L A Stevenson

University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States

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Publications (20)113.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 25(44).
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis is the source of at least seventy phytocannabinoids. The pharmacology of most of these has been little investigated, three notable exceptions being Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin. This investigation addressed the question of whether the little-studied phytocannabinoid, cannabigerol, can activate or block any G protein-coupled receptor. Experimental The [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay, performed with mouse brain membranes, was used to test the ability of cannabigerol to produce G protein-coupled receptor activation or blockade. Its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from mouse CB(1) and human CB(2) cannabinoid receptors and to inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens was also investigated. In the brain membrane experiments, cannabigerol behaved as a potent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (EC(50)= 0.2 nM) and antagonized the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, R-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (apparent K(B)= 51.9 nM). At 10 microM, it also behaved as a CB(1) receptor competitive antagonist. Additionally, cannabigerol inhibited evoked contractions of the vas deferens in a manner that appeared to be alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated (EC(50)= 72.8 nM) and displayed significant affinity for mouse CB(1) and human CB(2) receptors. This investigation has provided the first evidence that cannabigerol can activate alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, bind to cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and block CB(1) and 5-HT(1A) receptors. It will now be important to investigate why cannabigerol produced signs of agonism more potently in the [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay than in the vas deferens and also whether it can inhibit noradrenaline uptake in this isolated tissue and in the brain.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2009; 159(1):129-41. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have tested our prediction that AM630 is a CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligand and also investigated whether L759633 and L759656, are CB2 receptor agonists.Binding assays with membranes from CHO cells stably transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors using [3H]-CP55940, confirmed the CB2-selectivity of L759633 and L759656 (CB2/CB1 affinity ratios=163 and 414 respectively) and showed AM630 to have a Ki at CB2 receptors of 31.2 nM and a CB2/CB1 affinity ratio of 165.In CB2-transfected cells, L759633 and L759656 were potent inhibitors of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with EC50 values of 8.1 and 3.1 nM respectively and CB1/CB2 EC50 ratios of >1000 and >3000 respectively.AM630 inhibited [35S]-GTPγS binding to CB2 receptor membranes (EC50=76.6 nM), enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB2-transfected cells (5.2 fold by 1 μM), and antagonized the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in this cell line induced by CP55940.In CB1-transfected cells, forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was significantly inhibited by AM630 (22.6% at 1 μM and 45.9% at 10 μM) and by L759633 at 10 μM (48%) but not 1 μM. L759656 (10 μM) was not inhibitory. AM630 also produced a slight decrease in the mean inhibitory effect of CP55940 on cyclic AMP production which was not statistically significant.We conclude that AM630 is a CB2-selective ligand that behaves as an inverse agonist at CB2 receptors and as a weak partial agonist at CB1 receptors. L759633 and L759656 are both potent CB2-selective agonists.British Journal of Pharmacology (1999) 126, 665–672; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702351
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2009; 126(3):665 - 672. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To follow up in vitro evidence that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin extracted from cannabis (eDelta(9)-THCV) is a CB(1) receptor antagonist by establishing whether synthetic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (O-4394) and Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (O-4395) behave as CB(1) antagonists in vivo. O-4394 and O-4395 were compared with eDelta(9)-THCV as displacers of [(3)H]-CP55940 from specific CB(1) binding sites on mouse brain membranes and as antagonists of CP55940 in [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays performed with mouse brain membranes and of R-(+)-WIN55212 in mouse isolated vasa deferentia. Their ability to antagonize in vivo effects of 3 or 10 mg kg(-1) (i.v.) Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice was then investigated. O-4394 and O-4395 exhibited similar potencies to eDelta(9)-THCV as displacers of [(3)H]-CP55940 (K (i)=46.6 and 64.4 nM, respectively) and as antagonists of CP55940 in the [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay (apparent K (B)=82.1 and 125.9 nM, respectively) and R-(+)-WIN55212 in the vas deferens (apparent K (B)=4.8 and 3.9 nM respectively). At i.v. doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and/or 3 mg kg(-1) O-4394 and O-4395 attenuated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced anti-nociception (tail-flick test) and hypothermia (rectal temperature). O-4395 but not O-4394 also antagonized Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced ring immobility. By themselves, O-4395 and O-4394 induced ring immobility at 3 or 10 mg kg(-1) (i.v.) and antinociception at doses above 10 mg kg(-1) (i.v.). O-4395 also induced hypothermia at 3 mg kg(-1) (i.v.) and above. O-4394 and O-4395 exhibit similar in vitro potencies to eDelta(9)-THCV as CB(1) receptor ligands and as antagonists of cannabinoid receptor agonists and can antagonize Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in vivo.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2007; 150(5):586-94. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) displaced [(3)H]CP55940 from specific binding sites on mouse brain and CHO-hCB(2) cell membranes (K(i)=75.4 and 62.8 nM, respectively).THCV (1 microM) also antagonized CP55940-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to these membranes (apparent K(B)=93.1 and 10.1 nM, respectively). In the mouse vas deferens, the ability of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to inhibit electrically evoked contractions was antagonized by THCV, its apparent K(B)-value (96.7 nM) approximating the apparent K(B)-values for its antagonism of CP55940- and R-(+)-WIN55212-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to mouse brain membranes. THCV also antagonized R-(+)-WIN55212, anandamide, methanandamide and CP55940 in the vas deferens, but with lower apparent K(B)-values (1.5, 1.2, 4.6 and 10.3 nM, respectively).THCV (100 nM) did not oppose clonidine, capsaicin or (-)-7-hydroxy-cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl-induced inhibition of electrically evoked contractions of the vas deferens. Contractile responses of the vas deferens to phenylephrine hydrochloride or beta,gamma-methylene-ATP were not reduced by 1microM THCV or R-(+)-WIN55212, suggesting that THCV interacts with R-(+)-WIN55212 at prejunctional sites. At 32 microM, THCV did reduce contractile responses to phenylephrine hydrochloride and beta,gamma-methylene-ATP, and above 3 microM it inhibited electrically evoked contractions of the vas deferens in an SR141716A-independent manner. In conclusion, THCV behaves as a competitive CB(1) and CB(2) receptor antagonist. In the vas deferens, it antagonized several cannabinoids more potently than THC and was also more potent against CP55940 and R-(+)-WIN55212 in this tissue than in brain membranes. The bases of these agonist- and tissue-dependent effects remain to be established.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2006; 146(7):917-26. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the pharmacology of three novel compounds, Org 27569 (5-chloro-3-ethyl-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid [2-(4-piperidin-1-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-amide), Org 27759 (3-ethyl-5-fluoro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid [2-94-dimethylamino-phenyl)-ethyl]-amide), and Org 29647 (5-chloro-3-ethyl-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid (1-benzyl-pyrrolidin-3-yl)-amide, 2-enedioic acid salt), at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. In equilibrium binding assays, the Org compounds significantly increased the binding of the CB1 receptor agonist [3H]CP 55,940 [(1R,3R,4R)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexan-1-ol], indicative of a positively cooperative allosteric effect. The same compounds caused a significant, but incomplete, decrease in the specific binding of the CB1 receptor inverse agonist [3H]SR 141716A [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride], indicative of a limited negative binding cooperativity. Analysis of the data according to an allosteric ternary complex model revealed that the estimated affinity of each Org compound was not significantly different when the radioligand was [3H]CP 55,940 or [3H]SR 141716A. However, the estimated cooperatively factor for the interaction between modulator and radioligand was greater than 1 when determined against [3H]CP 55,940 and less than 1 when determined against [3H]SR 141716A. [3H]CP 55,940 dissociation kinetic studies also validated the allosteric nature of the Org compounds, because they all significantly decreased radioligand dissociation. These data suggest that the Org compounds bind allosterically to the CB1 receptor and elicit a conformational change that increases agonist affinity for the orthosteric binding site. In contrast to the binding assays, however, the Org compounds behaved as insurmountable antagonists of receptor function; in the reporter gene assay, the guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding assay and the mouse vas deferens assay they elicited a significant reduction in the Emax value for CB1 receptor agonists. The data presented clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the cannabinoid CB1 receptor contains an allosteric binding site that can be recognized by synthetic small molecule ligands.
