ABSTRACT: This study sought to assess the safety, efficacy, impact on hypothyroid symptoms, and pharmacokinetics of SKG-02 (rhTSH, thyrotropin alfa) in the diagnostic follow-up of Japanese patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC).
Ten Japanese adults with WDTC were enrolled into a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial comparing diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy (dxWBS) and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) testing aided by SKG-02 versus these procedures aided by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). Patients were their own controls. Variables compared included scan set ability to detect radioiodine uptake by remnant or malignant thyroid tissue, scan set quality, diagnostic sensitivity of dxWBS and Tg testing alone or combined, frequency of hypothyroid signs/symptoms, and adverse events (AEs). SKG-02 pharmacokinetic variables including maximum concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax) and the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) were calculated.
In a blinded evaluation by an independent committee of 3 nuclear medicine experts, 70% of SKG-02 dxWBS scan sets were rated "equivalent" (n = 7) or "superior" (n = 0) to their THW counterparts in ability to detect radioiodine uptake in healthy or malignant thyroid tissue. Therefore the study exceeded its primary endpoint of a 60% equivalence/superiority rate. SKG-02 Tg testing identified 3/3 cases of disease. Hypothyroid signs/symptoms were substantially more frequent during THW than during euthyroidism permitted by SKG-02 use. SKG-02 was well-tolerated, with no severe or serious drug-related AEs. Cmax was 240.8 +/- 65.9 microIU/ml, Tmax was 28.75 +/- 14.21 hr after the first SKG-02 injection, and AUC was 11,414 +/- 3,462 microIU hr/ml in 9 patients evaluable for pharmacokinetics.
SKG-02 was safe and effective in the diagnostic follow-up of Japanese patients with WDTC, avoiding hypothyroid morbidity relative to THW. These and the pharmacokinetic findings were similar to those of overseas Phase III studies.
Kaku igaku. The Japanese journal of nuclear medicine 11/2010; 47(4):479-96.
Thyroid 06/2008; 18(5):579-80. · 4.79 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Benign and malignant pulmonary lesions usually are differentiated by 18F-FDG PET with a semiquantitative 18F-FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5. However, the frequency of malignancies with an SUV of <2.5 is significant, and pulmonary nodules with low 18F-FDG uptake often present diagnostic challenges.
Among 360 consecutive patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET to evaluate pulmonary nodules found on CT, we retrospectively analyzed 43 who had solid pulmonary lesions (excluding lesions with ground-glass opacity, infiltration, or benign calcification) with an SUV of <2.5. The uptake of 18F-FDG was graded by a visual method (absent, faint, moderate, or intense) and 2 semiquantitative methods (SUV and contrast ratio [CR]). Final classification was based on histopathologic findings or at least 6 mo of clinical follow-up.
We found 16 malignant (diameter, 8-32 mm) and 27 benign (7-36 mm) lesions. When faint visual uptake was the cutoff for positive 18F-FDG PET results, the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis correctly identified all 16 malignancies and yielded false-positive results for 10 of 27 benign lesions. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 63%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 100%, respectively. When an SUV of 1.59 was the cutoff for positive 18F-FDG PET results, the ROC analysis revealed 81% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 77% and 89%, respectively. At a cutoff for positive 18F-FDG PET results of a CR of 0.29, the ROC analysis revealed 75% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 71% and 85%, respectively. The areas under the curve in ROC analyses did not differ significantly among the 3 analyses (visual, 0.84; SUV, 0.81; and CR, 0.82). Analyses of intra- and interobserver variabilities indicated that visual and SUV analyses were quite reproducible, whereas CR analysis was poorly reproducible.
These results suggested that for solid pulmonary lesions with low 18F-FDG uptake, semiquantitative approaches do not improve the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET over that obtained with visual analysis. Pulmonary lesions with visually absent uptake indicate that the probability of malignancies is very low. In contrast, the probability of malignancy in any visually evident lesion is about 60%.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2006; 47(3):426-31. · 6.38 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB)is highly accurate in predicting axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer, it has been shown that the procedure is associated with a few false negative results. The risk of leaving metastatic nodes behind in the axillary basin when SLNB is negative should be estimated for an individual patient if SLNB is performed to avoid conventional axillary lymph node dissection(ALND).
A retrospective analysis of 512 women with T1-3N0M0 breast cancer was conducted to derive a prevalence of nodal metastasis by T category as a pre-test(i.e., before SLNB)probability and to examine potential confounders on the relationship between T category and axillary nodal involvement. Probability of nodal metastasis when SLNB was negative was estimated by means of Bayes' theorem which incorporated the pre-test probability and sensitivity and specificity of SLNB.
Axillary nodal metastasis was observed in 6.1% of T1a-b, 25.1% of T1c, 28.7% of T2, 35.0% of T3 tumors. Point estimates for the probability of nodal involvement when SLNB was negative ranged from 0.3-1.3% for T1a-b, 1.6-6.3% for T1c, 2.0-7.5% for T2, and 2.6-9.7% for T3 tumors with representative sensitivities of 80%, 85%, 90% and 95%, respectively. The risk may be higher when the tumor involves the upper outer quadrant of the breast, while it may be lower for an underweight woman.
The probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when SLNB is negative can be estimated using a Bayesian approach. Presenting the probability to the patient may guide the decision of surgery without conventional ALND.
Breast Cancer 02/2005; 12(3):203-10. · 1.36 Impact Factor