Steven P Howard

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, MS, United States

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Publications (34)151.03 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Outcomes after bevacizumab failure for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) are poor. Our analysis of 16 phase II trials (n = 995) revealed a median overall survival (OS) of 3.8 months (±1.0 month SD) after bevacizumab failure with no discernible activity of salvage chemotherapy. Thus, the optimal treatment for disease progression after bevacizumab has yet to be elucidated. This study evaluated the efficacy of reirradiation for patients with GBM after progression on bevacizumab. An IRB approved retrospective (2/2008-5/2013) analysis was performed of 23 patients with recurrent GBM (after standard radiotherapy/temozolomide) treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks until progression (median age 53 years; median KPS 80; median progression free survival on bevacizumab 3.7 months). Within 7-14 days of progression on bevacizumab, patients initiated reirradiation to a dose of 54 Gy in 27 fractions using pulsed-reduced dose rate (PRDR) radiotherapy. The median planning target volume was 424 cm(3). At the start of reirradiation, bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) was given every 4 weeks for two additional cycles. The median OS and 6 month OS after bevacizumab failure was 6.9 months and 65 %, respectively. Reirradiation was well tolerated with no symptomatic grade 3-4 toxicities. Favorable outcomes of reirradiation after bevacizumab failure in patients with recurrent GBM suggest its role as a treatment option for large volume recurrences not amenable to stereotactic radiosurgery. As PRDR is easily accomplished from a technological standpoint, we are in the process of expanding this approach to a multi-institutional cooperative group trial.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 01/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Neuro-Oncology 11/2013; 15(Supp 3). · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This retrospective analysis evaluates feasibility of wide-field re-irradiation using pulsed reduced dose rate (PRDR) technique in patients with recurrent ependymoma. PRDR employs a dose rate of 6 cGy/min, as opposed to 400-600 cGy/min for conventional radiation, allowing for enhanced normal tissue repair. Five patients with recurrent ependymoma having eight lesions (two brain, six spinal cord) were treated with PRDR. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan Meier method. The median interval between two radiation courses was 58 months (range: 32-212 months). The median PRDR dose was 40 Gy (range: 30.6-54 Gy) with a median cumulative lifetime dose of 105.2 Gy (range: 90-162.4 Gy). At a median post-PRDR follow-up of 64 months, estimated 4-year OS and PFS from PRDR was 60% and 35.7%, respectively. None of the patients developed necrosis on serial magnetic resonance imaging scans, and only one patient had progressive mild radiculopathy. In patients with large-volume recurrent ependymoma, re-irradiation with wide-field PRDR is a feasible option.
    Anticancer research 06/2013; 33(6):2611-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Standard of care includes maximal resection followed by chemoradiotherapy. Tumors need adequate perfusion and neovascularization to maintain oxygenation and for removal of wastes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well characterized pro-angiogenic factor. We hypothesized that the increases in urinary VEGF levels would occur early in the course of tumor recurrence or progression. We examine the feasibility of collecting and analyzing urinary VEGF levels in a prospective, multi-institutional trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, RTOG, 0611) as well as the role of VEGF as a marker of tumor recurrence. We evaluated VEGF levels in urine specimens collected post-operatively, at the conclusion of radiation therapy (RT) and one month following RT. Urinary VEGF levels were correlated with tumor progression at one year. VEGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in urine specimens and normalized to urinary creatinine levels. Sample size was determined based on a 50% 1-year recurrence rate. With a sensitivity and specificity of 80%, the expected 95% confidence interval was (0.69, 0.91) with 100 patients. A failure was defined as documented disease progression, recurrence or death before one year. 202 patients were enrolled between February-2006 and October-2007. Four patients were ineligible as they did not receive RT. Of the remaining 198 patients, 128 had all three samples collected. In this group, 35 patients (27.3%) did not progress, 89 (69.5%) had progression and 4 (3.1%) died without evidence of progression. Median VEGF levels at baseline were 52.9 pg/mg Cr (range 0.2- 15,034.4); on the last day of RT, 56.6 (range 0-2,377.1); and at one month follow-up, 70.0 (range 0.1-1813.2). In patients without progression at 1-year, both baseline VEGF level and end of RT VEGF level were lower than those of patients who progressed: 40.3 (range 0.2-350.8) vs. 59.7 (range 1.3-15,034.4) and 41.8 (range 0-356.8) vs. 69.7 (range 0-2,377.1), respectively. This did not reach statistical significance. Comparison of the change in VEGF levels between the end of RT and one month following RT, demonstrated no significant difference in the proportions of progressors or non-progressors at 1-year for either the VEGF increased or VEGF decreased groups. Urine can be collected and analyzed in a prospective, multi-institutional trial. In this study of patients with GBM a change in urinary VEGF levels between the last day of RT and the one month following RT did not predict for tumor progression by one year.
