[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For many high-dimensional studies, additional information on the variables,
like (genomic) annotation or external p-values, is available. In the context of
binary and continuous prediction, we develop a method for adaptive
group-regularized (logistic) ridge regression, which makes structural use of
such 'co-data'. Here, 'groups' refer to a partition of the variables according
to the co-data. We derive an empirical Bayes estimate of group-specific
penalties, which possesses several nice properties: i) it is analytical; ii) it
adapts to the informativeness of the co-data for the data at hand; iii) only
one global penalty parameter requires tuning by cross-validation. In addition,
the method allows use of multiple types of co-data at little extra
We show that the group-specific penalties may lead to a larger distinction
between 'near-zero' and relatively large regression parameters, which
facilitates post-hoc variable selection. The method, termed 'GRridge', is
implemented in an easy-to-use R-package. It is demonstrated on two cancer
genomics studies, which both concern the discrimination of precancerous
cervical lesions from normal cervix tissues using methylation microarray data.
For both examples, GRridge clearly improves the predictive performance of
ordinary ridge regression. In addition, we show that for the second study the
relatively good predictive performance is maintained when selecting only 35
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine which changes in the host cell genome are crucial for cervical carcinogenesis, alongitudinal in vitro model system of HPV-transformed keratinocytes was profiled in a genomewidemanner. Four cell lines affected with either HPV16 or HPV18 were assayed at 8 sequential timepoints for gene expression (mRNA) and gene copy number (DNA) using high-resolution microarrays.Available methods for temporal differential expression analysis are not designed for integrativegenomic studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylation markers were studied for their suitability to triage human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women by testing self-collected cervico-vaginal lavage specimens. For this purpose, we analyzed 355 hrHPV-positive self-collected specimens with three methylation markers, that is, CADM1-m18, MAL-m1 and miR-124-2 by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for end-point cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) were 0.637 for CADM1-m18, 0.767 for MAL-m1 and 0.762 for miR-124-2. This indicates that CADM1-m18 is not suitable as single marker. By varying the thresholds of both markers in the bi-marker panels CADM1-m18/MAL-m1, CADM1-m18/miR-124-2 and MAL-m1/miR-124-2 upper and lower ROC curves were obtained, depicting the maximum and minimum CIN3+ sensitivity, respectively, at given specificity. For all these bi-marker combinations, the upper curves were similar. However, for the MAL-m1/miR-124-2 panel, the distance between upper and lower ROC curves was closest and this panel displayed the highest assay thresholds, indicating that this combination was most robust. At clinical specificities of 50 and 70%, the MAL-m1/miR-124-2 sensitivity for detection of CIN3+ ranged from 77.0 to 87.8% and from 64.9 to 71.6%, respectively. At 70% specificity thresholds no carcinomas were missed. By comparison, the CIN3+ sensitivity of HPV16/18 genotyping on the self-sampled lavage specimens was 58.1% (95%CI: 46.6-68.8) at a specificity of 87.7% (95%CI: 83.2-91.2). In conclusion, methylation analysis is a promising triage tool that in combination with HPV-DNA testing offers feasible, full molecular screening on self-collected cervico-vaginal lavage specimens.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenetic role, including its target genes, of recurrent 3p12-p14 loss in cervical cancer has remains unclear. To determine the onset of the event during carcinogenesis, we used microarray techniques and found that the loss was the most frequent 3p event, occurring in 61% of 92 invasive carcinomas, in only 2% of 43 high-grade intraepithelial lesions (CIN2/3), and in 33% of 6 CIN3 lesions adjacent to invasive carcinomas, suggesting a role in acquisition of invasiveness or early during the invasive phase. We performed an integrative DNA copy number and expression analysis of 77 invasive carcinomas, where all genes within the recurrent region were included. We selected eight genes, THOC7, PSMD6, SLC25A26, TMF1, RYBP, SHQ1, EBLN2, and GBE1, which were highly downregulated in cases with loss, as confirmed at the protein level for RYBP and TMF1 by immunohistochemistry. The eight genes were subjected to network analysis based on the expression profiles, revealing interaction partners of proteins encoded by the genes that were coordinately regulated in tumors with loss. Several partners were shared among the eight genes, indicating crosstalk in their signaling. Gene ontology analysis showed enrichment of biological processes like apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response in the network and suggested a relationship between downregulation of the eight genes and activation of tumorigenic pathways. Survival analysis showed prognostic impact of the eight gene signature that was confirmed in a validation cohort of 74 patients and was independent of clinical markers. These results support the role of the eight candidate genes as targets of the 3p12-p14 loss in cervical cancer and suggest that the strong selection advantage of the loss during carcinogenesis might be caused by a synergetic effect of several tumorigenic processes controlled by these targets.
