Jeanette I Candelaria

San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States

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Publications (18)34.25 Total impact

  • Susan I Woodruff, Jeanette I Candelaria, John P Elder
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    ABSTRACT: Community Health Advisors (CHAs) are indigenous lay health advisors who, with training, can create health awareness, disseminate health information and support behavior change in their communities. Little data are available that describe the characteristics, recruitment, training, retention, and performance of CHAs. The present study described the characteristics, recruitment process, training outcomes, retention activities, and performance of two sets of CHAs who delivered tobacco-related interventions in the local Latino community. The Tobacco Control in Latino Communities (TCLC) Center trained 35 CHAs to conduct either a smoking cessation program for Spanish-speaking adult smokers or a behavioral problem-solving intervention to reduce environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among low-income Latino children. Theoretical psychosocial constructs related to behavior change, general self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and demographics were collected from CHAs before and after training. Additional measures captured the level of professionalism exercised and effort undertaken by the CHAs, as well actual outcomes of their efforts. Of the 33 women and 2 men CHAs recruited, 86% were originally from Mexico, most had a high school education, most were married, and the average monthly household income was $1,100-$1,400. Mean participant age was 42 years, and level of acculturation was relatively low. There were changes in the desired direction pre-to-post training for both ETS and smoking cessation program CHAs for most of the psychosocial constructs. Expert ratings of CHA performance were good, and recipients of the CHAs' efforts showed positive changes in behavior. This information may aid in planning for recruitment and evaluation of CHAs for future tobacco control programs.
    Journal of Community Health 12/2009; 35(2):124-34. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our earlier cross-sectional research suggested that smoking parents, particularly Latino parents, engage in behaviors that may prompt their children to smoke (e.g., request their child to start the parent's cigarette in his/her own mouth). This prospective study of 478 adolescent never-smokers, mostly Latino, suggests that parental prompts to smoke were not significantly related to smoking initiation among adolescents over a 1-year period.
    Addictive Behaviors 01/2005; 29(9):1869-73. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence of parental prompting to smoke (eg, parent requests that their child light the parent's cigarette in his/her own mouth) in a sample of families, and to assess the agreement between child and parent reports of the prompting behaviors. A total of 3,624 adolescents from 10 middle/junior high schools completed baseline surveys. Parents identified as smokers in these surveys were contacted to complete a telephone survey. These analyses included 270 parent/child pairs. Fifty-one percent of parents were Latino American, 51% had the equivalent of a high-school diploma, 83% were employed when surveyed, and the median household monthly income was between $2,200 and $2,599. Measurements and results: Students completed a paper-and-pencil survey assessing demographic characteristics, seven parental prompts to smoke, past month smoking, parental smoking, acculturation, and familism. A similar questionnaire was developed to collect information by telephone from smoking parents. Concordance between child- and parent-reported prompting was > 85% for five of seven prompts. However, the reported prevalence of six of the seven prompts was lower among parents than children. Thirty-two percent of mothers and 17% of fathers reported prompting their children to bring cigarettes to parents (the most common prompt). Students reported that 62% of their mothers and 54% of their fathers prompted them to bring their cigarettes, a substantial discrepancy in both cases. Child-reported prompting prevalence was consistently higher than parents' reports, with the biggest discrepancies between requests to clean ashtrays and bring cigarettes, the two most common prompts. In subsequent studies of parental prompting, it is advisable to collect data from both children and parents and to validate the accuracy of the sources.
    Chest 02/2004; 125(2):429-34. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine associations between cigarette availability measures with trial (ie, first) use of cigarettes. At Time 1 and one year later (Time 2), 478 adolescents completed smoking surveys. Trial smoking at Time 2 was predicted from Time 1 availability variables (prospective prediction), as well as Time 2 availability variables (cross-sectional prediction). Offers from friends/classmates were a significant cross-sectional predictor. In prospective analyses, greater perceptions of ease of obtaining cigarettes from parents and greater frequency of offers from an adult were related to trial smoking. Adult influences, including parental factors, may predispose a young adolescent to smoke.