    Biomarker research. 01/2013; 1(1):29.
  • Neuro-Oncology 11/2011; 13:128. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulsed reduced-dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR) is a reirradiation technique that reduces the effective dose rate and increases the treatment time, allowing sublethal damage repair during irradiation. A total of 103 patients with recurrent glioma underwent reirradiation using PRDR (86 considered to have Grade 4 at PRDR). PRDR was delivered using a series of 0.2-Gy pulses at 3-min intervals, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667 Gy/min to a median dose of 50 Gy (range, 20-60) delivered in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. The mean treatment volume was 403.5±189.4 cm3 according to T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a 2-cm margin. For the initial or upgraded Grade 4 cohort (n=86), the median interval from the first irradiation to PRDR was 14 months. Patients undergoing PRDR within 14 months of the first irradiation (n=43) had a median survival of 21 weeks. Those treated ≥14 months after radiotherapy had a median survival of 28 weeks (n=43; p=0.004 and HR=1.82 with a 95% CI ranging from 1.25 to 3.10). These data compared favorably to historical data sets, because only 16% of the patients were treated at first relapse (with 46% treated at the second relapse, 32% at the third or fourth relapse, and 4% at the fourth or fifth relapse). The median survival since diagnosis and retreatment was 6.3 years and 11.4 months for low-grade, 4.1 years and 5.6 months for Grade 3, and 1.6 years and 5.1 months for Grade 4 tumors, respectively, according to the initial histologic findings. Multivariate analysis revealed age at the initial diagnosis, initial low-grade disease, and Karnofsky performance score of ≥80 to be significant predictors of survival after initiation of PRDR. PRDR allowed for safe retreatment of larger volumes to high doses with palliative benefit.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2011; 79(3):835-41. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2011; 81(2).
  • Yi Rong, Bhudatt Paliwal, Steven P Howard, James Welsh
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    ABSTRACT: Pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR) is a valuable method of reirradiation because of its potential to reduce late normal tissue toxicity while still yielding significant tumoricidal effect. A typical method using a conventional linear accelerator (linac) is to deliver a series of 20-cGy pulses separated by 3-min intervals to give an effective dose-rate of just under 7 cGy/min. Such a strategy is fraught with difficulties when attempted on a helical tomotherapy unit. We investigated various means to overcome this limitation. Phantom and patient cases were studied. Plans were generated with varying combinations of field width (FW), pitch, and modulation factor (MF) to administer 200 cGy per fraction to the planning target in eight subfractions, thereby mimicking the technique used on conventional linacs. Plans were compared using dose-volume histograms, homogeneity indices, conformation numbers, and treatment time. Plan delivery quality assurance was performed to assess deliverability. It was observed that for helical tomotherapy, intrinsic limitations in leaf open time in the multileaf collimator deteriorate plan quality and deliverability substantially when attempting to deliver very low doses such as 20-40 cGy. The various permutations evaluated revealed that the combination of small FW (1.0 cm), small MF (1.3-1.5), and large pitch (∼0.86), along with the half-gantry-angle-blocked scheme, can generate clinically acceptable plans with acceptable delivery accuracy (±3%). Pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy can be accurately delivered using helical tomotherapy for tumor reirradiation when the appropriate combination of FW, MF, and pitch is used.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2010; 79(3):934-42. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulsed Reduced Dose Rate (PRDR) is a method of irradiation designed to minimize radiation-related toxicities in patients undergoing reirradiation for loco-regional reoccurrence of glioblastoma. PRDR delivers a standard 2 Gy fraction delivered on a conventional medical linear accelerator using conventional 3D conformal beam arrangements. To reduce the likelihood of normal tissue complications, radiation is delivered over ten 0.2 Gy sub-fractions with a 3 minute time interval between subfractions to give a maximal time averaged dose rate of 4 Gy/hr. However, a TomoTherapy unit has a fixed output rate of 8 Gy/min. If the dose per fraction is conventionally planned at less than 0.6 Gy/fraction, the result is a clinically unacceptable treatment plan. The method described in this paper involves a virtual grid style blocking scheme, where half of the beam angles are directionally blocked using 15 equally spaced segments surrounding the center of the image set. Ten patients treated using conventional PRDR with an average PTV volume of 353.3 ml were retrospectively re-planned using five techniques (standard 2 Gy fraction, 2 Gy in ten 0.2 Gy fractions without grid blocking, two grid patterns, and a combination plan incorporating both grids) and analyzed with conformation numbers (CN), homogeneity indexes (HI), and dose volumes to normal tissues. Plans were optimized using equal constraints and machine parameters. The grid method allowed for clinically acceptable treatment plans at 0.2 Gy with a treatment time < or = 3 min per subfraction. The average HI was slightly poorer for the combination plan versus the standard 2 Gy fraction plan (0.064 versus 0.027) and the CN was similar over all techniques (0.72 - 0.73) employed. Normal tissue dose volumes for each patient were also similar for each technique. Initial ion chamber measurements agree with predicted values for a 0.2 Gy subfraction. PRDR is deliverable on a TomoTherapy system using our virtual directional blocking method. Results can be slightly improved through the use of two grids alternated on a daily basis. The dose to normal structures for individual patients was similar for all methods.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 08/2010; 9(4):399-406. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Y Rong, S Howard, B Paliwal, J Welsh
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose/Background: Pulsed reduced dose‐rate radiotherapy (PRDR) re‐irradiation has the potential to reduce late normal tissue toxicity while yielding nearly identical tumoricidal effect. A typical method using a conventional linac is to deliver a series of 20cGy pulses separated by 3‐minute intervals to give an average dose‐rate of 6.67cGy/min. Dissimilarly, PRDR done via helical tomotherapy would not require an interlude if the sub‐fraction time is approximately 3 minutes, since the top of the PTV will have had a 3‐minute “rest” by the time the bottom is finished. However, intrinsic MLC leaf open time (LOT) limitations in tomotherapy deteriorate plan quality and deliverability when attempting to deliver very low doses (<40cGy). We investigated various means to overcome this limitation to deliver PRDR with a helical tomotherapy device. Method and Materials: Two different cases (central and non‐central targets) were studied. Plans were generated with different combinations of jaw‐width (1.05cm and 2.5cm), pitch (0.43 and 0.86), and modulation factor (MF) (1.5 and 2.5) to administer eight 25cGy sub‐fractions as part of 2Gy to PTV for 20 fractions, giving a total of 40Gy dose. Plans were compared using dose‐volume histogram (DVH), homogeneity indexes (HI), conformation number (CN), and treatment time. DQA for each plan was performed to assess deliverability. Results: Clinically acceptable DVHs with a ∼3 minute treatment duration are achievable with several combinations of jaw width and pitch. However, dose discrepancies were >3% in those plans where average LOT is <70msec, which falls into the high‐error region in the MLC latency curve. The combination of small jaw‐width (1cm), low MF (1.5) and large pitch (0.86), as well as using directional blocks gives clinically acceptable results in dose distribution, beam‐on time, and delivery accuracy (<3%). Conclusion: With a careful selection of planning parameters, PRDR re‐irradiation is deliverable in an efficient fashion on a tomotherapy unit.
    Medical Physics 05/2009; 36(6):2710-2710. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Reirradiation of breast cancer locoregional recurrence (LRR) in the setting of prior post-mastectomy radiation poses a significant clinical challenge due to the high risk for severe toxicity. In an attempt to reduce these toxicities, we have developed pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR), a reirradiation technique in which a series of 0.2Gy pulses separated by 3-min time intervals is delivered, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667Gy/min. Here we describe our early experience with PRDR. Patients and methods We reirradiated 17 patients with LRR breast cancer to the chest wall, axilla, or supraclavicular region using PRDR. The median prior radiation dose was 60Gy. We delivered a median PRDR dose of 54Gy (range 40–66Gy) in 1.8–2.0Gy per fraction. Eight patients received concomitant low dose capecitabine for radiosensitization. The median treatment volume was 2,084cm3 (range 843–7,881cm3). Results At a median follow-up of 18months (range 4–75months) only 2 patients have had tumor failure in the treatment region. Estimated 2-year local control rate is 92%. Treatment was well tolerated with 4 patients experiencing grade 3 acute skin toxicity. Despite a median cumulative dose of 110Gy (range 80–236Gy), there has been only one grade 3 and one grade 4 late toxicity. Conclusions With a median follow-up of 18months, PRDR appears to be an effective method to reirradiate large volumes of previously irradiated tissue in selected patients with locoregional chest wall, axilla, and supraclavicular recurrences.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2009; 114(2):307-313. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Jarrod B Adkison, Bruce Thomadsen, Steven P Howard
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    ABSTRACT: After contaminated radioactive linens were detected on the completion of intracranial brachytherapy for a patient episodically incontinent of urine, the systemic absorption of iodine 125 from the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System was studied. Diffusion and leakage of (125)I through the walls of the GliaSite balloon catheter have previously been reported to be negligible in both animal and human studies examining the radioactivity of urine during and after treatment. Our study estimated total systemic absorption based on activity defect measurements rather than using urinary excretion as a surrogate. Six patients treated with complete data were reviewed. The activity at the time of injection was compared to the activity recovered on completion of treatment after adjustment for decay. By comparing the activity of (125)I infused with the activity recovered, 0.5-5.5% of infused (125)I remained unaccounted after adjusting for decay over the 4-day treatment period. The patient with contaminated hospital linens due to urinary incontinence had unaccounted activity of 2.3%. Comparisons of the volume of liquid (125)I and saline removed on completion to treatment to the volume originally instilled revealed no difference using hand-held syringes. The systemic absorption of (125)I is much greater than previously appreciated with potential clinical sequelae and safety concerns. GliaSite should be used with caution in patients incontinent of urine, and a Foley catheter should be placed to collect contaminated urine for incontinent patients.