The Journal of Pathology 01/2013; · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is common and biologically relevant in cervical carcinogenesis and appears only partly related to chromosomal changes. We recently identified 34 miRNAs showing decreased expression in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinomas not associated with a chromosomal loss, 6 of which were located within a CpG island. This study aimed to investigate to what extent these miRNAs are subject to DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional repression in cervical carcinogenesis. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis on a cell line panel representing different stages of human papillomavirus (HPV) induced transformation revealed an increase in methylation of hsa-miR-149, -203 and -375 with progression to malignancy, whereas expression of these miRNAs was restored upon treatment with a demethylating agent. All three miRNAs showed significantly increased levels of methylation in cervical carcinomas, whereas methylation levels of hsa-miR-203 and -375 were also significantly increased in high-grade CIN. A pilot analysis showed that increased hsa-miR-203 methylation was also detectable in HPV-positive cervical scrapes of women with high-grade CIN compared with controls. Similar to recent findings on hsa-miR-375, ectopic expression of hsa-miR-203 in cervical cancer cells decreased both the proliferation rate and anchorage independent growth. We found evidence for methylation-mediated transcriptional repression of hsa-miR-149, -203 and -375 in cervical cancer. Methylation of the latter two was already apparent in precancerous lesions and represent functionally relevant events in HPV-mediated transformation. Increased hsa-miR-203 methylation was detectable in scrapes of women with high-grade CIN, indicating that methylated miRNAs may provide putative markers to assess the presence of (pre)cancerous lesions.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2013; 8(2). · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The process of occurrence of genomic aberrations over time in the genetic material of cancer cells reflects the progression of the cancer. Modern technologies like aCGH (array Comparative Genomic Hybridization) and MPS (Massive Parallel Sequencing) provide high-resolution measurements of DNA copy number aberrations, that reveal the full scale of genomic aberrations. A continuous time Markov chain model is proposed to describe the accumulation of aberrations over time. Time however is a latent variable (with the number of aberrations as a proxy). Integrating out time, yields the distribution of the observed DNA copy number data. The model parameters are estimated from high-dimensional DNA copy number data by means of penalized maximum pseudo- and likelihood and method of moments procedures. Having fitted the model, posterior time estimates of the advancement of each sample's cancer are obtained and the most likely locations of a sample's aberrations are predicted. The three estimation methods are compared in a simulation study. The paper closes with an application of the proposed methodology on cancer data.
Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology 01/2013; 12(2):143-74. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns during the consecutive stages of cervical cancer development and their association with chromosomal instability. In this study, miRNA expression in normal cervical squamous epithelium, high-grade precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3)), squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and adenocarcinomas (AdCAs) was integrated with previously generated chromosomal profiles of the same samples. Significantly differential expression during the consecutive stages of cervical SCC development was observed for 106 miRNAs. Of these differentially expressed miRNAs, 27 showed early transiently altered expression in CIN2-3 lesions only, 46 miRNAs showed late altered expression in SCCs only and 33 showed continuously altered expression in both CIN2-3 and SCCs. Altered expression of five significantly differentially expressed miRNAs, hsa-miR-9 (1q23.2), hsa-miR-15b (3q25.32), hsa-miR-28-5p (3q27.3), hsa-miR-100 and hsa-miR-125b (both 11q24.1), was directly linked to frequent chromosomal alterations. Functional analyses were performed for hsa-miR-9, representing a potential oncogene with increased expression linked to a chromosomal gain of 1q. Hsa-miR-9 overexpression was found to increase cell viability, anchorage-independent growth and migration in vitro. Upon organic raft culturing, hsa-miR-9 hampered differentiation and induced proliferation in all strata of the epithelial layer. These findings support a potential oncogenic function of hsa-miR-9 in cervical cancer. In summary, differential expression of 106 miRNAs, partly associated with chromosomal alterations, was observed during cervical SCC development. Altered expression of hsa-miR-9 associated with a chromosomal gain of chromosome 1q was shown to be functionally relevant, underlining the importance of deregulated miRNA expression in cervical carcinogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 February 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.20.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN2/3]) result from a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types and the accumulation of (epi)genetic host cell aberrations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated variable CIN2/3 and cancer risks between different hrHPV types. Recent genomic profiling studies revealed substantial heterogeneity in the chromosomal aberrations detected in morphologically indistinguishable CIN2/3 suggestive of varying cancer risk. The current study aimed to investigate whether CIN2/3 with different hrHPV types vary with respect to their chromosomal profiles, both in terms of the number of aberrations and chromosomal loci affected.
