[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteochondrosis (OC(D)) is a juvenile osteo-articular disorder affecting several mammalian species. In horses, OC(D) is considered as a multifactorial disease and has been described as a focal disruption of endochondral ossification leading to the development of osteoarticular lesions. Nevertheless, OC(D) physiopathology is poorly understood. Affected horses may present joint swelling, stiffness and lameness. Thus, OC(D) is a major concern for the equine industry. Our study was designed as an integrative approach using omics technologies for the identification of constitutive defects in epiphyseal cartilage and/or subchondral bone associated with the development of primary lesions to further understand OC(D) pathology. This study compared samples from non-affected joints (hence lesion-free) from OC(D)-affected foals (n = 5, considered predisposed samples) with samples from OC-free foals (n = 5) considered as control samples. Consequently, results are not confounded by changes associated with the evolution of the lesion, but focus on altered constitutive molecular mechanisms. Comparative proteomics and micro computed tomography analyses were performed on predisposed and OC-free bone and cartilage samples. Metabolomics was also performed on synovial fluid from OC-free, OC(D)-affected and predisposed joints.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules ranging from 18 to 24 nucleotides. They negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play key roles in many biological processes, including skeletal development and cartilage maturation. In addition, miRNAs involvement in osteoarticular diseases has been proved and some of them were identified as suitable biomarkers for pathological conditions. Equine osteochondrosis (OC) is one of the most prevalent juvenile osteoarticular disorders in horses and represents a major concern for animal welfare and economic reasons. Its etiology and pathology remain controversial and biological pathways as well as molecular mechanisms involved in the physiopathology are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in equine osteochondrosis (OC) physiopathology.Short-read NGS technology (SOLIDTM, Life Technologies) was used to establish a comprehensive repertoire of miRNA expressed in either equine cartilage or subchondral bone. Undamaged cartilage and subchondral bone samples from healthy (healthy samples) and OC-affected (predisposed samples) 10-month Anglo-Arabian foals were analysed. Samples were also subjected or not to an experimental mechanical loading to evaluate the role of miRNAs in the regulation of mechano-transduction pathways. Predicted targets of annotated miRNAs were identified using miRmap.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone (T3) is required for post-natal skeletal growth. It exerts its effect by binding to nuclear receptors, TRs including TRα1 and TRβ1, which are present in most cell types. These cell types include chondrocytes and osteoblasts, which interactions are known to regulate endochondral bone formation. In order to analyze the respective functions of T3 stimulation in chondrocytes and osteoblasts during post-natal growth, we use Cre/loxP recombination to express a dominant-negative TRα1(L400R) mutant receptor in a cell-specific manner. Phenotype analysis revealed that inhibiting T3 response in chondrocytes is sufficient to reproduce the defects observed in hypothyroid mice, not only for cartilage maturation, but also for ossification and mineralization. TRα1(L400R) in chondrocytes also results in skull deformation. In the meantime, TRα1(L400R) expression in mature osteoblasts has no visible effect. Transcriptome analysis identifies a number of changes in gene expression induced by TRα1(L400R) in cartilage. These changes suggest that T3 normally cross-talks with several other signaling pathways to promote chondrocytes proliferation, differentiation and skeletal growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental bone disorder affecting several mammalian species including the horse. Equine OC is described as a focal disruption of endochondral ossification, leading to osteochondral lesions (osteochondritis dissecans, OCD) that may release free bodies within the joint. OCD lesions trigger joint swelling, stiffness and lameness and affects about 30% of the equine population. OCD is considered as multifactorial but its physiopathology is still poorly understood and genes involved in genetic predisposition are still unknown. Our study compared two healthy and two OC-affected 18-month-old French Trotters diagnosed with OCD lesions at the intermediate ridge of the distal tibia. A comparative shot-gun proteomic analysis of non-wounded cartilage and sub-chondral bone from healthy (healthy samples) and OC-affected foals (predisposed samples) identified 83 and 53 modulated proteins, respectively. These proteins are involved in various biological pathways including matrix structure and maintenance, protein biosynthesis, folding and transport, mitochondrial activity, energy and calcium metabolism. Transmission electron microscopy revealed typical features of mitochondrial swelling and ER-stress, such as large, empty mitochondria, and hyper-dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, in the deep zone of both OC lesions and predisposed cartilage. Abnormal fibril organization surrounding chondrocytes and abnormal features at the ossification front were also observed. Combining these findings with quantitative trait loci and whole genome sequencing results identified about 140 functional candidate genes carrying putative damaging mutations in 30 QTL regions. In summary, our study suggests that OCD lesions may result from defective hypertrophic terminal differentiation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and ER-stress, leading to impaired cartilage and bone biomechanical properties, making them prone to fractures. In addition, 11 modulated proteins and several candidate mutations located in QTL regions were identified, bringing new insight into the molecular physiopathology and genetic basis of OCD.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology 06/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and statistical multivariate analysis. The advantage of this method is to investigate several metabolomic pathways at the same time in a single sample. The plasmas were obtained before exercise (BE) and post exercise (PE) from 69 horses competing in three endurance races at national level (130-160 km). Biochemical assays were also performed on the samples taken at PE. The proton NMR spectra were compared using the supervised orthogonal projection on latent structure method according to several factors. Among these factors, the race location was not significant whereas the effect of the race exercise (sample BE vs PE of same horse) was highly discriminating. This result was confirmed by the projection of unpaired samples (only BE or PE sample of different horses). The metabolomic profiles proved that protein, energetic and lipid metabolisms as well as glycoproteins content are highly affected by the long endurance exercise. The BE samples from finisher horses could be discriminated according to the racing speed based on their metabolomic lipid content. The PE samples could be discriminated according to the horse ranking position at the end of the race with lactate as unique correlated metabolite. As a conclusion, the metabolomic profiles of plasmas taken before and after the race provided a better understanding of the high energy demand and protein catabolism pathway that could expose the horses to metabolic disorders.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90730. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the main health issues in sheep breeding. To identify loci affecting the resistance to Haemonchus contortus, a genome scan was carried out using 1275 Romane x Martinik Blackbelly back-cross lambs. The whole population was challenged with Haemonchus contortus in two consecutive experimental infections and fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volumes were measured. A subgroup of 332 lambs with extreme FEC was sacrificed to determine the total worm burden, length of female worms, sex ratio in the worm population, abomasal pH and serum and mucosal IgG responses. The pepsinogen concentration was measured in another subset of 229 lambs. For QTL detection, 160 microsatellite markers were used as well as the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip that provided 42,469 SNP markers after quality control. Linkage, association and joint linkage and association analyses were performed with the QTLMAP software. The linkage disequilibrium was estimated within each pure breeds and association analyses were carried out either considering or not the breed origin of the haplotypes. Four QTL regions on OAR5, 12, 13 and 21 were identified as key players among many other QTL with low to moderate effects. A QTL on OAR21 affecting the pepsinogen concentration exactly matched the pepsinogen (PGA5) locus. A 10-Mbp region affecting FEC both the 1st and 2nd infections was found on OAR12. SNP markers outperformed microsatellites in the linkage analysis. Taking advantage of the linkage disequilibrium helped to refine the locations of the QTL mapped on OAR5 and 13.
Journal of Animal Science 07/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteomic analyses of cartilage and, to a lesser extent, of bone have long been impaired because of technical challenges related to their structure and biochemical properties. We have developed a unified method based on phenol extraction, 2DE, silver staining, and subsequent LC-MS/MS. This method proved to be efficient to characterize the proteome of equine cartilage and bone samples collected in vivo. Since proteins from several cellular compartments could be recovered, our procedure is mainly suitable for in situ molecular physiology studies focused on the cellular content of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts as well as that of the extracellular matrix, with the exception of proteoglycans. Our method alleviates some drawbacks of cell culture that can mask physiological differences, as well as reduced reproducibility due to fractionation. Proteomic comparative studies between cartilage and bone samples from healthy and affected animals were thus achieved successfully. This achievement will contribute to increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of numerous osteoarticular diseases in horses and in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify regions of the genome affecting resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in a Creole goat population naturally exposed to a mixed nematode infection (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum) by grazing on irrigated pasture. A genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) scan was performed on 383 offspring from 12 half-sib families. A total of 101 microsatellite markers were genotyped. Traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophil count and bodyweight (BW) at 7 and 11 months of age. Levels of activity of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and activity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) anti-Haemonchus contortus L3 crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESPs) were also analysed. Using interval mapping, this study identified 13 QTL for parasite resistance. Two QTL linked with FEC were found on chromosomes 22 and 26. Three QTL were detected on chromosomes 7, 8 and 14 for eosinophil counts. Three QTL linked with PCV were identified on chromosomes 5, 9 and 21. A QTL for BW at 7 months of age was found on chromosome 6. Lastly, two QTL detected on chromosomes 3 and 10 were associated with IgE anti-L3, and IgE anti-ESP was linked with two QTL on chromosomes 1 and 26. This study is the first to have identified regions of the genome linked with nematode resistance in a goat population using a genome scan. These results provide useful tools for the understanding of parasite resistance in small ruminants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for susceptibility to a Salmonella Abortusovis vaccinal strain was performed using an experimental design involving 30 Romane sheep sire families (1216 progenies). Nine QTL corresponding to bacterial load, weight variations and antibody response criteria were mapped on eight chromosomes, including the major histocompatibility complex area on chromosome 20. Surprisingly, none was found to be significant in the SLC11A1 region (formerly NRAMP1) that has been shown to influence Salmonella susceptibility in other species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural mutations in the LIPH gene were shown to be responsible for hair growth defects in humans and for the rex short hair phenotype in rabbits. In this species, we identified a single nucleotide deletion in LIPH (1362delA) introducing a stop codon in the C-terminal region of the protein. We investigated the expression of LIPH between normal coat and rex rabbits during critical fetal stages of hair follicle genesis, in adults and during hair follicle cycles. Transcripts were three times less expressed in both fetal and adult stages of the rex rabbits than in normal rabbits. In addition, the hair growth cycle phases affected the regulation of the transcription level in the normal and mutant phenotypes differently. LIPH mRNA and protein levels were higher in the outer root sheath (ORS) than in the inner root sheath (IRS), with a very weak signal in the IRS of rex rabbits. In vitro transfection shows that the mutant protein has a reduced lipase activity compared to the wild type form. Our results contribute to the characterization of the LIPH mode of action and confirm the crucial role of LIPH in hair production.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30073. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene characterization is an important feature for genome annotation and more particularly for candidate genes that could be selected in domestic species. Associations between an alpha-actinin-3 gene polymorphism and muscle performance were reported in humans involving a nonsense mutation (R577X) and in mice after inactivation of the gene. Here, we characterized the equine alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene by sequencing and transcript analysis. The cDNA was determined to be 3.47 kb in length with an open reading frame of 2709 bp expectedly encoding a protein 902 amino acids long. The ACTN3 gene is 13.2 kb long and contains 21 exons. The equine ACTN3 gene has a ubiquitous expression but it is overexpressed in skeletal muscles with fast fibers of type IIb. No alternative transcripts were observed. Sequencing the cDNA revealed 8 SNPs, 6 in the coding and 2 in the 3' non-coding regions with no amino acid change and not affecting potential miRNA targets. The equine in silico promoter sequence reveals a structure with two regions similar to those of other mammalian species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating germline fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations cause achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism and a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias. FGFR3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor and constitutive FGFR3 activation impairs endochondral ossification and triggers severe disorganization of the cartilage with shortening of long bones. To decipher the role of FGFR3 in endochondral ossification, we analyzed the impact of a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), A31, on both human and mouse mutant FGFR3-expressing cells and on the skeleton of Fgfr3(Y367C/+) dwarf mice. We found that A31 inhibited constitutive FGFR3 phosphorylation and restored the size of embryonic dwarf femurs using an ex vivo culture system. The increase in length of the treated mutant femurs was 2.6 times more than for the wild-type. Premature cell cycle exit and defective chondrocyte differentiation were observed in the Fgfr3(Y367C/+) growth plate. A31 restored normal expression of cell cycle regulators (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, KI67, cyclin D1 and p57) and allowed pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes to properly differentiate into hypertrophic chondocytes. Our data reveal a specific role for FGFR3 in the cell cycle and chondrocyte differentiation and support the development of TKIs for the treatment of FGFR3-related chondrodysplasias.
