced by epithelial cells and, in turn, promoted enhanced migration of epithelial cells. These events in epithelial cells in vitro, including telomere loss, heightened DNA damage response, and activin A expression, are observed in breast ductal carcinoma in situ lesions surrounded by stroma bearing hallmarks of activated fibroblasts and immune and endothelial cell infiltration. Thus, reciprocal epithelial-stromal interactions facilitate progression to malignancy and occur even at the earliest stages of mammary tumorigenesis.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 03/2013; 15(2):102. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71533. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis and complications associated with bone metastases can lead to a significantly decreased patient quality of life. Thus, it is essential to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of breast cancer skeletal metastases. METHODS: To search for novel molecular mediators that influence breast cancer bone metastasis, we generated gene expression profiles from laser capture microdissected trephine biopsies of both breast cancer bone metastases and independent primary breast tumours that metastasized to bone. Bioinformatics analysis identified genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer bone metastases compared to primary, bone metastatic breast tumours. RESULTS: ABCC5, an ATP-dependent transporter, was found to be overexpressed in breast cancer osseous metastases relative to primary breast tumours. In addition, ABCC5 was significantly up-regulated in human and mouse breast cancer cell lines with high bone-metastatic potential. Stable knockdown of ABCC5 substantially reduced bone metastatic burden and osteolytic bone destruction in mice. The decrease in osteolysis was further associated with diminished osteoclast numbers in vivo. Finally, conditioned media from breast cancer cells with reduced ABCC5 expression failed to induce in vitro osteoclastogenesis to the same extent as conditioned media from breast cancer cells expressing ABCC5. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that ABCC5 functions as a mediator of breast cancer skeletal metastasis. ABCC5 expression in breast cancer cells is important for efficient osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Hence, ABCC5 may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer bone metastasis.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2012; 14(6):R149. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Angiogenesis represents a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. However, responses to targeted anti-angiogenic therapies have been reported to vary among patients. This suggests that the tumor vasculature may be heterogeneous and that an appropriate choice of treatment would require an understanding of these differences. METHODS: In order to investigate whether and how the breast tumor vasculature varies between individuals, we have isolated tumor-associated and matched normal vasculature from 17 breast carcinomas by laser capture microdissection, and generated gene expression profiles. Since microvessel density has previously been associated with disease course, tumors with low (n=9) or high (n=8) microvessel density were selected for analysis to maximize heterogeneity for this feature. RESULTS: We identify differences between tumor and normal vasculature, and describe two subtypes present within tumor vasculature. These subtypes exhibit distinct gene expression signatures that reflect features including hallmarks of vessel maturity. Potential therapeutic targets (MET, ITGAV and PDGFR) are differentially expressed between subtypes. Taking these subtypes into account has allowed us to derive a vascular signature associated with disease outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results further support a role for tumor microvasculature in determining disease progression. Overall, this study provides a deeper molecular understanding of the heterogeneity existing within the breast tumor vasculature, and opens new avenues towards the improved design and targeting of anti-angiogenic therapies.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 08/2012; 14(4):R120. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of VEGF signaling leads to a proinvasive phenotype in mouse models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in a subset of GBM patients treated with bevacizumab. Here, we demonstrate that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directly and negatively regulates tumor cell invasion through enhanced recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) to a MET/VEGFR2 heterocomplex, thereby suppressing HGF-dependent MET phosphorylation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, VEGF blockade restores and increases MET activity in GBM cells in a hypoxia-independent manner, while inducing a program reminiscent of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition highlighted by a T-cadherin to N-cadherin switch and enhanced mesenchymal features. Inhibition of MET in GBM mouse models blocks mesenchymal transition and invasion provoked by VEGF ablation, resulting in substantial survival benefit.