Chromosomal profiles were determined of 43 p16INK4a-immunopositive CIN2/3 of women with long-term hrHPV infection (≥ 5 years). Sixteen lesions harboured HPV16, 3 HPV18, 14 HPV31, 1 HPV33, 4 HPV45, 1 HPV51, 2 HPV52 and 2 HPV58.
Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the chromosomal profiles revealed two major clusters, characterised by either few or multiple chromosomal aberrations, respectively. A majority of 87.5% of lesions with HPV16 were in the cluster with relatively few aberrations, whereas no such unbalanced distribution was seen for lesions harbouring other hrHPV types. Analysis of the two most prevalent types (HPV16 and HPV31) in this data set revealed a three-fold increase in the number of losses in lesions with HPV31 compared to HPV16-positive lesions. In particular, losses at chromosomes 2q, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 8q & 17p and gain at 1p & 1q were significantly more frequent in HPV31-positive lesions (FDR < 0.2).
Chromosomal aberrations in CIN2/3 are at least in part related to the hrHPV type present. The relatively low number of chromosomal aberrations observed in HPV16-positive CIN2/3 suggests that the development of these lesions is less dependent on genetic insult than those caused by other types like HPV31.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) represents a heterogeneous disease both with respect to clinical behavior and chromosomal aberrations detected. We hypothesized that the extent of chromosomal aberrations reflects the duration of their existence. Chromosomal profiles were determined of CIN3 of women with a known 5-year history of high-risk human papillomavirus virus (hrHPV) infection, in which duration of prior hrHPV infection was considered a proxy for duration of CIN3 existence. Eleven women had a <5 year preceding hrHPV infection (CIN3<5yrPHI) and 24 had a PHI lasting ≥5 years (CIN3≥5yrPHI). For comparison, six CIN3 adjacent to squamous cell carcinomas (CIN3-SCC), the corresponding SCCs, and six CIN1 were included. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the chromosomal profiles revealed two clusters. One was characterized by a low number of chromosomal aberrations and included all CIN1, 81.8% of CIN3<5yrPHI and 33.3% of CIN3≥5yrPHI. Samples in the second cluster, displaying multiple aberrations, included 18.2% of CIN3<5yrPHI, 66.7% CIN3≥5yrPHI, all except one CIN3-SCC and all SCCs. The number of genomic aberrations increased according to lesion grade and also with longer duration of PHI. The increase in aberrations in CIN3≥5yrPHI compared to <5yrPHI was highly significant (p = 0.001), suggesting that CIN3≥5yrPHI represent more severe lesions. In conclusion, longer duration of preceding hrHPV infection is associated with an increased number of chromosomal aberrations. Hence, CIN3 with a longer duration of existence are likely more prone to have an increased short-term risk of cervical cancer.
International Journal of Cancer 10/2011; 131(4):E579-85. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) is a valid strategy for detecting premalignant endobronchial lesions. However, no biomarker can reliably predict lung cancer risk of subjects with AFB-visualized premalignant lesions.
The present study set out to identify AFB-visualized squamous metaplastic (SqM) lesions with malignant potential by DNA copy number profiling.
Regular AFB examinations in 474 subjects at risk of lung cancer identified six subjects with SqM lesions at baseline, and carcinoma in situ or carcinoma (carcinoma in situ or greater) at the initial SqM site at follow-up bronchoscopy. These progressive SqM lesions were compared for immunostaining pattern and array comparative genomic hybridization-based chromosomal profiles with 23 SqM lesions of subjects who remained cancer-free. Specific DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) linked to cancer risk were identified and accuracy of CNAs to predict endobronchial cancer in this series was determined.
