[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the main health issues in sheep breeding. To identify loci affecting the resistance to Haemonchus contortus, a genome scan was carried out using 1275 Romane x Martinik Blackbelly back-cross lambs. The whole population was challenged with Haemonchus contortus in two consecutive experimental infections and fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volumes were measured. A subgroup of 332 lambs with extreme FEC was sacrificed to determine the total worm burden, length of female worms, sex ratio in the worm population, abomasal pH and serum and mucosal IgG responses. The pepsinogen concentration was measured in another subset of 229 lambs. For QTL detection, 160 microsatellite markers were used as well as the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip that provided 42,469 SNP markers after quality control. Linkage, association and joint linkage and association analyses were performed with the QTLMAP software. The linkage disequilibrium was estimated within each pure breeds and association analyses were carried out either considering or not the breed origin of the haplotypes. Four QTL regions on OAR5, 12, 13 and 21 were identified as key players among many other QTL with low to moderate effects. A QTL on OAR21 affecting the pepsinogen concentration exactly matched the pepsinogen (PGA5) locus. A 10-Mbp region affecting FEC both the 1st and 2nd infections was found on OAR12. SNP markers outperformed microsatellites in the linkage analysis. Taking advantage of the linkage disequilibrium helped to refine the locations of the QTL mapped on OAR5 and 13.
Journal of Animal Science 07/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteomic analyses of cartilage and, to a lesser extent, of bone have long been impaired because of technical challenges related to their structure and biochemical properties. We have developed a unified method based on phenol extraction, 2DE, silver staining, and subsequent LC-MS/MS. This method proved to be efficient to characterize the proteome of equine cartilage and bone samples collected in vivo. Since proteins from several cellular compartments could be recovered, our procedure is mainly suitable for in situ molecular physiology studies focused on the cellular content of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts as well as that of the extracellular matrix, with the exception of proteoglycans. Our method alleviates some drawbacks of cell culture that can mask physiological differences, as well as reduced reproducibility due to fractionation. Proteomic comparative studies between cartilage and bone samples from healthy and affected animals were thus achieved successfully. This achievement will contribute to increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of numerous osteoarticular diseases in horses and in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify regions of the genome affecting resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in a Creole goat population naturally exposed to a mixed nematode infection (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum) by grazing on irrigated pasture. A genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) scan was performed on 383 offspring from 12 half-sib families. A total of 101 microsatellite markers were genotyped. Traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophil count and bodyweight (BW) at 7 and 11 months of age. Levels of activity of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and activity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) anti-Haemonchus contortus L3 crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESPs) were also analysed. Using interval mapping, this study identified 13 QTL for parasite resistance. Two QTL linked with FEC were found on chromosomes 22 and 26. Three QTL were detected on chromosomes 7, 8 and 14 for eosinophil counts. Three QTL linked with PCV were identified on chromosomes 5, 9 and 21. A QTL for BW at 7 months of age was found on chromosome 6. Lastly, two QTL detected on chromosomes 3 and 10 were associated with IgE anti-L3, and IgE anti-ESP was linked with two QTL on chromosomes 1 and 26. This study is the first to have identified regions of the genome linked with nematode resistance in a goat population using a genome scan. These results provide useful tools for the understanding of parasite resistance in small ruminants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for susceptibility to a Salmonella Abortusovis vaccinal strain was performed using an experimental design involving 30 Romane sheep sire families (1216 progenies). Nine QTL corresponding to bacterial load, weight variations and antibody response criteria were mapped on eight chromosomes, including the major histocompatibility complex area on chromosome 20. Surprisingly, none was found to be significant in the SLC11A1 region (formerly NRAMP1) that has been shown to influence Salmonella susceptibility in other species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural mutations in the LIPH gene were shown to be responsible for hair growth defects in humans and for the rex short hair phenotype in rabbits. In this species, we identified a single nucleotide deletion in LIPH (1362delA) introducing a stop codon in the C-terminal region of the protein. We investigated the expression of LIPH between normal coat and rex rabbits during critical fetal stages of hair follicle genesis, in adults and during hair follicle cycles. Transcripts were three times less expressed in both fetal and adult stages of the rex rabbits than in normal rabbits. In addition, the hair growth cycle phases affected the regulation of the transcription level in the normal and mutant phenotypes differently. LIPH mRNA and protein levels were higher in the outer root sheath (ORS) than in the inner root sheath (IRS), with a very weak signal in the IRS of rex rabbits. In vitro transfection shows that the mutant protein has a reduced lipase activity compared to the wild type form. Our results contribute to the characterization of the LIPH mode of action and confirm the crucial role of LIPH in hair production.