    Cancer cell 07/2012; 22(1):21-35. · 25.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CT10 regulator of kinase (Crk) adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII and CrkL) play a role in integrating signals for migration and invasion of highly malignant breast cancer cell lines. This has important implications, as elevated CrkI/II protein levels were observed in a small cohort of breast cancer patients, which identified a potential role for Crk proteins in breast cancer progression. Numerous in vitro studies identified a role for Crk proteins in cell motility, but little is known about how Crk proteins contribute to breast cancer progression in vivo. The clinical significance of Crk proteins in human breast cancer was assessed by analyzing published breast cancer datasets using a gene expression signature that was generated following CrkII over-expression and by examining Crk protein expression in tissue microarrays of breast tumors (n = 254). Stable knockdown of Crk (CrkI/CrkII/CrkL) proteins was accomplished using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated approach in two basal breast cancer cell lines, MDA-231 1833TR and SUM1315, where the former have a high affinity to form bone metastases. Both in vitro assays (cell migration, invasion, soft agar growth) and in vivo experiments (intra-cardiac, tibial and mammary fat pad injections) were performed to assess the functional significance of Crk proteins in breast cancer. A gene signature derived following CrkII over-expression correlated significantly with basal breast cancers and with high grade and poor outcome in general. Moreover, elevated Crk immunostaining on tissue microarrays revealed a significant association with highly proliferative tumors within the basal subtype. RNAi-mediated knockdown of all three Crk proteins in metastatic basal breast cancer cells established a continued requirement for Crk in cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastatic growth in vivo. Furthermore, Crk ablation suppressed anchorage independent growth and in vivo orthotopic tumor growth. This was associated with diminished cell proliferation and was rescued by expression of non-shRNA targeted CrkI/II. Perturbations in tumor progression correlated with altered integrin signaling, including decreased cell spreading, diminished p130Cas phosphorylation, and Cdc42 activation. These data highlight the physiological importance of Crk proteins in regulating growth of aggressive basal breast cancer cells and identify Crk-dependent signaling networks as promising therapeutic targets.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 05/2012; 14(3):R74. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women older than 50 years account for 75% of new breast cancer diagnoses, and the majority of these tumors are of a luminal subtype. Although age-associated changes, including endocrine profiles and alterations within the breast microenvironment, increase cancer risk, an understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlies these observations is lacking. In this study, we generated a large collection of normal human mammary epithelial cell strains from women ages 16 to 91 years, derived from primary tissues, to investigate the molecular changes that occur in aging breast cells. We found that in finite lifespan cultured and uncultured epithelial cells, aging is associated with a reduction of myoepithelial cells and an increase in luminal cells that express keratin 14 and integrin-α6, a phenotype that is usually expressed exclusively in myoepithelial cells in women younger than 30 years. Changes to the luminal lineage resulted from age-dependent expansion of defective multipotent progenitors that gave rise to incompletely differentiated luminal or myoepithelial cells. The aging process therefore results in both a shift in the balance of luminal/myoepithelial lineages and to changes in the functional spectrum of multipotent progenitors, which together increase the potential for malignant transformation. Together, our findings provide a cellular basis to explain the observed vulnerability to breast cancer that increases with age.
    Cancer Research 05/2012; 72(14):3687-701. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    Emily S Bell, Morag Park
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    ABSTRACT: The Crk family of adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII, and CrkL), originally discovered as the oncogene fusion product, v-Crk, of the CT10 chicken retrovirus, lacks catalytic activity but engages with multiple signaling pathways through their SH2 and SH3 domains. Crk proteins link upstream tyrosine kinase and integrin-dependent signals to downstream effectors, acting as adaptors in diverse signaling pathways and cellular processes. Crk proteins are now recognized to play a role in the malignancy of many human cancers, stimulating renewed interest in their mechanism of action in cancer progression. The contribution of Crk signaling to malignancy has been predominantly studied in fibroblasts and in hematopoietic models and more recently in epithelial models. A mechanistic understanding of Crk proteins in cancer progression in vivo is still poorly understood in part due to the highly pleiotropic nature of Crk signaling. Recent advances in the structural organization of Crk domains, new roles in kinase regulation, and increased knowledge of the mechanisms and frequency of Crk overexpression in human cancers have provided an incentive for further study in in vivo models. An understanding of the mechanisms through which Crk proteins act as oncogenic drivers could have important implications in therapeutic targeting.
    Genes & cancer 05/2012; 3(5-6):341-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential structural constituent of caveolae, specialized lipid raft microdomains on the cell membrane involved in endocytosis and signal transduction, which are inexplicably deregulated and are associated with aggressiveness in numerous cancers. Here we identify CAV1 as a direct transcriptional target of oxygen-labile hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and 2 that accentuates the formation of caveolae, leading to increased dimerization of EGF receptor within the confined surface area of caveolae and its subsequent phosphorylation in the absence of ligand. Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent up-regulation of CAV1 enhanced the oncogenic potential of tumor cells by increasing the cell proliferative, migratory, and invasive capacities. These results support a concept in which a crisis in oxygen availability or a tumor exhibiting hypoxic signature triggers caveolae formation that bypasses the requirement for ligand engagement to initiate receptor activation and the critical downstream adaptive signaling during a period when ligands required to activate these receptors are limited or are not yet available.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2012; 109(13):4892-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transport and sorting of cell surface receptors into membrane-bound intracellular compartments is crucial for cellular homeostasis. Defects in receptor trafficking are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms that control receptor trafficking have highlighted the involvement of membrane trafficking in cell signaling, as well as in biological processes, including cell migration and invasion. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of how cargos, focusing on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins, are dynamically transported through the endosomal pathway for recycling, and how this promotes spatially restricted signaling microdomains associated with distinct biological responses. We discuss mechanisms through which dysregulation of membrane trafficking contributes to tumorigenesis and potential therapeutic approaches.
    Trends in cell biology 03/2012; 22(5):231-40. · 12.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
602.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • McGill Centre for Bioinformatics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2002–2006
    • McGill University Health Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada