Kazumi Iwata

Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (24)127.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Clioquinol was used extensively in the mid-1900s as an amebicide to treat indigestion and diarrhea. It was eventually withdrawn from the market because it was linked to subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) in Japan. However, the pathogenesis of SMON has not yet been elucidated in detail. As reported previously, we performed a global analysis on human neuroblastoma cells using DNA chips. The global analysis and quantitative PCR demonstrated that the mRNA level of VGF (nonacronymic), the precursor of neuropeptides involved in pain reactions, was significantly increased when SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells were treated with clioquinol. Promoter analyses in SH-SY5Y cells revealed that a region responsive to clioquinol exists between -1381 and -1349 of the human VGF gene, which contains an activator protein (AP)-1 site-like sequence. The introduction of mutations at this site significantly reduced clioquinol-induced transcriptional activation. Clioquinol induced the expression of the AP-1 family transcription factors, c-Jun and c-Fos. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated that c-Jun and c-Fos could bind to the AP-1 site at -1374/-1368 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with clioquinol. RNA interference against c-Fos significantly suppressed clioquinol-induced VGF mRNA expression. These results suggest that the clioquinol-induced expression of c-Fos mediates the induction of VGF expression.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 03/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive evidence demonstrates the pathophysiological importance of NOX1, the catalytic subunit of superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase, as a source of reactive oxygen species in non-phagocytic cells. However, biochemical properties of NOX1 have not been extensively characterized due to a lack of specific immunological tools. We used a newly raised NOX1 polyclonal antibody to investigate post-translational modifications of NOX1 overexpressed in cultured cells and in the colon, where endogenous NOX1 is highly expressed. Immunoblots of lysates from cells expressing NOX1 revealed a doublet of 56 and 60kDa accompanied by a broad band of 60-90kDa. Based on differential sensitivity to glycosidases, the doublet was identified as two high-mannose type glycoforms of NOX1, whereas the broad band represented NOX1 with complex type N-linked oligosaccharides. Deglycosylated NOX1 migrated at∼53kDa and N-glycosylation was demonstrated in NOX1 derived from both rat and human. Site-directed mutagenesis identified N-glycosylation sites at Asn(161) and Asn(241) on the extracellular loop of mouse NOX1. Elimination of N-glycosylation on NOX1 did not affect its electron transferase activity, protein stability, targeting to the cell surface or localization in F-actin-positive membrane protrusions. Taken together, these data identify the two specific sites of N-linked glycosylation of murine NOX1, demonstrate that they are not required for normal enzyme activity, protein stability and membrane trafficking. As is true for NOX2, the contribution of glycosylation in NOX1 to its biologic function(s) merits further study.
    Free Radical Biology & Medicine 12/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase has been documented in the development of hypoxia-induced model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Because the PAH-like phenotype was demonstrated in mice deficient in Nox1 gene (Nox1(-/Y)) raised under normoxia, the aim of this study was to clarify how the lack of NOX1/NADPH oxidase could lead to pulmonary pathology. Spontaneous enlargement and hypertrophy of the right ventricle, accompanied by hypertrophy of pulmonary vessels, were demonstrated in Nox1(-/Y) 9 to 18 weeks old. Because an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive vessels were observed in Nox1(-/Y), pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. In Nox1(-/Y) PASMCs, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly reduced without any change in the expression of endothelin-1, and hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α, factors were implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH. A significant decrease in a voltage-dependent K(+) channel, Kv1.5 protein, and an increase in intracellular potassium levels were demonstrated in Nox1(-/Y) PASMCs. When a rescue study was performed in Nox1(-/Y) crossed with transgenic mice overexpressing rat Nox1 gene, impaired apoptosis and the level of Kv1.5 protein in PASMCs were almost completely recovered in Nox1(-/Y) harboring the Nox1 transgene. These findings suggest a critical role for NOX1 in cellular apoptosis by regulating Kv1.5 and intracellular potassium levels. Because dysfunction of Kv1.5 is among the features demonstrated in PAH, inactivation of NOX1/NADPH oxidase may be a causative factor for pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with PAH.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 11/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is implicated in stem cell self-renewal in several tissues but is thought to be detrimental for spermatogenesis as well as spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Using cultured SSCs, we show that ROS are generated via the AKT and MEK signaling pathways under conditions where the growth factors glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 drive SSC self-renewal and, instead, stimulate self-renewal at physiological levels. SSCs depleted of ROS stopped proliferating, but they showed enhanced self-renewal when ROS levels were increased by the addition of hydrogen peroxide, which induced the phosphorylation of stress kinases p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, ROS depletion in vivo decreased SSC number in the testis, and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-deficient SSCs exhibited reduced self-renewal division upon serial transplantation. These results suggest that ROS generated by Nox1 play critical roles in SSC self-renewal via the activation of the p38 MAPK and JNK pathways.