    Brachytherapy 01/2008; 7(1):43-6. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The initial management of malignant gliomas is multimodality in nature, consisting of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, once progression has occurred, treatment options are limited both in terms of selection and efficacy. We report a case of a 37 year-old male diagnosed with a Grade II astrocytoma initially treated with surgery and external beam radiation therapy consisting of 54 Gy delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions that subsequently progressed to a Grade IV astrocytoma. This was managed with temozolomide chemotherapy until the patient exhibited further progression. Although the patient had received prior full dose radiotherapy, he was re-treated with external beam radiotherapy delivered at a substantially reduced dose-rate. This reduction in dose-rate is obtained by delivering treatment in a series of 0.2 Gy pulses separated by 3 min time intervals, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667 Gy/min. The region of recurrence was treated to a dose of 50 Gy delivered using 25 daily fractions of 2.0 Gy. The patient had both a radiographic response and clinical improvement following re-irradiation using pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy with no apparent acute or late neurologic toxicities at a time when other treatment options were not available. Despite delivering 104 Gy to the tumor bed and the surrounding brain parenchyma, at no time was there radiographic evidence of radiation-induced normal tissue necrosis. The radiobiologic basis for the use of pulsed reduced dose-rate external beam radiotherapy in the management of recurrent glioma patients is discussed.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 08/2007; 83(3):307-11. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    W A Tomé, S P Howard
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    ABSTRACT: Using modelling, we have developed a treatment strategy for gliomas exhibiting low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) that employs both a reduced dose-rate and pulsed treatment dose delivery. The model exploits the low dose hypersensitivity observed in some glioma cell lines at low radiation doses. We show, based on in vitro data, that a pulsed delivery of external beam radiation therapy could yield significant increases in local control. We therefore propose a pulsed delivery scheme for the treatment of gliomas in which the daily treatment fraction is delivered using 0.20 Gy pulses, separated by three minutes for a time-averaged dose-rate of 0.0667 Gy/min. The dose per pulse of 0.2 Gy is near or below the transition dose observed in vitro for four of the five glioma cell lines we have studied. Using five established glioma cell lines our modelling demonstrates that our pulsed delivery scheme yields a substantial increase in tumour control probability (TCP).
    The British journal of radiology 02/2007; 80(949):32-7. · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2007; 69(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The initial management of malignant gliomas is multimodality in nature, consisting of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, once progression has occurred, treatment options are limited both in terms of selection and efficacy. We report a case of a 37year-old male diagnosed with a Grade II astrocytoma initially treated with surgery and external beam radiation therapy consisting of 54Gy delivered in 1.8Gy fractions that subsequently progressed to a Grade IV astrocytoma. This was managed with temozolomide chemotherapy until the patient exhibited further progression. Although the patient had received prior full dose radiotherapy, he was re-treated with external beam radiotherapy delivered at a substantially reduced dose-rate. This reduction in dose-rate is obtained by delivering treatment in a series of 0.2Gy pulses separated by 3min time intervals, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667Gy/min. The region of recurrence was treated to a dose of 50Gy delivered using 25 daily fractions of 2.0Gy. The patient had both a radiographic response and clinical improvement following re-irradiation using pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy with no apparent acute or late neurologic toxicities at a time when other treatment options were not available. Despite delivering 104Gy to the tumor bed and the surrounding brain parenchyma, at no time was there radiographic evidence of radiation-induced normal tissue necrosis. The radiobiologic basis for the use of pulsed reduced dose-rate external beam radiotherapy in the management of recurrent glioma patients is discussed.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 01/2007; 83(3):307-311. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present preclinical data showing the in vitro intranuclear uptake of motexafin gadolinium by glioblastoma multiforme cells, which could serve as a prelude to the future development of radiosensitizing techniques, such as gadolinium synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (GdSSR), a new putative treatment for glioblastoma multiforme. In this approach, administration of a tumor-seeking Gd-containing compound would be followed by stereotactic external beam radiotherapy with 51-keV photons from a synchrotron source. At least two criteria must be satisfied before this therapy can be established: Gd must accumulate in cancer cells and spare the normal tissue; Gd must be present in almost all the cancer cell nuclei. We address the in vitro intranuclear uptake of motexafin gadolinium in this article. We analyzed the Gd distribution with subcellular resolution in four human glioblastoma cell lines, using three independent methods: two novel synchrotron spectromicroscopic techniques and one confocal microscopy. We present in vitro evidence that the majority of the cell nuclei take up motexafin gadolinium, a drug that is known to selectively reach glioblastoma multiforme. With all three methods, we found Gd in at least 90% of the cell nuclei. The results are highly reproducible across different cell lines. The present data provide evidence for further studies, with the goal of developing GdSSR, a process that will require further in vivo animal and future clinical studies.