At baseline, p53, p63, and Ki-67 immunostaining were not predictive for a differential clinical outcome of SqM lesions. The mean number of CNAs in baseline SqM of cases was significantly higher compared with control subjects (P < 0.01). Chromosomal regions significantly more frequently altered in SqM of cases were 3p26.3-p11.1, 3q26.2-q29, 9p13.3-p13.2, and 17p13.3-p11.2 (family-wise error rate <0.10). CNAs were specifically detected at the site of future cancer. In cases, baseline-detected CNAs persisted in subsequent biopsies taken from the initial site, and levels increased toward cancer progression. In this series, a model based on CNAs at 3p26.3-p11.1, 3q26.2-29, and 6p25.3-24.3 predicted cancer with 97% accuracy.
The data suggest that the presence of specific CNAs in SqM lesions predict endobronchial cancer.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2011; 184(8):948-56. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the lower specificity for high-grade cervical lesions of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing compared to cytology, additional triage testing for hrHPV test-positive women is needed to detect high-grade cervical lesions. Here, we tested whether combined methylation analysis for cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and T-lymphocyte maturation associated protein (MAL), both functionally involved in cervical carcinogenesis, could serve as such a triage marker. Four quantitative methylation-specific PCRs (qMSP), two for CADM1 (regions M12 and M18) and MAL (regions M1 and M2) each, were applied to 261 cervical tissue specimens ranging from no neoplasia to carcinoma. When qMSPs were combined and positivity for at least one of the qMSPs in the combination was taken into account, the highest positivity rates for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) lesions (97%) and squamous cell- and adeno-carcinomas (99%) were obtained by combining a single CADM1 marker with a single MAL marker. Subsequent qMSP analysis of 70 GP5+/6+-PCR hrHPV-positive scrapings revealed that a two-marker panel consisting of CADM1-M18 and MAL-M1 was most discriminative, detecting 90% of women with CIN3 (n = 30), whereas it showed a positive result in only 13.5% of women without cervical disease (n = 40). Finally, we applied hrHPV GP5+/6+-PCR testing followed by CADM1-M18/MAL-M1 methylation analysis to a cohort of 79 women visiting the outpatient colposcopy clinic. hrHPV testing revealed a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 33% for CIN3+. Additional CADM1-M18/MAL-M1 methylation analysis on the hrHPV-positive women increased the specificity to 78% with a sensitivity of 70%. In conclusion, the methylation marker panel CADM1-M18 and MAL-M1 may serve as an alternative molecular triage tool for hrHPV-positive women.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 129(9):2218 - 2225. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial number of microRNAs (miRNAs) is subject to epigenetic silencing in cancer. Although epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an important feature of cervical cancer, little is known about epigenetic silencing of miRNAs. Since DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 occurs in various human cancers, we studied the frequency and functional effects of hsa-miR-124 methylation in cervical carcinogenesis.
Quantitative MSP analysis of all 3 loci encoding the mature hsa-miR-124 (hsa-miR-124-1/-2/-3) showed methylation in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa, CaSki and HeLa as well as in late passages of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 immortalised keratinocytes. Treatment of SiHa cells with a demethylating agent reduced hsa-miR-124 methylation levels and induced hsa-miR-124 expression. In HPV-immortalised keratinocytes increased methylation levels were related to reduced hsa-miR-124 expression and higher mRNA expression of IGFBP7, a potential hsa-miR-124 target gene. Ectopic hsa-miR-124 expression in SiHa and CaSki cells decreased proliferation rates and migratory capacity. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 139 cervical tissue specimens showed an increasing methylation frequency from 0% in normal tissues up to 93% in cervical carcinomas. Increased methylation levels of hsa-miR-124-1 and hsa-miR-124-2 were significantly correlated with reduced hsa-miR-124 expression in cervical tissue specimens. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 43 cervical scrapes of high-risk HPV positive women was predictive of underlying high-grade lesions.
DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 is functionally involved in cervical carcinogenesis and may provide a valuable marker for improved detection of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions.