Human Molecular Genetics 11/2011; 21(4):841-51. · 6.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study for osteochondrosis (OC) in French Trotter horses was carried out to detect QTL using genotype data from the Illumina EquineSNP50 BeadChip assay. Analysis data came from 161 sire families of French Trotter horses with 525 progeny and family sizes ranging from 1 to 20. Genotypes were available for progeny (n = 525) and sires with at least 2 progeny (n = 98). Radiographic data were obtained from progeny using at least 10 views to reveal OC. All radiographic findings were described by at least 2 veterinary experts in equine orthopedics, and severity indices (scores) were assigned based on the size and location of the lesion. Traits used were a global score, the sum of all severity scores lesions (GM, quantitative measurement), and the presence or absence of OC on the fetlock (FM), hock (HM), and other sites (other). Data were analyzed using 2 mixed models including fixed effects, polygenic effects, and SNP or haplotype cluster effects. By combining results with both methods at moderate evidence of association threshold P < 5 × 10(-5), this genome-wide association study displayed 1 region for GM on the Equus caballus chromosome (ECA) 13, 2 for HM on ECA 3 and 14, and 1 for other on ECA 15. One region on ECA 3 for HM represented the most significant hit (P = 3 × 10(-6)). By comparing QTL between traits at a decreased threshold (P < 5 × 10(-4)), the 4 QTL detected for GM were associated to a QTL detected for FM or HM but never both. Another interesting result was that no QTL were found in common between HM and FM.
Journal of Animal Science 08/2011; 90(1):45-53. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thanatophoric dysplasia is a lethal chondrodysplasia caused by heterozygous fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) missense mutations. Mutations have been identified in several domains of the receptor. The most frequent mutations (p.R248C, p.S249C, p.Y373C) create a cysteine residue within the extracellular domain, whereas the others eliminate the termination codon (p.X807R, p.X807C, p.X807G, p.X807S, p.X807W). Here, we report a unique patient with thanatophoric dysplasia and a double de novo FGFR3 mutation, located on the same allele, (c.[1620C>A;1454A>G]), which corresponds to p.[N540K;Q485R]. The p.N540K mutation is associated with 60% of patients with hypochondroplasia and the p.Q485R mutation is a novel mutation located in a highly conserved domain of FGFRs. Evidence for the structural impact of the two concurrent missense mutations was achieved using protein alignments and three-dimensional structural prediction, in agreement with our modeling of the FGFR3 structure. In this patient with thanatophoric dysplasia, we conclude that the presence of the double FGFR3 missense mutation on the same allele alters the receptor structure, holding the receptor in its fully activated state, thus leading to lethal chondrodysplasia.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2009; 149A(6):1296-301. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endochondral ossification is the process by which the appendicular skeleton, facial bones, vertebrae and medial clavicles are formed and relies on the tight control of chondrocyte maturation. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3 plays a role in bone development and maintenance and belongs to a family of proteins which differ in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. Activating mutations of the FGFR3 gene lead to craniosynostosis and multiple types of skeletal dysplasia with varying degrees of severity: thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. Despite progress in the characterization of FGFR3-mediated regulation of cartilage development, many aspects remain unclear. The aim and the novelty of our study was to examine whole gene expression differences occurring in primary human chondrocytes isolated from normal cartilage or pathological cartilage from TD-affected fetuses, using Affymetrix technology. The phenotype of the primary cells was confirmed by the high expression of chondrocytic markers. Altered expression of genes associated with many cellular processes was observed, including cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle, cell adhesion, cell motility, metabolic pathways, signal transduction, cell cycle process and cell signaling. Most of the cell cycle process genes were down-regulated and consisted of genes involved in cell cycle progression, DNA biosynthesis, spindle dynamics and cytokinesis. About eight percent of all modulated genes were found to impact extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and turnover, especially glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and proteoglycan biosynthesis and sulfation. Altogether, the gene expression analyses provide new insight into the consequences of FGFR3 mutations in cell cycle regulation, onset of pre-hypertrophic differentiation and concomitant metabolism changes. Moreover, impaired motility and ECM properties may also provide clues about growth plate disorganization. These results also suggest that many signaling pathways may be directly or indirectly altered by FGFR3 and confirm the crucial role of FGFR3 in the control of growth plate development.