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30073. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene characterization is an important feature for genome annotation and more particularly for candidate genes that could be selected in domestic species. Associations between an alpha-actinin-3 gene polymorphism and muscle performance were reported in humans involving a nonsense mutation (R577X) and in mice after inactivation of the gene. Here, we characterized the equine alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene by sequencing and transcript analysis. The cDNA was determined to be 3.47 kb in length with an open reading frame of 2709 bp expectedly encoding a protein 902 amino acids long. The ACTN3 gene is 13.2 kb long and contains 21 exons. The equine ACTN3 gene has a ubiquitous expression but it is overexpressed in skeletal muscles with fast fibers of type IIb. No alternative transcripts were observed. Sequencing the cDNA revealed 8 SNPs, 6 in the coding and 2 in the 3' non-coding regions with no amino acid change and not affecting potential miRNA targets. The equine in silico promoter sequence reveals a structure with two regions similar to those of other mammalian species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study for osteochondrosis (OC) in French Trotter horses was carried out to detect QTL using genotype data from the Illumina EquineSNP50 BeadChip assay. Analysis data came from 161 sire families of French Trotter horses with 525 progeny and family sizes ranging from 1 to 20. Genotypes were available for progeny (n = 525) and sires with at least 2 progeny (n = 98). Radiographic data were obtained from progeny using at least 10 views to reveal OC. All radiographic findings were described by at least 2 veterinary experts in equine orthopedics, and severity indices (scores) were assigned based on the size and location of the lesion. Traits used were a global score, the sum of all severity scores lesions (GM, quantitative measurement), and the presence or absence of OC on the fetlock (FM), hock (HM), and other sites (other). Data were analyzed using 2 mixed models including fixed effects, polygenic effects, and SNP or haplotype cluster effects. By combining results with both methods at moderate evidence of association threshold P < 5 × 10(-5), this genome-wide association study displayed 1 region for GM on the Equus caballus chromosome (ECA) 13, 2 for HM on ECA 3 and 14, and 1 for other on ECA 15. One region on ECA 3 for HM represented the most significant hit (P = 3 × 10(-6)). By comparing QTL between traits at a decreased threshold (P < 5 × 10(-4)), the 4 QTL detected for GM were associated to a QTL detected for FM or HM but never both. Another interesting result was that no QTL were found in common between HM and FM.
Journal of Animal Science 08/2011; 90(1):45-53. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few goat genome analysis projects have been developed in the last 10 years. The aim of this review was to compile and update all available cytogenetic mapping data, according to the last goat chromosome nomenclature, as well as human and cattle whole genome sequences. In particular, human regions homologous to most of the FISH-mapped microsatellites were identified in silico. This new goat cytogenetic map made it possible to refine delineation of conserved segments relative to the human and cattle genomic sequence. These improvements did not lead to detection of major new rearrangements within ruminants but confirmed the good conservation of synteny and the numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements observed between goats and humans.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 01/2009; 126(1-2):77-85. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an extended river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50; BBU) cytogenetic map including 388 loci, of which 68 have been FISH-mapped on autosomes in the present study. Ovine and caprine BAC clones containing both type I loci (known genes) and type II loci (simple sequence repeats (SRs), microsatellite marker, sequence-tagged sites (STSs)), previously assigned to sheep chromosomes, have been localized on R-banded river buffalo chromosomes (BBU), which expands the cytogenetic map of this important domestic species and increases our knowledge of the physical organization of its genome. The loci mapped in the present study correspond to loci already localized on homoeologous cattle (and sheep) chromosomes and chromosome bands, further confirming the high degree of chromosome homoeologies among bovids. The comparison of the integrated cytogenetic maps of BBU2p/BBU10 and BBU5p/BBU16 with those of human chromosomes (HSA) 6 and 11, respectively, identified, at least, nine conserved chromosome segments in each case and complex rearrangements differentiating river buffalo (and cattle) and human chromosomes.