    Cell stem cell 06/2013; 12(6):774-86. · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional significance of NOX1/NADPH oxidase in the heart has not been explored due to its low expression relative to other NOX homologs identified so far. We aimed to clarify the role of NOX1/NADPH oxidase in the septic heart by utilizing mice deficient in the Nox1 gene (Nox1(-/Y)). Sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS: 25mg/kg) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery. A marked elevation of NOX1 mRNA was demonstrated in cardiac tissue, which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In Nox1(-/Y) treated with LPS, cardiac dysfunction and survival were significantly improved compared with wild-type mice (Nox1(+/Y)) treated with LPS. Concomitantly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 were alleviated in Nox1(-/Y). The level of phosphorylated Akt in cardiac tissue was significantly lowered in Nox1(+/Y) but not in Nox1(-/Y) treated with LPS or that underwent CLP surgery. Increased oxidation of cysteine residues of Akt and enhanced interaction of Akt with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major phosphatase implicated in the dephosphorylation of Akt, were demonstrated in LPS-treated Nox1(+/Y). These responses to LPS were significantly attenuated in Nox1(-/Y). Taken together, ROS derived from NOX1/NADPH oxidase play a pivotal role in endotoxin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by increasing oxidation of Akt and subsequent dephosphorylation by PP2A. Marked up-regulation of NOX1 may affect the risk of mortality under systemic inflammatory conditions.
    Free Radical Biology & Medicine 09/2012; 53(9):1718-28. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clioquinol, a Cu²⁺/Zn²⁺/Fe²⁺ chelator/ionophor, was used extensively in the mid 1900s as an amebicide for treating indigestion and diarrhea. It was eventually withdrawn from the market because of a link to subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) in Japan. The pathogenesis of SMON, however, is not fully understood. To clarify the molecular mechanisms of clioquinol-induced neurotoxicity, a global analysis using DNA chips was carried out on human neuroblastoma cells. The global analysis and quantitative PCR demonstrated that mRNA levels of p21(Cip1), an inhibitor of cyclins D and E, and of GADD45α, a growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein, were significantly increased by clioquinol treatment in SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. Activation of p53 by clioquinol was suggested, since clioquinol induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 to enhance its stabilization. The phosphorylation of p53 was inhibited by KU-55933, an inhibitor of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), but not by NU7026, an inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Clioquinol in fact induced phosphorylation of ATM and histone H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These results suggest that clioquinol-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by DSBs and subsequent activation of ATM/p53 signaling.
    Toxicology 05/2012; 299(1):55-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) has been shown to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this enzyme are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX1 in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced in Nox1 knockout (Nox1KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice via single, daily administration of 5-FU for 5 days. In WT mice, 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis characterized by a shortening of villus height, a disruption of crypts, a loss of body weight, and diarrhea. In Nox1KO mice, however, the severity of mucositis was significantly reduced, particularly with respect to crypt disruption. The numbers of apoptotic caspase-3- and caspase-8-activated cells in the intestinal crypt increased 24 h after the first 5-FU administration but were overall significantly lower in Nox1KO than in WT mice. Furthermore, the 5-FU-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NOX1 and the production of reactive oxygen species were significantly attenuated in Nox1KO mice compared with that in WT mice. These findings suggest that NOX1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. NOX1-derived ROS production following administration of 5-FU may promote the apoptotic response through upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 03/2012; 302(10):G1133-42. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in morphine-induced analgesia and tolerance has been suggested, yet how and where ROS take part in these processes remains largely unknown. Here, we report a novel role for the superoxide-generating enzyme NOX1/NADPH oxidase in the regulation of analgesia and acute analgesic tolerance. In mice lacking Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)), the magnitude of the analgesia induced by morphine was significantly augmented. More importantly, analgesic tolerance induced by repeated administration of morphine was significantly suppressed compared with that in the littermates, wild-type Nox1(+/Y). In a membrane fraction obtained from the dorsal spinal cord, no difference was observed in morphine-induced [(35)S]GTPγS-binding between the genotypes, whereas morphine-stimulated GTPase activity was significantly attenuated in Nox1(-/Y). At 2 h after morphine administration, a significant decline in [(35)S]GTPγS-binding was observed in Nox1(+/Y) but not in Nox1(-/Y). No difference in the maximal binding and affinity of [(3)H]DAMGO was observed between the genotypes, but the translocation of protein kinase C isoforms to the membrane fraction following morphine administration was almost completely abolished in Nox1(-/Y). Finally, the phosphorylation of RGS9-2 and formation of a complex by Gαi2/RGS9-2 with 14-3-3 found in morphine-treated Nox1(+/Y) were significantly suppressed in Nox1(-/Y). Together, these results suggest that NOX1/NADPH oxidase attenuates the pharmacological effects of opioids by regulating GTPase activity and the phosphorylation of RGS9-2 by protein kinase C. NOX1/NADPH oxidase may thus be a novel target for the development of adjuvant therapy to retain the beneficial effects of morphine.