Molecular Cancer 01/2010; 9:167. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified MAL (T-lymphocyte maturation associated protein) as the most down-regulated gene in cervical oncogenesis. Here, we examined the mechanism underlying MAL silencing, its functional role in cervical carcinogenesis, and the relevance of detecting MAL alterations for risk assessment of hrHPV-positive women. MAL mRNA expression and promoter methylation were analysed in primary keratinocytes, hrHPV-immortalized keratinocytes, cervical cancer cell lines, biopsies, and scrapings by quantitative (methylation-specific) PCR. SiHa cells were transfected with MAL cDNA and assayed for proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. MAL mRNA was (nearly) undetectable in all HPV-immortalized and cervical cancer cells, but could be up-regulated upon methylation inhibition. MAL promoter methylation at two promoter regions (M1 and M2) was detected in all HPV-immortalized cells and cancer cells. Ectopic expression of MAL in SiHa cells suppressed proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. None (0/22) of normal cervical biopsies, 9% (6/66) of CIN1 lesions, 53% (34/64) of CIN3 lesions, 90% (85/94) of cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and 93% (26/28) of cervical adenocarcinomas (AdCAs) demonstrated MAL promoter methylation at both promoter regions. Moreover, detection of MAL promoter methylation in cervical scrapings was predictive for underlying high-grade lesions. Both in biopsies and in scrapings, MAL promoter methylation was significantly correlated with reduced mRNA expression. MAL gene silencing by promoter methylation is a frequent and biologically essential event in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. Hence, MAL promoter methylation and/or mRNA expression analysis on cervical scrapings may provide a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection of CIN3, SCC, and AdCA.
The Journal of Pathology 07/2009; 219(3):327-36. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer develops from precancerous high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) harboring a transforming infection with high-risk human papillomavirus, which is characterized by p16(INK4a) overexpression. Once such a lesion has developed, progression toward an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may take one or more decades, underlining the heterogeneity of these lesions in terms of duration of existence and progression risk. We performed array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) on 46 p16(INK4a) immunopositive CIN2/3 lesions to determine whether this heterogeneity is reflected in their chromosomal profiles. Chromosomal profiles of CIN2/3 lesions were related to those of invasive cervical SCC and promoter methylation of CADM1, a tumor suppressor gene known to be functionally involved in the tumorigenic phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Frequent alterations found in CIN2/3 lesions included gains located at chromosome 1, 3, 7, and 20 and losses located at 4, 11, 16, 17, and 19. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two subsets of CIN2/3 lesions, chromosomal profiles of one of which closely resembled invasive SCCs. Gains of 1, 3q, and 20 were characteristic for CIN2/3 lesions with chromosomal signatures resembling carcinomas. In addition, dense promoter methylation of the CADM1 gene was significantly more frequent in these CIN2/3 lesions (P = 0.004). No chromosomal alterations were detected in six CIN1 lesions, five of which were completely p16(INK4a) immunonegative. These findings suggest that biomarkers associated with gains at chromosomes 1, 3q, and 20 are potential hallmarks of advanced p16(INK4a)-positive CIN2/3 lesions with a high short-term risk of progression.
Cancer Research 02/2009; 69(2):647-55. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is causally involved in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix (CxSCCs) and a subset of SCCs of the head and neck (HNSCCs). The latter differ from hrHPV-negative HNSCCs at the clinical and molecular level.
To determine whether hrHPV-associated SCCs arising from different organs have specific chromosomal alterations in common, we compared genome-wide chromosomal profiles of 10 CxSCCs (all hrHPV-positive) with 12 hrHPV-positive HNSCCs and 30 hrHPV-negative HNSCCs. Potential organ-specific alterations and alterations shared by SCCs in general were investigated as well.
Unsupervised hierarchical clustering resulted in one mainly hrHPV-positive and one mainly hrHPV-negative cluster. Interestingly, loss at 13q and gain at 20q were frequent in HPV-positive carcinomas of both origins, but uncommon in hrHPV-negative HNSCCs, indicating that these alterations are associated with hrHPV-mediated carcinogenesis. Within the group of hrHPV-positive carcinomas, HNSCCs more frequently showed gains of multiple regions at 8q whereas CxSCCs more often showed loss at 17p. Finally, gains at 3q24-29 and losses at 11q22.3-25 were frequent (>50%) in all sample groups.
In this study hrHPV-specific, organ-specific, and pan-SCC chromosomal alterations were identified. The existence of hrHPV-specific alterations in SCCs of different anatomical origin, suggests that these alterations are crucial for hrHPV-mediated carcinogenesis.