Chromosome Research 08/2008; 16(6):827-37. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although susceptibility to scrapie is largely controlled by the PRNP gene, we have searched for additional genomic regions that affect scrapie incubation time in sheep, using two half-sib families with a susceptible PRNP genotype and naturally infected by scrapie. Quantitative trait loci were detected on OAR6 and OAR18.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panels have been constructed for several species, including cattle. RH panels have proven to be an extremely powerful tool to construct high-density maps, which is an essential step in the identification of genes controlling important traits, and they can be used to establish high-resolution comparative maps. Although bovine RH panels can be used with ovine markers to construct sheep RH maps based on bovine genome organization, only some (c. 50%) of the markers available in sheep can be successfully mapped in the bovine genome. So, with the development of genomics and genome sequencing projects, there is a need for a high-resolution RH panel in sheep to map ovine markers. Consequently, we have constructed a 12 000-rad ovine whole-genome RH panel. Two hundred and eight hybrid clones were produced, of which 90 were selected based on their retention frequency. The final panel had an average marker retention frequency of 31.8%. The resolution of this 12 000-rad panel (SheepRH) was estimated by constructing an RH framework map for a 23-Mb region of sheep chromosome 18 (OAR18) that contains a QTL for scrapie susceptibility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presented herein is an updated sheep cytogenetic map that contains 452 loci (291 type I and 161 type II) assigned to specific chromosome bands or regions on standard R-banded ideograms. This map, which significantly extends our knowledge of the physical organization of the ovine genome, includes new assignments for 88 autosomal loci, including 74 type I loci (known genes) and 14 type II loci (SSRs/microsatellite marker/STSs), by FISH-mapping and R-banding. Comparison of the ovine map to the cattle and goat cytogenetic maps showed that common loci were located within homologous chromosomes and chromosome bands, confirming the high level of conservation of autosomes among ruminant species. Eleven loci that were FISH-mapped in sheep (B3GAT2, ASCC3, RARSL, BRD2, POLR1C, PPP2R5D, TNRC5, BAT2, BAT4, CDC5L and OLA-DRA) are unassigned in cattle and goat. Eleven other loci (D3S32, D1S86, BMS2621, SFXN5, D5S3, D5S68, CSKB1, D7S49, D9S15, D9S55 and D29S35) were assigned to specific ovine chromosome (OAR) bands but have only been assigned to chromosomes in cattle and goat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project.
A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly.
Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance) and production (wool and carcass) traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative mapping provides new insights into the evolutionary history of genomes. In particular, recent studies in mammals have suggested a role for segmental duplication in genome evolution. In some species such as Drosophila or maize, transposable elements (TEs) have been shown to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements. In this work, we have explored the presence of interspersed repeats in regions of chromosomal rearrangements, using an updated high-resolution integrated comparative map among cattle, man and mouse.
The bovine, human and mouse comparative autosomal map has been constructed using data from bovine genetic and physical maps and from FISH-mapping studies. We confirm most previous results but also reveal some discrepancies. A total of 211 conserved segments have been identified between cattle and man, of which 33 are new segments and 72 correspond to extended, previously known segments. The resulting map covers 91% and 90% of the human and bovine genomes, respectively. Analysis of breakpoint regions revealed a high density of species-specific interspersed repeats in the human and mouse genomes.