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2006; 12(1):206-13. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is a potential treatment for malignant tumors based on two steps: (1) injection of a tumor-specific (157)Gd compound; (2) tumor irradiation with thermal neutrons. The GdNC reaction can induce cell death provided that Gd is proximate to DNA. Here, we studied the nuclear uptake of Gd by glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells after treatment with two Gd compounds commonly used for magnetic resonance imaging, to evaluate their potential as GdNCT agents. Using synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy, we analyzed the Gd distribution at the subcellular level in: (1) human cultured GBM cells exposed to Gd-DTPA or Gd-DOTA for 0-72 hours; (2) intracerebrally implanted C6 glioma tumors in rats injected with one or two doses of Gd-DOTA, and (3) tumor samples from GBM patients injected with Gd-DTPA. In cell cultures, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA were found in 84% and 56% of the cell nuclei, respectively. In rat tumors, Gd penetrated the nuclei of 47% and 85% of the tumor cells, after single and double injection of Gd-DOTA, respectively. In contrast, in human GBM tumors 6.1% of the cell nuclei contained Gd-DTPA. Efficacy of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA as GdNCT agents is predicted to be low, due to the insufficient number of tumor cell nuclei incorporating Gd. Although multiple administration schedules in vivo might induce Gd penetration into more tumor cell nuclei, a search for new Gd compounds with higher nuclear affinity is warranted before planning GdNCT in animal models or clinical trials.
    Neurological Research 07/2005; 27(4):387-98. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) represents a significant technological advancement in the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy. Thanks to increased availability, general clinical implementation has become progressively more common. However, there are several precautions worthy of comment regarding the clinical applications of IMRT. In theory, the increased irradiated volume and leakage radiation that occasionally accompanies IMRT could contribute to unanticipated complications and safety concerns. The protracted delivery time of IMRT with the associated increased linac monitor units can result in photoactivation of elements within the linac collimator, thereby inadvertently increasing radiation exposure to patients and staff when high-energy photons are used. The increased volumes of normal tissue exposed to lower doses of radiation through IMRT theoretically could promote carcinogenesis and complications due to the bystander effect, low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity, and diminished repair of double strand DNA breaks at very low doses. Tumor control may be adversely affected by the lower radiation dose-rates of delivery sometimes associated with IMRT as well the occasionally seen low dose "cold shoulder" on the dose-volume histograms. Unusual clinical reactions can appear as a result of the complex, unfamiliar dose-distributions occasionally generated by IMRT treatment planning. Here we discuss some of the precautions worthy of consideration when using IMRT and how these might be addressed in routine practice.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 05/2005; 4(2):203-10. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of pelvic lymphoma with an elevated serum CA-125 level, initially misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma. A review of the literature is presented and a possible mechanism for CA-125 elevation in diseases other than ovarian cancer is discussed. A 50-year-old woman presented with symptoms of progressive dyspnea, early satiety, fatigue, and weight loss. Workup revealed a pelvic mass and an elevated CA-125 level. Paclitaxel and carboplatin were administered to facilitate therapy and provide symptomatic relief for a presumed bulky ovarian carcinoma. A biopsy was obtained after the initiation of chemotherapy, yielding the diagnosis of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, stage II-B. A regimen of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone followed by radiotherapy resulted in long-term disease remission. A search of the literature revealed several clinical series describing the elevation of CA-125 in a variety of diseases, both benign and malignant. In the setting of a newly diagnosed pelvic mass, care should be taken when interpreting an elevated CA-125 level. While ovarian cancer is high on the list of differential diagnoses, lymphoma cannot be excluded until a tissue diagnosis is obtained.
    Gynecologic Oncology 10/2004; 94(3):811-3. · 3.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

350 Citations
151.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Human Oncology
      Madison, MS, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States