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2011; 31(49):18094-103. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among multiple isoforms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) oxidase expressed in the liver, the phagocytic NOX2 isoform in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been demonstrated to play a key role in liver fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of NOX1, a nonphagocytic form of NADPH oxidase, in the development of fibrosis using Nox1-deficient mice (Nox1KO). Liver injury and fibrosis were induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon tetrachloride in Nox1KO and wildtype littermate mice (WT). Primary HSCs were isolated to characterize the NOX1-induced signaling cascade involved in liver fibrogenesis. Following BDL, a time-dependent increase in NOX1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was demonstrated in WT liver. Compared with those in WT, levels of collagen-1α mRNA and hydroxyproline were significantly suppressed in Nox1KO with a reduced number of activated HSCs and less severe fibrotic lesions. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of HSCs activation, were similar in cultured HSCs isolated from both genotypes. However, cell proliferation was significantly attenuated in HSCs isolated from Nox1KO. In these cells, the expression of p27(kip1) , a cell cycle suppressor, was significantly up-regulated. Concomitantly, a significant reduction in phosphorylated forms of Akt and forkhead box O (FOXO) 4, a downstream effector of Akt that regulates the transcription of p27(kip1) gene, was demonstrated in Nox1KO. Finally, the level of the oxidized inactivated form of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway, was significantly attenuated in HSCs of Nox1KO. Conclusion: These findings indicate that reactive oxygen species derived from NOX1/NADPH oxidase oxidize and inactivate PTEN to positively regulate the Akt/FOXO4/p27(kip1) signaling pathway. NOX1 may thus promote proliferation of HSCs and accelerate the development of fibrosis following BDL-induced liver injury.
    Hepatology 05/2011; 54(3):949-58. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although aldose reductase (AR) has been implicated in the cellular response to oxidative stress, the role of AR in ultraviolet-B (UVB)-induced cellular injury has not been investigated. Here, we show that an increased expression of AR in human keratinocytes modulates UVB-induced apoptotic cell death and senescence. Overexpression of AR in HaCaT cells significantly attenuated UVB-induced cellular damage and apoptosis, with a decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes. Ablation of AR with small interfering RNA or inhibition of AR activity abolished these effects. We also show that increased AR activity suppressed UVB-induced activation of the p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, but did not affect the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. Similarly, UVB-induced translocation of Bax and Bcl-2 to mitochondria and cytosol, respectively, was markedly attenuated in cells overexpressing AR. Knockdown or inhibition of AR activity in primary cultured keratinocytes enhanced UVB-induced cellular senescence and increased the level of a cell-cycle regulatory protein, p53. Finally, cellular apoptosis induced by UVB radiation was significantly reduced in the epidermis of transgenic mice overexpressing human AR. These findings suggest that AR plays an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress by sequestering ROS and reactive aldehydes generated in keratinocytes.
    Free Radical Biology & Medicine 03/2011; 50(6):680-8. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NOX is the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, the superoxide-generating enzyme. Among several isoforms of NOX, NOX4 is abundantly expressed in various tissues. To clarify the mechanisms of constitutive and ubiquitous expression of NOX4, the promoter activities of the human NOX4 gene were analyzed by reporter assays. The 5'-flanking and non-coding regions of the human NOX4 gene are known to contain multiple GC bases. Among them, three GC-boxes containing putative Sp/Klf-binding sites, which were not found in rodent genes, were suggested to be essential for the basal expression of the NOX4 gene in SH-SY5Y and HEK293 cells. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 could bind to GC-boxes at positions -239/-227 and +69/+81 in these cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Sp1 and Sp3 could also bind to GC-boxes at positions -239/-227 and +69/+81 in vivo. The promoter activity of the NOX4 gene was reduced in SH-SY5Y and HEK293 cells by transfection of an anti-Sp3 short hairpin RNA-expression plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest that Sp3 plays a key role in the expression of NOX4 in various cell lineages in humans.