    American journal of health behavior 01/2003; 27(1):84-8. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous research indicated that Latino parents, more so than non-Latino parents, may prompt their children to engage in behaviors that encourage them to "practice" smoking-related behaviors. The present study examined Latino and non-Latino adolescents' reports of parental prompting, defined as parental requests to: 1) empty/clean ashtrays; 2) bring cigarettes to parent; 3) accept tobacco industry promotional gear as a gift; 4) buy cigarettes for parent; 5) light parent's cigarette with a match or lighter; 6) start the cigarette in his/her own mouth and then pass it to parent; and 7) smoke with the parent. In 10 schools in the Southbay area of San Diego, 3,599 7th and 8th grade middle school students, the majority of whom were Latino, completed cross-sectional surveys assessing 7 parental prompts, past-month smoking, parental smoking, acculturation, and familism. Findings indicated that parental prompts were less prevalent than in our previous work. We also found that there were not consistent or great differences in the prevalence of prompting between Latinos and non-Latinos and that parental prompting, particularly requests that the child light the parent's cigarettes with a match or lighter, was associated with children's smoking. Further, we found that Latino adolescents may be influenced by more parental prompts than non-Latinos, and finally that higher familism scores were significantly associated with lower risk of smoking, regardless of ethnicity. Parental prompting and familism appear to be important correlates of adolescent smoking.
    Ethnicity & disease 02/2002; 12(4):508-16. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents the final evaluation of Language for Health, part of a federally funded initiative to develop heart disease prevention interventions for low-literate populations. Language for Health specifically intervened with recent immigrants enrolled in English-as-a-second-language classes, incorporating nutritional behavior change materials into English-language curricula. Latino participants (n = 732) were exposed to either nutrition education or stress management classes (attention-placebo group) designed specifically for low-English-literate adults. Participants completed physiological measures assessing blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and weight. Self-report surveys were administered to collect students' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, self-reported fat avoidance behaviors, and demographic information. Data were collected at baseline, 3-month posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated long-term effects of the intervention on nutrition knowledge and fat avoidance, yet only short-term effects on total cholesterol:HDL ratio and systolic blood pressure.
    Health Education &amp Behavior 03/2000; 27(1):50-63. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low literacy skills may negatively affect health through misuse of medication, inability to follow medical directions or due to limitations placed on the consumer's ability to access health information. The association between low literacy among adults and cardiovascular disease has not been thoroughly investigated in some ethnic groups. The purpose of this comprehensive study is to describe the results of a nutritional-related cardiovascular health program for limited English proficient adults enrolled in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes. Subjects (n = 408), nearly 87% of whom were Latino, were exposed to either nutrition education (intervention group) or stress management (attention-placebo control group) classes designed specifically for ESL classes. Subjects completed physiological measures assessing blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and body mass. Self-report surveys were administered to collect students' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Data were collected at baseline, 3 month post-test and 6 month follow-up. Analyses showed that differential group change was seen for fat avoidance, nutrition knowledge, HDL and total cholesterol:HDL ratio, but, for the two latter variables, the effect was not maintained at the 6 month follow-up. Both groups showed positive changes in blood pressure, total cholesterol and nutrition-related attitudes. Results showed moderate success of the intervention, but suggest contamination between experimental groups may have occurred.
    Health Education Research 01/1999; 13(4):567-75. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hispanic adults (n = 132) attending adult English language classes completed self-report surveys that assessed gender, acculturation level, and nutrition-related factors (i.e., knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, intentions, and fat avoidance). Descriptive statistics showed low nutrition knowledge among the group overall, although beliefs that changes in diet lead to better health, self-efficacy for changing diet, and intentions to make positive changes in diet were quite high. Analysis of variance procedures showed women avoided dietary fat and had greater intentions to make positive dietary changes than did men. In addition, higher acculturation level was related to greater dietary fat avoidance. Gender-by-acculturation interactions were seen for nutrition knowledge and beliefs, indicating complex relationships for these two nutrition variables. Results suggest that dietary interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risks need to take into account that nutrition knowledge, attitudes and behaviors may vary by gender and the acculturation level of the targeted Hispanic group.