BMC Medical Genomics 01/2009; 2:32. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that silencing of TSLC1, recently renamed CADM1, is functionally involved in high-risk HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. CADM1 silencing often results from promoter methylation. Here, we determined the extent of CADM1 promoter methylation in cervical (pre)malignant lesions and its relation to anchorage-independent growth and gene silencing to select a CADM1-based methylation marker for identification of women at risk of cervical cancer. Methylation-specific PCRs targeting three regions within the CADM1 promoter were performed on high-risk HPV-containing cell lines, PBMCs, normal cervical smears, and (pre)malignant lesions. CADM1 protein expression in cervical tissues was analysed by immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Density of methylation was associated with the degree of anchorage-independent growth and CADM1 gene silencing in vitro. In cervical squamous lesions, methylation frequency and density increased with severity of disease. Dense methylation (defined as >or= 2 methylated regions) increased from 5% in normal cervical samples to 30% in CIN3 lesions and 83% in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and was significantly associated with decreased CADM1 protein expression (p < 0.00005). The frequency of dense methylation was significantly higher in >or= CIN3 compared with <or= CIN1 (p = 0.005), as well as in SCCs compared with adenocarcinomas (83% versus 23%; p = 0.002). Detection of dense CADM1 promoter methylation will contribute to the assembly of a valuable marker panel for the triage of high-risk HPV-positive women at risk of >or= CIN3.
The Journal of Pathology 08/2008; 215(4):388-97. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a better understanding of the consequences of recurrent chromosomal alterations in cervical carcinomas, we integrated genome-wide chromosomal and transcriptional profiles of 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 5 adenocarcinomas (AdCAs) and 6 normal controls. Previous genomic profiling showed that gains at chromosome arms 1q, 3q, and 20q as well as losses at 8q, 10q, 11q, and 13q were common in cervical carcinomas. Altered regions spanned multiple megabases, and the extent to which expression of genes located there is affected remains unclear. Expression analysis of these previously chromosomally profiled carcinomas yielded 83 genes with significantly differential expression between carcinomas and normal epithelium. Application of differential gene locus mapping (DIGMAP) analysis and the array CGH expression integration tool (ACE-it) identified hotspots within large chromosomal alterations in which gene expression was altered as well. Chromosomal gains of the long arms of chromosome 1, 3, and 20 resulted in increased expression of genes located at 1q32.1-32.2, 3q13.32-23, 3q26.32-27.3, and 20q11.21-13.33, whereas a chromosomal loss of 11q22.3-25 was related to decreased expression of genes located in this region. Overexpression of DTX3L, PIK3R4, ATP2C1, and SLC25A36, all located at 3q21.1-23 and identified by DIGMAP, ACE-it or both, was confirmed in an independent validation sample set consisting of 12 SCCs and 13 normal ectocervical samples. In conclusion, integrated chromosomal and transcriptional profiling identified chromosomal hotspots at 1q, 3q, 11q, and 20q with altered gene expression within large commonly altered chromosomal regions in cervical cancer.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 08/2008; 47(10):890-905. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a major role in the development of cervical cancer, additive oncogenic events are involved as well. One key event involves increased activity of telomerase resulting from a deregulated expression of its catalytic subunit hTERT. Our previous microcell-mediated chromosome transfer studies revealed that introduction of human chromosome 6 in the HPV16-immortalized keratinocyte cell line FK16A and in the HPV16-containing cervical cancer cell line SiHa induced growth arrest, resulting from a repression of hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity. Here, this model was used to analyze expression profiles associated with hTERT deregulation in HPV-transformed cells. Microarray expression analysis of 12 FK16A/chromosome 6 hybrids, 4 of which were negative for endogenous hTERT and 8 of which were positive for endogenous hTERT, resulted in the identification of 164 differentially expressed genes. Differential expression of a selection of 5 genes was verified by real-time RT-PCR. Of these 164 genes, 32 were also differentially expressed in other HPV transformed cells with deregulated hTERT. For 2 of these genes, encoding AQP3 and MGP, altered expression in hTERT positive cervical carcinomas was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Moreover, increased MGP protein expression was significantly more frequent in high-grade cervical premalignant lesions with elevated hTERT mRNA expression compared to those without. In summary, we identified 32 candidate biomarkers for deregulated hTERT mRNA expression, which may enable the identification of cervical premalignant lesions that are at highest risk to progress to invasive cancer.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2008; 122(4):877-88. · 6.20 Impact Factor