    FEBS Journal 01/2011; 278(6):964-72. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beneficial effects of statins on cardiovascular diseases have been attributed to decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We tested the hypothesis that atorvastatin protects against the development of hypertension by reducing levels of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in two hypertensive animal models. Atorvastatin was given to mice chronically infused with angiotensin (Ang) II or to apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Increased mean blood pressure (MBP) demonstrated in both animal models was significantly suppressed by atorvastatin with reduced ROS production in the aorta. Treatment with atorvastatin did not alter the mRNA level of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, but decreased the levels of other NOX isoforms, NOX2 and NOX4, in the ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. In the Ang II-infused model treated with statin, only the NOX4 mRNA level was reduced. Membrane translocation of Rac1 was significantly reduced in the Ang II-infused mice treated with atorvastatin. Finally, atorvastatin administered to Ang II-infused mice lacking the Nox1 gene elicited an additional decline in MBP compared to Nox1-deficient mice treated with vehicle. Together, these findings suggest that reduced expression and activity of the isoforms of NADPH oxidase, involving NOX1, NOX2, and possibly NOX4, mediate the anti-hypertensive effect of atorvastatin.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 10/2009; 111(3):260-8. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - J PHARMACOL SCI. 01/2009; 111(3):260-268.
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    ABSTRACT: The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an augmented sensitivity to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) during inflammation has been suggested, yet how and where ROS affect the pain signaling remain unknown. Here we report a novel role for the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase in the development of hyperalgesia. In mice lacking Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)), a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly attenuated, whereas no change in nociceptive responses to heat or mechanical stimuli was observed. In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of Nox1(+/Y), pretreatment with chemical mediators bradykinin, serotonin, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) augmented the capsaicin-induced calcium increase, whereas this increase was significantly attenuated in DRG neurons of Nox1(-/Y). Concomitantly, PMA-induced translocation of PKCepsilon was markedly perturbed in Nox1(-/Y) or Nox1(+/Y) DRG neurons treated with ROS-scavenging agents. In cells transfected with tagged PKCepsilon, hydrogen peroxide induced translocation and a reduction in free sulfhydryls of full-length PKCepsilon but not of the deletion mutant lacking the C1A domain. These findings indicate that NOX1/NADPH oxidase accelerates the translocation of PKCepsilon in DRG neurons, thereby enhancing the TRPV1 activity and the sensitivity to painful stimuli.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2008; 28(38):9486-94. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidase is a major source of the superoxide produced in cardiovascular tissues. The expression of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, is induced by various vasoactive factors, including angiotensin II, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). It was reported previously that the inducible expression of NOX1 is governed by the activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1)-myocyte enhancer factor 2B (MEF2B) cascade downstream of phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase. It was also reported that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is involved in the expression of NOX1. To further clarify the factors involved in NOX1 induction downstream of ERK1/2, the promoter region of the NOX1 gene was analyzed. A consensus activator protein-1 (AP-1) site was found at -98/-92 in the 5'-flanking region of the rat NOX1 gene. The introduction of mutations at this site abolished PGF(2alpha)-induced transcriptional activation in a luciferase assay. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated that PGF(2alpha) and PDGF augmented the binding of JunB to this sequence. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK kinase, suppressed the expression of JunB induced by PGF(2alpha) or PDGF. These results suggest that the ERK1/2-JunB pathway is a key regulator of the inducible expression of the NOX1 gene in vascular smooth muscle cells.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2008; 374(2):351-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidase is a major source of the superoxide produced in cardiovascular tissues. Expression of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, is induced by various vasoactive factors, including angiotensin II, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). To clarify the molecular basis of this transcriptional activation, we delineated the promoter region of the NOX1 gene. RT-PCR and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends-based analyses revealed a novel 5'-terminal exon of the rat NOX1 gene located approximately 28 kb upstream of the exon containing the start codon. Both PGF(2alpha) and PDGF enhanced the transcriptional activity of the - 3.6 kb 5'-flanking region of the NOX1 gene in A7r5 cells, a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line. A PGF(2alpha)-response element was located between -146 and -125 in the 5'-flanking region containing a consensus binding site for myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), to which binding of MEF2 was augmented by PGF(2alpha). Gene silencing of MEF2B by RNA interference significantly suppressed the expression of NOX1, while silencing of activating transcription factor (ATF)-1, previously implicated in up-regulation of NOX1, abolished the PGF(2alpha)- or PDGF-induced expression of MEF2B. These results indicate that superoxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated by the ATF-1-MEF2B cascade by induction of the expression of the NOX1 gene.
    FEBS Journal 11/2007; 274(19):5128-36. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin is a plant-derived diferuloylmethane compound extracted from Curcuma longa, possessing antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Antioxidants and oxidative stress are known to induce the expression of certain classes of detoxification enzymes. Since the upregulation of detoxifying enzymes affects the drug metabolism and cell defense system, it is important to understand the gene regulation by such agents. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin could induce the expression of human glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1). In HepG2 cells treated with 20muM curcumin, the level of GSTP1 mRNA was significantly increased. In luciferase reporter assays, curcumin augmented the promoter activity of a reporter construct carrying 336bp upstream of the 5'-flanking region of the GSTP1 gene. Mutation analyses revealed that the region including antioxidant response element (ARE), which overlaps AP1 in sequence, was essential to the response to curcumin. While the introduction of a wild-type Nrf2 expression construct augmented the promoter activity of the GSTP1 gene, co-expression of a dominant-negative Nrf2 abolished the responsiveness to curcumin. In addition, curcumin activated the expression of the luciferase gene from a reporter construct carrying multiple ARE consensus sequences but not one with multiple AP1 sites. In a gel mobility shift assay with an oligonucleotide with GSTP1 ARE, an increase in the amount of the binding complex was observed in the nuclear extracts of curcumin-treated HepG2 cells. These results suggested that ARE is the primary sequence for the curcumin-induced transactivation of the GSTP1 gene. The induction of GSTP1 may be one of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of curcumin.
    Toxicology Letters 06/2007; 170(3):238-47. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of aldose reductase (AR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, although the alterations in the expression and activity of AR during hyperglycemia in the heart have not been well characterized. We investigated the expression and enzyme activity of AR in a murine diabetic model. Three weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia with streptozotocin, the level of AR mRNA was significantly reduced in the cardiac ventricles of BDF-1 mice. In contrast, the activity of AR was significantly elevated in the heart without any significant change in the protein level. In these mice, the level of cardiac thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was unaltered, whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly increased. Daily administration of insulin for 3 weeks completely normalized the level of AR mRNA and the enzyme activity. On the other hand, daily administration of an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced the level of AR mRNA in the heart with a concomitant elevation in the enzyme activity. These results suggest that the activity of AR in the heart is affected by GSH dynamics. Augmented AR activity at the early stage of hyperglycemia may perturb glycolysis and affect cardiac performance.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 05/2007; 103(4):408-16. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aldose reductase (AR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, although the clinical efficacy of AR inhibitors has not been clearly proven. To clarify the pathophysiological role of AR in the heart, we investigated effects of AR inhibitors applied either during the pre-ischemic phase, or during the post-ischemic reperfusion phase on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated heart from transgenic mice overexpressing human AR. On reperfusion following global ischemia, transgenic mouse hearts exhibited lower left developed pressure, increased release of creatine kinase, and lower ATP content compared with their littermates. When inhibitors of AR were applied during the pre-ischemic phase, they significantly improved deranged cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and ATP content. On the other hand, inhibition of AR during the post-ischemic reperfusion phase did not affect cardiac performance and ATP content, but it significantly attenuated creatine kinase release and the level of thiobarbiturate-reactive substances in transgenic mouse hearts. These results suggest a dual role of AR in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Inhibition of AR during ischemia preserved generation of ATP via glycolysis, whereas inhibition during the reperfusion phase reduced myocardial injury by attenuating oxidative stress elicited by ischemic insult and reoxygenation.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 10/2006; 102(1):37-46. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase are involved in the neuronal death associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of NADPH oxidase in neuronal differentiation has not been well characterized. In nondifferentiated PC12 cells, the mRNA level of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase expressed in nonphagocytes, was approximately 10 times higher than that of the phagocyte type subunit, NOX2 (gp91(phox)), while the transcript of another isoform, NOX4, was not detected. Following nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth, the mRNA level of NOX1 and NOX2 was progressively increased and decreased, respectively. The NGF-induced increase in NOX1 mRNA was mediated by TrkA and accompanied by increased intracellular superoxide, which was suppressed by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. Unexpectedly, these inhibitors and superoxide scavengers significantly enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Enhanced neurite outgrowth was similarly demonstrated in cells depleted with the NOX1 transcript by stable expression of ribozymes targeted for the NOX1 mRNA sequence. Furthermore, NGF-induced expression of betaIII-tubulin was significantly augmented in cells treated with NADPH oxidase inhibitors or stably expressing ribozymes. Phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase inhibitors, without affecting NGF-induced NOX1 expression, augmented NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but not in clones expressing ribozymes. Taken together, increased superoxide production by up-regulation of NOX1 may negatively regulate neuronal differentiation by suppressing excessive neurite outgrowth.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2006; 40(10):1785-95. · 5.27 Impact Factor