    Molecular Pharmacology 12/2005; 68(5):1484-95. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous experiments showed that R-(+)-WIN55212-induced inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of mouse vasa deferentia could be antagonized by cannabidiol in a manner that appeared to be competitive but not to involve direct competition for established cannabinoid receptors. We have now discovered that (-)-7-hydroxy-4'-dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol (7-OH-DMH-CBD) inhibits electrically-evoked contractions of the vas deferens (EC(50)=13.3 nM). This it appeared to do by acting on prejunctional neurones as 100 nM 7-OH-DMH-CBD did not attenuate contractile responses to phenylephrine or beta,gamma-methylene-ATP. Although 7-OH-DMH-CBD was antagonized by SR141716A, it was less susceptible to antagonism by this CB(1) receptor antagonist than R-(+)-WIN55212. 7-OH-DMH-CBD was also antagonized by cannabidiol (1 microM; apparent K(B)=222.2 nM) but not by the CB(2) receptor antagonist, SR144528 (32 nM), or by naloxone (300 nM), ruthenium red (1 microM) or capsazepine (10 microM). Yohimbine (100 nM) enhanced the ability of 7-OH-DMH-CBD to inhibit electrically-evoked contractions. R-(+)-WIN55212 was also potentiated by 100 nM yohimbine, possibly reflecting ongoing sequestration of G(i/o) proteins from CB(1) receptors by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Our results suggest that 7-OH-DMH-CBD may activate a neuronal target in the vas deferens that is not a CB(1), CB(2), TRPV1, opioid or alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor but do not exclude the possibility that it also activates CB(1) receptors.
    Neuropharmacology 07/2005; 48(8):1139-46. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analogues of the biaryl pyrazole N-(piperidinyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716; 5) were synthesized to investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the aminopiperidine region. The structural modifications include the substitution of alkyl hydrazines, amines, and hydroxyalkylamines of varying lengths for the aminopiperidinyl moiety. Proximity and steric requirements at the aminopiperidine region were probed by the synthesis of analogues that substitute alkyl hydrazines of increasing chain length and branching. The corresponding amide analogues were compared to the hydrazides to determine the effect of the second nitrogen on receptor binding affinity. The N-cyclohexyl amide 14 represents a direct methine for nitrogen substitution for 5, reducing the potential for heteroatom interaction, while the morpholino analogue 15 adds the potential for an additional heteroatom interaction. The series of hydroxyalkyl amides of increasing chain length was synthesized to investigate the existence of additional receptor hydrogen binding sites. In displacement assays using the cannabinoid agonist [(3)H](1R,3R,4R)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-4-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexan-1-ol (CP 55 940; 2) or the antagonist [(3)H]5, 14 exhibited the highest CB(1) affinity. In general, increasing the length and bulk of the substituent was associated with increased receptor affinity and efficacy (as measured in a guanosine 5'-triphosphate-gamma-[(35)S] assay). However, in most instances, receptor affinity and efficacy increases were no longer observed after a certain chain length was reached. A quantitative SAR study was carried out to characterize the pharmacophoric requirements of the aminopiperidine region. This model indicates that ligands that exceed 3 A in length would have reduced potency and affinity with respect to 5 and that substituents with a positive charge density in the aminopiperidine region would be predicted to possess increased pharmacological activity.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2002; 45(13):2708-19. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anandamide can be metabolized by cyclooxygenase-2 to produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) ethanolamide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacology of this novel compound. Radioligand binding experiments in membranes from human embryonic kidney cells transfected with PGE(2) receptor subtypes EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4) revealed that PGE(2) ethanolamide has pK(i) values of 5.61 +/- 0.1, 6.33 +/- 0.01, 6.70 +/- 0.13, and 6.29 +/- 0.06, respectively, compared with 8.31 +/- 0.16, 9.03 +/- 0.04, 9.34 +/- 0.06, and 9.10 +/- 0.04 for PGE(2). PGE(2) inhibits electrically evoked contractions of the guinea pig vas deferens (EP(3) receptor-mediated), with a pEC(50) value of 9.09 +/- 0.06, compared with that of 7.38 +/- 0.09 for PGE(2) ethanolamide. In the guinea pig trachea, 100 nM PGE(2) and 1 microM PGE(2) ethanolamide produced contractions of 51.8 +/- 10.6 and 38.9 +/- 5.6% (of the histamine E(max)), respectively. The EP(1) receptor antagonist SC-51089 (10 microM) prevented the contractions induced by both compounds. In the presence of 10 microM 8-chlorodibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine-10(11H)-carboxylic acid, 2-[1-oxo-3-(4-pyridinyl)propyl]hydrazide, monohydrochloride (SC-51089), PGE(2) caused a concentration-related relaxation of histamine-induced contractions of this tissue (EP(2) receptor-mediated), the pEC(50) value being 8.29 +/- 0.17 compared with that of 7.11 +/- 0.18 for PGE(2) ethanolamide. In the rabbit jugular vein, PGE(2) induces relaxation (EP(4) receptor-mediated) with a pEC(50) of 9.35 +/- 0.25, compared with 7.05 +/- 0.4 for PGE(2) ethanolamide. In dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture, 3 microM PGE(2) ethanolamide evoked an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in 21% of small-diameter capsaicin-sensitive neurons. We conclude that this compound is pharmacologically active, however its physiological relevance has yet to be established.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2002; 301(3):900-7. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four chiral congeners of arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide) have been synthesized and evaluated for (a) their ability to bind to the cannabinoid receptor in rat forebrain membranes and (b) their pharmacological potency as measured by the compounds' ability to inhibit electrically-evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens. The lead analog was also tested for its potency in vivo. Of the analogs tested, (R)-(+)-arachidonyl-1'-hydroxy-2'-propylamide [(R)-methanandamide] exhibited the highest affinity for the cannabinoid receptor with a Ki of 20 +/- 1.6 nM, 4-fold lower than that of anandamide (Ki = 78 +/- 2 nM). Moreover, determination of the cannabinoid binding affinity in the presence and absence of the protease inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) revealed that (R)-methanandamide possesses a remarkable stability to aminopeptidase hydrolysis. Pharmacological studies on mouse isolated vasa deferentia demonstrated that all four analogs produce concentration-related inhibition of the twitch response and the order of potency is the same as the rank order of the affinities of these agonists for cannabinoid binding sites. Furthermore, experiments with mice have demonstrated that (R)-methanandamide also possesses cannabimimetric properties in vivo, as established by the four tests of hypothermia, hypokinesia, ring immobility, and antinociception.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2002; 37(12). · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabinoids have low water solubility, necessitating the use of a solubilizing agent. In this paper we investigated whether a novel water-soluble cannabinoid, 3-(5'-cyano-1', 1'-dimethylpentyl)-1-(4-N-morpholinobutyryloxy)-Delta(8)- tetrahydroca nnabinol hydrochloride (O-1057), would interact with cannabinoid receptors when water or saline were used as the only vehicle. O-1057 displaced [(3)H]-CP55940 from specific binding sites on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes expressing CB(1) or CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, with pK(i) values of 8.36 and 7.95 respectively. It also displaced [(3)H]-CP55940 from specific binding sites on rat brain membranes (pK(i) = 7.86). O-1057 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production by both CB(1)- and CB(2)-transfected CHO cells (pEC(50) = 9.16 and 9.72 respectively), its potency matching that of CP55940 and exceeding that of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. In the mouse isolated vas deferens, O-1057 inhibited electrically-evoked contractions with pEC(50) and E(max) values of 9.73 and 76.84% respectively. It was antagonized by 100 nM SR141716A, the pK(B) of SR141716A against O-1057 (8.90) approximating to that against CP55940 (8.97). O-1057 also behaved as a CB(1) receptor agonist in vivo, reducing mouse spontaneous activity and rectal temperature when injected intravenously and inducing antinociception in the mouse tail flick test when given intravenously (ED(50) = 0.02 mg kg(-1)), intrathecally, intracerebroventricularly or by gavage. In all these assays, O-1057 was more potent than Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and, at 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.v., was antagonized by SR141716A (3 mg kg(-1) i.v.). These data demonstrate the ability of the water-soluble cannabinoid, O-1057, to act as a potent agonist at CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and warrant investigation of the clinical potential of O-1057 as an analgesic.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2000; 129(8):1577-84. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have extended previous investigations of four analogues of Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC): 6′-azidohex-2′-yne-Δ8-THC (O-1184), 6′-azidohex-cis-2′-ene-Δ8-THC (O-1238) and octyl-2′-yne-Δ8-THC (O-584) and its 1-deoxy-analogue (O-1315).O-1184, O-1238 and O-584 displaced [3H]-CP55940 from specific binding sites on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes expressing CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with pKi values of 8.28 to 8.45 (CB1) and 8.03 to 8.13 (CB2). The pKi values of O-1315 were significantly less, 7.63 (CB1) and 7.01 (CB2).All the analogues inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production by CB1-transfected CHO cells (pEC50=9.16 to 9.72). Only O-1238 behaved as a full agonist in this cell line.In mouse vasa deferentia, O-1238 inhibited electrically-evoked contractions (pEC50=10.18 and Emax=70.5%). Corresponding values for O-1184 were 9.08 and 21.1% respectively. At 1 nM, O-1184 produced surmountable antagonism of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP55940. However, at 0.1 nM, O-1184 did not attenuate CP55940-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP production by CB1-transfected CHO cells.In CB2-transfected CHO cells, cyclic AMP production was inhibited by CP55940 (pEC50=8.59), enhanced by O-1184 and O-584 (pEC50=8.20 and 6.86 respectively) and not significantly affected by O-1238 or O-1315.At 100 nM, O-1184 and O-1238 produced surmountable antagonism of CP55940 in CB2 cells, decreasing the pEC50 of CP55940 from 8.61 to 7.42 (O-1184) or from 8.54 to 7.44 (O-1238).These data support the hypothesis that increasing the degree of unsaturation of the aliphatic side-chain of Δ8-THC analogues has little effect on CB1 or CB2 receptor affinity but can reduce CB1 receptor efficacy and reverse the direction of responses elicited at CB2 receptors.British Journal of Pharmacology (1999) 128, 735–743; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702836
    British Journal of Pharmacology 09/1999; 128(3):735 - 743. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two subtypes of the cannabinoid receptor (CB1 and CB2) are expressed in mammalian tissues. Although selective antagonists are available for each of the subtypes, most of the available cannabinoid agonists bind to both CB1 and CB2 with similar affinities. We have synthesized two analogs of N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA), arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) and arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), that bind to the CB1 receptor with very high affinity (KI values of 2.2 +/- 0.4 nM and 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM, respectively) and to the CB2 receptor with low affinity (KI values of 0.7 +/- 0.01 microM and 3.1 +/- 1.0 microM, respectively). Both ACPA and ACEA have the characteristics of agonists at the CB1 receptor; both inhibit forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human CB1 receptor, and both analogs increase the binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to cerebellar membranes and inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens. ACPA and ACEA produce hypothermia in mice, and this effect is inhibited by coadministration of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. Therefore, ACPA and ACEA are high-affinity agonists of the CB1 receptor but do not bind the CB2 receptor, suggesting that structural analogs of AEA can be designed with considerable selectivity for the CB1 receptor over the CB2 receptor.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/1999; 289(3):1427-33. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aminoalkylindoles (AAIs) are agonists at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. To determine whether the s-trans or s-cis form of AAIs is their receptor-appropriate conformation, two pairs of rigid AAI analogues were studied. These rigid analogues are naphthylidene-substituted aminoalkylindenes that lack the carbonyl oxygen of the AAIs. Two pairs of (E)- and (Z)-naphthylidene indenes (C-2 H and C-2 Me) were considered. In each pair, the E geometric isomer is intended to mimic the s-trans form of the AAIs, while the Z geometric isomer is intended to mimic the s-cis form. Complete conformational analyses of two AAIs, pravadoline (2) and WIN-55, 212-2 (1), and of each indene were performed using the semiempirical method AM1. S-trans and s-cis conformations of 1 and 2 were identified. AM1 single-point energy calculations revealed that when 1 and each indene were overlayed at their corresponding indole/indene rings, the (E)- and (Z)-indenes were able to overlay naphthyl rings with the corresponding s-trans or s-cis conformer of 1 with an energy expense of 1.13/0.69 kcal/mol for the C-2 H (E/Z)-indenes and 0.82/0.74 kcal/mol for the C-2 Me (E/Z)-indenes. On the basis of the hypothesis that aromatic stacking is the predominant interaction of AAIs such as 1 at the CB receptors and on the demonstration that the C-2 H (E/Z)- and C-2 Me (E/Z)-indene isomers can mimic the positions of the aromatic systems in the s-trans and s-cis conformers of 1, the modeling results support the previously established use of indenes as rigid analogues of the AAIs. A synthesis of the naphthylidene indenes was developed using Horner-Wittig chemistry that afforded the Z isomer in the C-2 H series, which was not produced in significant amounts from an earlier reported indene/aldehyde condensation reaction. This approach was extended to the C-2 Me series as well. Photochemical interconversions in both the C-2 H and C-2 Me series were also successful in obtaining the less favored isomer. Thus, the photochemical process can be used to provide quantities of the minor isomers C-2 H/Z and C-2 Me/E. The CB1 and CB2 affinities as well as the activity of each compound in the twitch response of the guinea pig ileum (GPI) assay were assessed. The E isomer in each series was found to have the higher affinity for both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. In the rat brain membrane assay versus [3H]CP-55,940, the Ki's for the C-2 H/C-2 Me series were 2.72/2.89 nM (E isomer) and 148/1945 nM (Z isomer). In membrane assays versus [3H]SR141716A, a two-site model was indicated for the C-2 H/C-2 Me (E isomers) with Ki's of 10. 