    Ethnicity & disease 01/1997; 7(2):121-6. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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  • American journal of health promotion: AJHP 01/1997; 11(5):371-4. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • S A Frack, S I Woodruff, J Candelaria, J P Elder
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that attrition and noncompliance in longitudinal health intervention studies contribute to bias in both internal and external validity. However, little is known about rates and correlates of compliance with measurement protocols among Latinos. This article investigates correlates of compliance with follow-up physical measurement protocols among Latino subjects in a nutrition-oriented cardiovascular disease prevention program targeting low-English literate adults. Correlates of compliance, measured at baseline, included four classes of variables: demographic characteristics, physical measures, health behaviors, and nutrition-related psychological variables. Subjects were categorized into one of three compliance groups: on-time compliers, late or "reluctant" compliers, and noncompliers. Approximately 36% of subjects complied on time, 25% complied late, and 39% did not comply. Analyses showed that, relative to on-time and late compliers, noncompliers tended to be male, younger, of lower income and Spanish-literacy level, to drink more alcohol, to be less physically active, and to have lower dietary fat avoidance scores. No significant differences were found for other factors considered (e.g., physical health measures). These results generally reflect those of non-Hispanics that indicate that individuals at greater "risk" are less likely to comply with study protocols. Such results may be useful for designing culturally appropriate cohort maintenance strategies for longitudinal studies with Latinos.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 01/1997; 13(2):131-6. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hispanic adults who had low literacy in English (n = 14.3) and who attended community college English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes, completed 24-hour dietary recalls using version 2.5 of the computerized Minnesota Nutrition Data System (NDS), which included many Hispanic foods. The purposes of our study were to assess the appropriateness of NDS for a Hispanic group who had low literacy in English, to describe the development and implementation of training procedures for NDS interviewers, and to discuss the special problems that occurred using the enhanced version of NDS. Further, nutrient, intakes for the study population, as calculated using NDS, were compared with nutrient estimates from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). Results suggest that version 2.5 of NDS is a useful tool for collecting dietary information for Hispanics who have low literacy in English. Challenges encountered during data collection for this study could be categorized into three types: regional differences in foods, food preparation differences, and lack of appropriate options in NDS for preparation methods. Generally, the study group and HHANES participants had similar intakes, although the study group tended to have a more healthful nutrition profile. Overall, findings indicate that NDS is a promising assessment tool for nutrition practitioners who work with Hispanics who have low literacy in English. Continued improvements to the NDS system can correct its shortcomings related to regional/ cultural food differences.
    Journal of the American Dietetic Association 01/1997; 96(12):1276-9. · 3.80 Impact Factor
  • Jeanette Candelaria, Susan I. Woodruff, John P. Elder
    Journal of Nutrition Education. 09/1996; 28(5):297–299.
  • Journal of Nutrition Education - J NUTR EDUC. 01/1996; 28(4):219-222.
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    ABSTRACT: METHODS. Latino (n = 358) and Anglo (n = 113) adults living in the San Diego area were surveyed on nutrition, smoking, and cancer screening behaviors. The Latino respondents were dichotomized into a low (L-Latino) or high (H-Latino) acculturation group according to a median split of an acculturation index. RESULTS. After controlling for age, years of education, gender, marital status, and income, significant cross-cultural differences were found in saturated fat/cholesterol avoidance, and fiber and high calorie food consumption. L-Latino respondents had the lowest degree of saturated fat/cholesterol avoidance, followed by H-Latinos and Anglos. A pattern of decreasing consumption with increasing acculturation was observed for fiber and high calorie foods. Significant differences were found among women in the prevalence of Pap smear exams, with L-Latinas having the lowest prevalence of ever and in the past year having had a Pap smear, followed by H-Latinas and Anglos. A similar significant pattern was observed among women 50 years of age or older with respect to the prevalence of ever having had a mammogram.
    Preventive Medicine 12/1991; 20(6):751-63. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nutrition Education. 01/1990; 22(3):133–136.
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    ABSTRACT: Project Salsa was a community-based effort seeking to promote health through nutritional behavior change in a Latino community of San Diego, California. The purpose of this article is to report on program factors related to long-term institutionalization of Project Salsa interventions. To ensure maximum sensitivity to the needs and values of the community, Project Salsa began with an extensive health needs assessment, including development of an advisory council, telephone survey, archival research, and key informant interviews. The intervention community had 14,500 residents, of which nearly 83 % were Latino. Interventions included coronary heart disease risk factor screenings, meal preparation classes, newspaper columns, point-of-purchase education, school health and cafeteria programs, and breast-feeding promotion. Institutionalization of intervention components. Two of the interventions, the risk factor screenings and school health programs, are still in operation 4 yrs after the end of project funding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 01/1970; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Project Salsa was a community-based effort seeking to promote health through nutritional behavior change in a Latino community of San Diego, California. The purpose of this article is to report on program factors related to long-term institutionalization of Project Salsa interventions. Project Salsa was a demonstration rather than an experimental project. To ensure maximum sensitivity to the needs and values of the community, Project Salsa began with an extensive health needs assessment, including development of an advisory council, telephone survey, archival research, and key informant interviews. Project Salsa interventions took place in San Ysidro, California, located near the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to Tijuana from 1987 to 1992. The intervention community had 14,500 residents, of which nearly 83% were Latino. Interventions included coronary heart disease risk factor screenings, meal preparation classes, newspaper columns, point-of-purchase education, school health and cafeteria programs, and breast-feeding promotion. Institutionalization of intervention components. Two of the interventions, the risk factor screenings and school health programs, are still in operation 4 years after the end of project funding. Four factors common to institutionalized components are presented in the paper.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 12(6):391-401. · 2.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

186 Citations
34.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2005
    • San Diego State University
      • Graduate School of Public Health
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2004
    • Autonomous University of Baja California
      Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico