L A Stevenson

University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, SCT, United Kingdom

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Publications (12)73.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 25(44).
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis is the source of at least seventy phytocannabinoids. The pharmacology of most of these has been little investigated, three notable exceptions being Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin. This investigation addressed the question of whether the little-studied phytocannabinoid, cannabigerol, can activate or block any G protein-coupled receptor. Experimental The [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay, performed with mouse brain membranes, was used to test the ability of cannabigerol to produce G protein-coupled receptor activation or blockade. Its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from mouse CB(1) and human CB(2) cannabinoid receptors and to inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens was also investigated. In the brain membrane experiments, cannabigerol behaved as a potent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (EC(50)= 0.2 nM) and antagonized the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, R-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (apparent K(B)= 51.9 nM). At 10 microM, it also behaved as a CB(1) receptor competitive antagonist. Additionally, cannabigerol inhibited evoked contractions of the vas deferens in a manner that appeared to be alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated (EC(50)= 72.8 nM) and displayed significant affinity for mouse CB(1) and human CB(2) receptors. This investigation has provided the first evidence that cannabigerol can activate alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, bind to cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and block CB(1) and 5-HT(1A) receptors. It will now be important to investigate why cannabigerol produced signs of agonism more potently in the [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay than in the vas deferens and also whether it can inhibit noradrenaline uptake in this isolated tissue and in the brain.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2009; 159(1):129-41. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To follow up in vitro evidence that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin extracted from cannabis (eDelta(9)-THCV) is a CB(1) receptor antagonist by establishing whether synthetic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (O-4394) and Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (O-4395) behave as CB(1) antagonists in vivo. O-4394 and O-4395 were compared with eDelta(9)-THCV as displacers of [(3)H]-CP55940 from specific CB(1) binding sites on mouse brain membranes and as antagonists of CP55940 in [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays performed with mouse brain membranes and of R-(+)-WIN55212 in mouse isolated vasa deferentia. Their ability to antagonize in vivo effects of 3 or 10 mg kg(-1) (i.v.) Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice was then investigated. O-4394 and O-4395 exhibited similar potencies to eDelta(9)-THCV as displacers of [(3)H]-CP55940 (K (i)=46.6 and 64.4 nM, respectively) and as antagonists of CP55940 in the [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay (apparent K (B)=82.1 and 125.9 nM, respectively) and R-(+)-WIN55212 in the vas deferens (apparent K (B)=4.8 and 3.9 nM respectively). At i.v. doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and/or 3 mg kg(-1) O-4394 and O-4395 attenuated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced anti-nociception (tail-flick test) and hypothermia (rectal temperature). O-4395 but not O-4394 also antagonized Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced ring immobility. By themselves, O-4395 and O-4394 induced ring immobility at 3 or 10 mg kg(-1) (i.v.) and antinociception at doses above 10 mg kg(-1) (i.v.). O-4395 also induced hypothermia at 3 mg kg(-1) (i.v.) and above. O-4394 and O-4395 exhibit similar in vitro potencies to eDelta(9)-THCV as CB(1) receptor ligands and as antagonists of cannabinoid receptor agonists and can antagonize Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in vivo.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2007; 150(5):586-94. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extended series of alkyl carboxamide analogs of N-(piperidinyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl- 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716; 5) was synthesized. Each compound was tested for its ability to displace the prototypical cannabinoid ligands ([3H]CP-55,940, [3H]2; [3H]SR141716, [3H]5; and [3H]WIN55212-2, [3H]3), and selected compounds were further characterized by determining their ability to affect guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-gamma-[35S] binding and their effects in the mouse vas deferens assay. This systematic evaluation has resulted in the discovery of novel compounds with unique binding properties at the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) and distinctive pharmacological activities in CB1 receptor tissue preparations. Specifically, compounds with nanomolar affinity which are able to fully displace [3H]5 and [3H]2, but unable to displace [3H]3 at similar concentrations, have been synthesized. This selectivity in ligand displacement is unprecedented, in that previously, compounds in every structural class of cannabinoid ligands had always been shown to displace each of these radioligands in a competitive fashion. Furthermore, the selectivity of these compounds appears to impart unique pharmacological properties when tested in a mouse vas deferens assay for CB1 receptor antagonism.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 10/2005; 13(18):5463-74. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabinoids have low water solubility, necessitating the use of a solubilizing agent. In this paper we investigated whether a novel water-soluble cannabinoid, 3-(5'-cyano-1', 1'-dimethylpentyl)-1-(4-N-morpholinobutyryloxy)-Delta(8)- tetrahydroca nnabinol hydrochloride (O-1057), would interact with cannabinoid receptors when water or saline were used as the only vehicle. O-1057 displaced [(3)H]-CP55940 from specific binding sites on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes expressing CB(1) or CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, with pK(i) values of 8.36 and 7.95 respectively. It also displaced [(3)H]-CP55940 from specific binding sites on rat brain membranes (pK(i) = 7.86). O-1057 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production by both CB(1)- and CB(2)-transfected CHO cells (pEC(50) = 9.16 and 9.72 respectively), its potency matching that of CP55940 and exceeding that of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. In the mouse isolated vas deferens, O-1057 inhibited electrically-evoked contractions with pEC(50) and E(max) values of 9.73 and 76.84% respectively. It was antagonized by 100 nM SR141716A, the pK(B) of SR141716A against O-1057 (8.90) approximating to that against CP55940 (8.97). O-1057 also behaved as a CB(1) receptor agonist in vivo, reducing mouse spontaneous activity and rectal temperature when injected intravenously and inducing antinociception in the mouse tail flick test when given intravenously (ED(50) = 0.02 mg kg(-1)), intrathecally, intracerebroventricularly or by gavage. In all these assays, O-1057 was more potent than Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and, at 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.v., was antagonized by SR141716A (3 mg kg(-1) i.v.). These data demonstrate the ability of the water-soluble cannabinoid, O-1057, to act as a potent agonist at CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and warrant investigation of the clinical potential of O-1057 as an analgesic.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2000; 129(8):1577-84. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two subtypes of the cannabinoid receptor (CB1 and CB2) are expressed in mammalian tissues. Although selective antagonists are available for each of the subtypes, most of the available cannabinoid agonists bind to both CB1 and CB2 with similar affinities. We have synthesized two analogs of N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA), arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) and arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), that bind to the CB1 receptor with very high affinity (KI values of 2.2 +/- 0.4 nM and 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM, respectively) and to the CB2 receptor with low affinity (KI values of 0.7 +/- 0.01 microM and 3.1 +/- 1.0 microM, respectively). Both ACPA and ACEA have the characteristics of agonists at the CB1 receptor; both inhibit forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human CB1 receptor, and both analogs increase the binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to cerebellar membranes and inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens. ACPA and ACEA produce hypothermia in mice, and this effect is inhibited by coadministration of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. Therefore, ACPA and ACEA are high-affinity agonists of the CB1 receptor but do not bind the CB2 receptor, suggesting that structural analogs of AEA can be designed with considerable selectivity for the CB1 receptor over the CB2 receptor.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/1999; 289(3):1427-33. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aminoalkylindoles (AAIs) are agonists at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. To determine whether the s-trans or s-cis form of AAIs is their receptor-appropriate conformation, two pairs of rigid AAI analogues were studied. These rigid analogues are naphthylidene-substituted aminoalkylindenes that lack the carbonyl oxygen of the AAIs. Two pairs of (E)- and (Z)-naphthylidene indenes (C-2 H and C-2 Me) were considered. In each pair, the E geometric isomer is intended to mimic the s-trans form of the AAIs, while the Z geometric isomer is intended to mimic the s-cis form. Complete conformational analyses of two AAIs, pravadoline (2) and WIN-55, 212-2 (1), and of each indene were performed using the semiempirical method AM1. S-trans and s-cis conformations of 1 and 2 were identified. AM1 single-point energy calculations revealed that when 1 and each indene were overlayed at their corresponding indole/indene rings, the (E)- and (Z)-indenes were able to overlay naphthyl rings with the corresponding s-trans or s-cis conformer of 1 with an energy expense of 1.13/0.69 kcal/mol for the C-2 H (E/Z)-indenes and 0.82/0.74 kcal/mol for the C-2 Me (E/Z)-indenes. On the basis of the hypothesis that aromatic stacking is the predominant interaction of AAIs such as 1 at the CB receptors and on the demonstration that the C-2 H (E/Z)- and C-2 Me (E/Z)-indene isomers can mimic the positions of the aromatic systems in the s-trans and s-cis conformers of 1, the modeling results support the previously established use of indenes as rigid analogues of the AAIs. A synthesis of the naphthylidene indenes was developed using Horner-Wittig chemistry that afforded the Z isomer in the C-2 H series, which was not produced in significant amounts from an earlier reported indene/aldehyde condensation reaction. This approach was extended to the C-2 Me series as well. Photochemical interconversions in both the C-2 H and C-2 Me series were also successful in obtaining the less favored isomer. Thus, the photochemical process can be used to provide quantities of the minor isomers C-2 H/Z and C-2 Me/E. The CB1 and CB2 affinities as well as the activity of each compound in the twitch response of the guinea pig ileum (GPI) assay were assessed. The E isomer in each series was found to have the higher affinity for both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. In the rat brain membrane assay versus [3H]CP-55,940, the Ki's for the C-2 H/C-2 Me series were 2.72/2.89 nM (E isomer) and 148/1945 nM (Z isomer). In membrane assays versus [3H]SR141716A, a two-site model was indicated for the C-2 H/C-2 Me (E isomers) with Ki's of 10. 8/9.44 nM for the higher-affinity site and 611/602 nM for the lower-affinity site. For the Z isomers, a one-site model was indicated with Ki's of 928/2178 nM obtained for the C2 H/C-2 Me analogues, respectively. For the C-2 H/C-2 Me series, the CB2 Ki's obtained using a cloned cell line were 2.72/2.05 nM (E isomer) and 132/658 nM (Z isomer). In the GPI assay, the relative order of potency was C-2 H E > C-2 Me E > C-2 H Z > C-2 Me Z. The C-2 H E isomer was found to be equipotent with 1, while the C-2 Me Z isomer was inactive at concentrations up to 3.16 microM. Thus, results indicate that the E geometric isomer in each pair of analogues is the isomer with the higher CB1 and CB2 affinities and the higher pharmacological potency. Taken together, results reported here support the hypothesis that the s-trans conformation of AAIs such as 1 is the preferred conformation for interaction at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors and that aromatic stacking may be an important interaction for AAIs at these receptors.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/1999; 41(26):5177-87. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabidiol CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of marihuana, has been reported to possess essentially no affinity for cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding sites in the brain. Our hypothesis concerning CBD's lack of affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor is that CBD is not capable of clearing a region of steric interference at the CB1 receptor and thereby not able to bind to this receptor. We have previously characterized this region of steric interference at the CB1 receptor [P.H. Reggio, A.M. Panu, S. Miles J. Med. Chem. 36, 1761-1771 (1993)] in three dimensions using the Active Analog Approach. We report here a conformational analysis of CBD which, in turn, led to the design of a new analog, desoxy-CBD. Modeling results for desoxy-CBD predict that this compound is capable of clearing the region of steric interference by expending 3.64 kcal/mol of energy in contrast to the 12.39 kcal/mol expenditure required by CBD. Desoxy-CBD was synthesized by condensation of 3-pentylphenol with p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol mediated by DMF-dineopental acetal. Desoxy-CBD was found to behave as a partial agonist in the mouse vas deferens assay, an assay which is reported to detect the presence of cannabinoid receptors. The compound produced a concentration related inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens, possessing an IC50 of 30.9 nM in this assay. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of the existence of a region of steric interference at the CB1 receptor. While the energy expenditure to clear this region was too high for the parent compound, CBD, the removal of the C6' hydroxyl of CBD produced a molecule (desoxy-CBD) able to clear this region and produce activity, albeit at a reduced level.