8/9.44 nM for the higher-affinity site and 611/602 nM for the lower-affinity site. For the Z isomers, a one-site model was indicated with Ki's of 928/2178 nM obtained for the C2 H/C-2 Me analogues, respectively. For the C-2 H/C-2 Me series, the CB2 Ki's obtained using a cloned cell line were 2.72/2.05 nM (E isomer) and 132/658 nM (Z isomer). In the GPI assay, the relative order of potency was C-2 H E > C-2 Me E > C-2 H Z > C-2 Me Z. The C-2 H E isomer was found to be equipotent with 1, while the C-2 Me Z isomer was inactive at concentrations up to 3.16 microM. Thus, results indicate that the E geometric isomer in each pair of analogues is the isomer with the higher CB1 and CB2 affinities and the higher pharmacological potency. Taken together, results reported here support the hypothesis that the s-trans conformation of AAIs such as 1 is the preferred conformation for interaction at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors and that aromatic stacking may be an important interaction for AAIs at these receptors.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/1999; 41(26):5177-87. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical similarity between some synthetic agonists of vanilloid receptors, such as olvanil (N-vanillyl-cis-9-octadecenoamide), and the 'endocannabinoid' anandamide (arachidonoyl-ethanolamide, AEA), suggests possible interactions between the cannabinoid and vanilloid signalling systems. Here we report that olvanil is a stable and potent inhibitor of AEA facilitated transport into rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Olvanil blocked both the uptake and the hydrolysis of [14C]AEA by intact RBL-2H3 cells (IC50 = 9 microM), while capsaicin and pseudocapsaicin (N-vanillyl-nonanamide) were much less active. Olvanil was more potent than previously reported inhibitors of AEA facilitated transport, i.e. phloretin (IC50 = 80 microM), AM404 (12.9% inhibition at 10 microM) or oleoylethanolamide (27.5% inhibition at 10 microM). Olvanil was a poor inhibitor of [14C]AEA hydrolysis by RBL-2H3 and N18TG2 cell membranes, suggesting that the inhibitory effect on [14C]AEA breakdown observed in intact cells was due to inhibition of [14C]AEA uptake. Olvanil was stable to enzymatic hydrolysis, and (i) displaced the binding of high affinity cannabinoid receptor ligands to membrane preparations from N18TG2 cells and guinea pig forebrain (Ki = 1.64-7.08 microM), but not from cells expressing the CB2 cannabinoid receptor subtype; (ii) inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP formation in intact N18TG2 cells (IC50 = 1.60 microM), this effect being reversed by the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716A. Pseudocapsaicin, but not capsaicin, also selectively bound to CB1 receptor-containing membranes. These data suggest that some of the analgesic actions of olvanil may be due to its interactions with the endogenous cannabinoid system, and may lead to the design of a novel class of cannabimimetics with potential therapeutic applications as analgesics.
    FEBS Letters 11/1998; 436(3):449-54. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabidiol CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of marihuana, has been reported to possess essentially no affinity for cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding sites in the brain. Our hypothesis concerning CBD's lack of affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor is that CBD is not capable of clearing a region of steric interference at the CB1 receptor and thereby not able to bind to this receptor. We have previously characterized this region of steric interference at the CB1 receptor [P.H. Reggio, A.M. Panu, S. Miles J. Med. Chem. 36, 1761-1771 (1993)] in three dimensions using the Active Analog Approach. We report here a conformational analysis of CBD which, in turn, led to the design of a new analog, desoxy-CBD. Modeling results for desoxy-CBD predict that this compound is capable of clearing the region of steric interference by expending 3.64 kcal/mol of energy in contrast to the 12.39 kcal/mol expenditure required by CBD. Desoxy-CBD was synthesized by condensation of 3-pentylphenol with p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol mediated by DMF-dineopental acetal. Desoxy-CBD was found to behave as a partial agonist in the mouse vas deferens assay, an assay which is reported to detect the presence of cannabinoid receptors. The compound produced a concentration related inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens, possessing an IC50 of 30.9 nM in this assay. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of the existence of a region of steric interference at the CB1 receptor. While the energy expenditure to clear this region was too high for the parent compound, CBD, the removal of the C6' hydroxyl of CBD produced a molecule (desoxy-CBD) able to clear this region and produce activity, albeit at a reduced level.