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(10):e7633. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few goat genome analysis projects have been developed in the last 10 years. The aim of this review was to compile and update all available cytogenetic mapping data, according to the last goat chromosome nomenclature, as well as human and cattle whole genome sequences. In particular, human regions homologous to most of the FISH-mapped microsatellites were identified in silico. This new goat cytogenetic map made it possible to refine delineation of conserved segments relative to the human and cattle genomic sequence. These improvements did not lead to detection of major new rearrangements within ruminants but confirmed the good conservation of synteny and the numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements observed between goats and humans.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 01/2009; 126(1-2):77-85. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an extended river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50; BBU) cytogenetic map including 388 loci, of which 68 have been FISH-mapped on autosomes in the present study. Ovine and caprine BAC clones containing both type I loci (known genes) and type II loci (simple sequence repeats (SRs), microsatellite marker, sequence-tagged sites (STSs)), previously assigned to sheep chromosomes, have been localized on R-banded river buffalo chromosomes (BBU), which expands the cytogenetic map of this important domestic species and increases our knowledge of the physical organization of its genome. The loci mapped in the present study correspond to loci already localized on homoeologous cattle (and sheep) chromosomes and chromosome bands, further confirming the high degree of chromosome homoeologies among bovids. The comparison of the integrated cytogenetic maps of BBU2p/BBU10 and BBU5p/BBU16 with those of human chromosomes (HSA) 6 and 11, respectively, identified, at least, nine conserved chromosome segments in each case and complex rearrangements differentiating river buffalo (and cattle) and human chromosomes.
Chromosome Research 08/2008; 16(6):827-37. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although susceptibility to scrapie is largely controlled by the PRNP gene, we have searched for additional genomic regions that affect scrapie incubation time in sheep, using two half-sib families with a susceptible PRNP genotype and naturally infected by scrapie. Quantitative trait loci were detected on OAR6 and OAR18.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panels have been constructed for several species, including cattle. RH panels have proven to be an extremely powerful tool to construct high-density maps, which is an essential step in the identification of genes controlling important traits, and they can be used to establish high-resolution comparative maps. Although bovine RH panels can be used with ovine markers to construct sheep RH maps based on bovine genome organization, only some (c. 50%) of the markers available in sheep can be successfully mapped in the bovine genome. So, with the development of genomics and genome sequencing projects, there is a need for a high-resolution RH panel in sheep to map ovine markers. Consequently, we have constructed a 12 000-rad ovine whole-genome RH panel. Two hundred and eight hybrid clones were produced, of which 90 were selected based on their retention frequency. The final panel had an average marker retention frequency of 31.8%. The resolution of this 12 000-rad panel (SheepRH) was estimated by constructing an RH framework map for a 23-Mb region of sheep chromosome 18 (OAR18) that contains a QTL for scrapie susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presented herein is an updated sheep cytogenetic map that contains 452 loci (291 type I and 161 type II) assigned to specific chromosome bands or regions on standard R-banded ideograms. This map, which significantly extends our knowledge of the physical organization of the ovine genome, includes new assignments for 88 autosomal loci, including 74 type I loci (known genes) and 14 type II loci (SSRs/microsatellite marker/STSs), by FISH-mapping and R-banding. Comparison of the ovine map to the cattle and goat cytogenetic maps showed that common loci were located within homologous chromosomes and chromosome bands, confirming the high level of conservation of autosomes among ruminant species. Eleven loci that were FISH-mapped in sheep (B3GAT2, ASCC3, RARSL, BRD2, POLR1C, PPP2R5D, TNRC5, BAT2, BAT4, CDC5L and OLA-DRA) are unassigned in cattle and goat. Eleven other loci (D3S32, D1S86, BMS2621, SFXN5, D5S3, D5S68, CSKB1, D7S49, D9S15, D9S55 and D29S35) were assigned to specific ovine chromosome (OAR) bands but have only been assigned to chromosomes in cattle and goat.