    Life Sciences 02/1995; 56(23-24):2025-32. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Life Sciences 01/1995; 56(23). · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    R G Pertwee, L A Stevenson, G Griffin
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Mice pretreated intraperitoneally for 2 days with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) at a dose of 20 mg kg-1 day-1 and then challenged intravenously with this drug, 24 h after the second pretreatment, showed a 6 fold tolerance to the hypothermic effect of delta-9-THC. This pretreatment also induced tolerance to the hypothermic effects of the cannabimimetic agents, CP 55,940 (4.6 fold) and WIN 55,212-2 (4.9 fold), but not to the hypothermic effect of the putative endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. 2. Vasa deferentia removed from mice pretreated intraperitoneally with delta-9-THC twice at a dose of 20 mg kg-1 day-1 were less sensitive to its inhibitory effect on electrically-evoked contractions than vasa deferentia obtained from control animals. The cannabinoid pretreatment induced a 30 fold parallel rightward shift in the lower part of the concentration-response curve of delta-9-THC and a marked reduction in the maximal inhibitory effect of the drug. It also induced tolerance to the inhibitory effects on the twitch response of CP 55,940 (8.7 fold), WIN 55,212-2 (9.6 fold) and anandamide (12.3 fold). 3. The results confirm that cannabinoid tolerance can be rapid in onset and support the hypothesis that it is mainly pharmacodynamic in nature. The finding that in vivo pretreatment with delta-9-THC can produce tolerance not only to its own inhibitory effect on the vas deferens but also to that of three other cannabimimetic agents, suggests that this tissue would be suitable as an experimental model for investigating the mechanisms responsible for cannabinoid tolerance. 4. Further experiments are required to establish why tolerance to anandamide-induced hypothermia was not produced by a pretreatment with delta-9-THC that did induce tolerance to the hypothermic effects of delta-9-THC, CP 55,940 and WIN 55,212-2 and to the inhibitory effects of delta-9-THC,CP 55,940, WIN 55,212-2 and anandamide on the twitch response of the vas deferens.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/1994; 110(4):1483-90. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arachidonylethanolamide, an arachidonic acid derivative in porcine brain, was identified in a screen for endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptor. The structure of this compound, which has been named "anandamide," was determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and was confirmed by synthesis. Anandamide inhibited the specific binding of a radiolabeled cannabinoid probe to synaptosomal membranes in a manner typical of competitive ligands and produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the electrically evoked twitch response to the mouse vas deferens, a characteristic effect of psychotropic cannabinoids. These properties suggest that anandamide may function as a natural ligand for the cannabinoid receptor.
    Science 01/1993; 258(5090):1946-9. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The psychoactive cannabinoids (-)-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-delta 9-THC) and the 1,1-dimethyl-heptyl homologue of (-)-11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-DMH) both inhibited electrically-evoked contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens and the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Concentrations of (-)-delta 9-THC and (-)-DMH that decreased twitch heights by 50% were 6.3 and 0.15 nM respectively in the mouse vas deferens and 60 nM and 1.4 nM respectively in the myenteric plexus preparation. (-)-DMH was about 40 times more potent than (-)-delta 9-THC in both preparations, supporting the notion that their mode of action in each tissue is the same. 3. The psychically inactive cannabinoid, (+)-DMH, had no inhibitory effect in the mouse vas deferens at a concentration of 30 nM, showing it to be at least 1000 times less potent than (-)-DMH. In the myenteric plexus preparation, (+)-DMH was about 500 times less potent than its (-)-enantiomer. 4. The inhibitory effects of sub-maximal concentrations of (-)-delta 9-THC were not attenuated by 300 nM naloxone. 5. The findings that (-)-delta 9-THC and (-)-DMH are highly potent as inhibitors of the twitch response of the mouse vas deferens and guinea-pig myenteric plexus preparation and that DMH shows considerable stereoselectivity suggest that the inhibitory effects of cannabinoids in these preparations are mediated by cannabinoid receptors.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 05/1992; 105(4):980-4. · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
73.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2009
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Institute of Medical Sciences
      Aberdeen, SCT, United Kingdom
    • Kennesaw State University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Kennesaw, GA, United States
  • 2005
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States