    Life Sciences 02/1995; 56(23-24):2025-32. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Life Sciences 01/1995; 56(23). · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    R G Pertwee, L A Stevenson, G Griffin
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Mice pretreated intraperitoneally for 2 days with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) at a dose of 20 mg kg-1 day-1 and then challenged intravenously with this drug, 24 h after the second pretreatment, showed a 6 fold tolerance to the hypothermic effect of delta-9-THC. This pretreatment also induced tolerance to the hypothermic effects of the cannabimimetic agents, CP 55,940 (4.6 fold) and WIN 55,212-2 (4.9 fold), but not to the hypothermic effect of the putative endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. 2. Vasa deferentia removed from mice pretreated intraperitoneally with delta-9-THC twice at a dose of 20 mg kg-1 day-1 were less sensitive to its inhibitory effect on electrically-evoked contractions than vasa deferentia obtained from control animals. The cannabinoid pretreatment induced a 30 fold parallel rightward shift in the lower part of the concentration-response curve of delta-9-THC and a marked reduction in the maximal inhibitory effect of the drug. It also induced tolerance to the inhibitory effects on the twitch response of CP 55,940 (8.7 fold), WIN 55,212-2 (9.6 fold) and anandamide (12.3 fold). 3. The results confirm that cannabinoid tolerance can be rapid in onset and support the hypothesis that it is mainly pharmacodynamic in nature. The finding that in vivo pretreatment with delta-9-THC can produce tolerance not only to its own inhibitory effect on the vas deferens but also to that of three other cannabimimetic agents, suggests that this tissue would be suitable as an experimental model for investigating the mechanisms responsible for cannabinoid tolerance. 4. Further experiments are required to establish why tolerance to anandamide-induced hypothermia was not produced by a pretreatment with delta-9-THC that did induce tolerance to the hypothermic effects of delta-9-THC, CP 55,940 and WIN 55,212-2 and to the inhibitory effects of delta-9-THC,CP 55,940, WIN 55,212-2 and anandamide on the twitch response of the vas deferens.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/1994; 110(4):1483-90. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arachidonylethanolamide, an arachidonic acid derivative in porcine brain, was identified in a screen for endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptor. The structure of this compound, which has been named "anandamide," was determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and was confirmed by synthesis. Anandamide inhibited the specific binding of a radiolabeled cannabinoid probe to synaptosomal membranes in a manner typical of competitive ligands and produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the electrically evoked twitch response to the mouse vas deferens, a characteristic effect of psychotropic cannabinoids. These properties suggest that anandamide may function as a natural ligand for the cannabinoid receptor.
    Science 01/1993; 258(5090):1946-9. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The psychoactive cannabinoids (-)-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-delta 9-THC) and the 1,1-dimethyl-heptyl homologue of (-)-11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-DMH) both inhibited electrically-evoked contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens and the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Concentrations of (-)-delta 9-THC and (-)-DMH that decreased twitch heights by 50% were 6.3 and 0.15 nM respectively in the mouse vas deferens and 60 nM and 1.4 nM respectively in the myenteric plexus preparation. (-)-DMH was about 40 times more potent than (-)-delta 9-THC in both preparations, supporting the notion that their mode of action in each tissue is the same. 3. The psychically inactive cannabinoid, (+)-DMH, had no inhibitory effect in the mouse vas deferens at a concentration of 30 nM, showing it to be at least 1000 times less potent than (-)-DMH. In the myenteric plexus preparation, (+)-DMH was about 500 times less potent than its (-)-enantiomer. 4. The inhibitory effects of sub-maximal concentrations of (-)-delta 9-THC were not attenuated by 300 nM naloxone. 5. The findings that (-)-delta 9-THC and (-)-DMH are highly potent as inhibitors of the twitch response of the mouse vas deferens and guinea-pig myenteric plexus preparation and that DMH shows considerable stereoselectivity suggest that the inhibitory effects of cannabinoids in these preparations are mediated by cannabinoid receptors.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 05/1992; 105(4):980-4. · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
113.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Storrs, CT, United States
  • 1995–2009
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Institute of Medical Sciences
      Aberdeen, SCT, United Kingdom
    • Kennesaw State University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Kennesaw, GA, United States