Analysis of the breakpoint regions has revealed specific repeat density patterns, suggesting that TEs may have played a significant role in chromosome evolution and genome plasticity. However, we cannot rule out that repeats and breakpoints accumulate independently in the few same regions where modifications are better tolerated. Likewise, we cannot ascertain whether increased TE density is the cause or the consequence of chromosome rearrangements. Nevertheless, the identification of high density repeat clusters combined with a well-documented repeat phylogeny should highlight probable breakpoints, and permit their precise dating. Combining new statistical models taking the present information into account should help reconstruct ancestral karyotypes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In goats, the PIS (polled intersex syndrome) mutation is responsible for both the absence of horns in males and females and sex-reversal affecting exclusively XX individuals. The mode of inheritance is dominant for the polled trait and recessive for sex-reversal. In XX PIS-/- mutants, the expression of testis-specific genes is observed very precociously during gonad development. Nevertheless, a delay of 4-5 days is observed in comparison with normal testis differentiation in XY males. By positional cloning, we demonstrate that the PIS mutation is an 11.7-kb regulatory-deletion affecting the expression of two genes, PISRT1 and FOXL2 which could act synergistically to promote ovarian differentiation. The transcriptional extinction of these two genes leads, very early, to testis-formation in XX homozygous PIS-/- mutants. According to their expression profiles and bibliographic data, we propose that FOXL2 may be an ovary-differentiating gene, and the non-coding RNA PISRT1, an anti-testis factor repressing SOX9, a key regulator of testis differentiation. Under this hypothesis, SRY, the testis-determining factor would inhibit these two genes in the gonads of XY males, to ensure testis differentiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A first generation clone-based physical map for the bovine genome was constructed combining, fluorescent double digestion fingerprinting and sequence tagged site (STS) marker screening. The BAC clones were selected from an Inra BAC library (105,984 clones) and a part of the CHORI-240 BAC library (26,500 clones). The contigs were anchored using the screening information for a total of 1303 markers (451 microsatellites, 471 genes, 127 EST, and 254 BAC ends). The final map, which consists of 6615 contigs assembled from 100,923 clones, will be a valuable tool for genomic research in ruminants, including targeted marker production, positional cloning or targeted sequencing of regions of specific interest.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our on-going goal is to improve and update the comparative genome organization between cattle and man but also among the most detailed mammalian species genomes i.e. cattle, mouse, rat and pig. In this work, we localized 195 genes in cattle and checked all human/bovine non-concordant localizations found in the literature. Next, we compiled all the genes mapped in cattle, goat, sheep and pig (2,166) for which the human ortholog with its chromosomal position is known, added corresponding data in mouse and rat, and ordered the genes relatively to the human genome sequence. We estimate that our compilation provides bovine mapping information for about 89% of the human autosomes. Thus, a near complete, overall and detailed picture of the number, distribution and extent of bovine conserved syntenies (regardless of gene order) on human R-banded autosomes is proposed as well as a comparison with mouse, rat and pig genomes.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2003; 102(1-4):16-24. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty autosomal loci (5 type I and 55 type II) from 24 bovine syntenic groups, and previously FISH-mapped to goat and river buffalo chromosomes, were localized by fluorescence in situ on sheep (OVIS ARIES, 2n = 54) chromosomes, thereby notably extending the cytogenetic map of this economically important species. Caprine BAC clones were hybridized to R-banded chromosome preparations. FITC-signals and RBPI- banding (R-banding by late BrdU-incorporation and propidium iodide staining) were simultaneously visualized and captured by a colour CCD-camera. All mapped loci were localized on homoeologous chromosomes and chromosome regions (bands) of sheep, goat and river buffalo, further supporting chromosome and genetic (loci) homoeologies among bovids.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2003; 103(1-2):135-8. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-four genomic BAC-clones mapping five type I (ADCYAP1, HRH1, IL3, RBP3B and SRY) and 59 type II loci, previously FISH-mapped to goat (63 loci) and cattle (SRY) chromosomes, were fluorescence in situ mapped to river buffalo R-banded chromosomes, noticeably extending the physical map of this species. All mapped loci from 26 bovine syntenic groups were located on homeologous chromosomes and chromosome regions of river buffalo and goat (cattle) chromosomes, confirming the high degree of chromosome homeologies among bovids. Furthermore, an improved cytogenetic map of the river buffalo with 293 loci from all 31 bovine syntenic groups is reported.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2003; 102(1-4):65-75. · 1.84 Impact Factor