[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis has a great impact on public health, and dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causal parasite. In this study, 159 animals naturally infected by L. infantum from an endemic area of Brazil were evaluated through an analysis of cellular responses, using flow cytometry, and of the hematological parameters. The results confirmed that disease progression is associated with anemia and reductions in eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. The investigation of the immune response, based on the immunophenotypic profile of peripheral blood, showed declines in the absolute numbers of T lymphocytes CD5(+) and their subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and a drop of B lymphocytes in asymptomatic seropositive (AD-II) and symptomatic seropositive (SD) dogs. Neutrophils, when stimulated with soluble antigen of L. infantum, showed higher synthesis of interferon (IFN)-γ(+) in AD-II and SD groups, with decreased production of interleukin (IL)-4(+) in asymptomatic seronegative dogs positive for L. infantum infection based on polymerase chain reaction testing (AD-I group). In the AD-II and SD groups, subpopulations of stimulated lymphocytes (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) also exhibited greater synthesis of IFN-γ(+) and IL-4(+) in culture. These results suggest that the animals of the AD-II and SD groups exhibited a mixed immune response (Type 1 and 2) and the AD-I group presenting an immune profile very similar to normal control animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and host cytokine gene polymorphisms and serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17A levels were measured in 67 HCV patients (68.2% genotype 1 [G1]) and 47 healthy controls. The HCV patients had higher IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17A levels than the controls. HCV G1 patients had higher IL-2 and IFN-γ levels than G2 patients. The -174IL6G>C, -308TNFαG>A, and -1082IL10A>G variants were similarly distributed in both groups. However, HCV patients with the -174IL6GC variant had higher IL-2 and IFN-γ levels than patients with the GG and CC variants. Additionally, HCV patients with the -308TNFαGG genotype had higher IL-17A levels than patients with the AG genotype, whereas patients with the -1082IL10GG variant had higher IL-6 levels than patients with the AA and AG variants. A significant proportion of HCV patients had high levels of both IL-2 and IFN-γ. The subgroup of HCV patients with the G1/IL6CG/TNFαGG association displayed the highest proportions of high producers of IL-2 and IFN-γ, whereas the subgroup with the G1/TNFαGG profile showed high proportions of high producers of IL-6 and IL-17A. HCV patients with other HCV/cytokine genotype associations showed no particular cytokine profile. Our results suggest that HCV genotype G1 and IL-6 and TNF-α polymorphisms have a clinically relevant influence on serum pro-inflammatory cytokine profile (IL-2 and IFN-γ) in HCV patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to address the protective immune response induced by S19 vaccination (n = 10) and RB51 revaccination, in pregnant (n = 9) and non-pregnant (n = 10) S19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle as follows: evaluate the in vitro CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes specific proliferation, and in vitro expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and IL-4 by CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ lymphocytes subset. Upon in vitro stimulation with γ-irradiated Brucella abortus 2308, blood mononuclear cells from S19 vaccinated and RB51 revaccinated cows exhibited significantly higher proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD4+IFN-γ+ T-cells compared to non-vaccinated animals. RB51 revaccination, regardless of the pregnancy status, did not enhance the proliferation of CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells nor IFN-γ or IL-4 production. Data from the present study suggest that cattle's cellular immune response induced after brucellosis vaccination and revaccination is due to CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, being CD4+ T-cells the main source of IFN-γ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study developed a remarkable methodological innovation (FC-ATE) which enables simultaneous detection of antibodies specific to the three evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi: live amastigote (AMA), live trypomastigote (TRYPO), and fixed epimastigote (EPI) using a differential fluorescence staining as low (AMA), intermediate (TRYPO), and high (EPI). An outstanding performance (100%) was observed in the discrimination of chagasic (CH), and non-chagasic (NCH) patients. In the applicability of FC-ATE in the diagnosis of Chagas disease,100% of the CH samples presented positivity in the percentage of positive fluorescent parasites (PPFP) for all three forms of T. cruzi. Moreover, 94% of the samples of NCH presented negatives values of PPFP with AMA and TRYPO, and 88% with EPI. Samples from NCH group with false-positive results were those belonging to the leishmaniasis patients. Considering the applicability of this technique in post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease, 100% of non-treated (NT), and treated non-cured (TNC) samples were positive with the three T. cruzi evolutive forms, while a percentage of 100% from samples of the treated cured (TC) patients were negative with AMA, 93% with TRYPO, and 96% with EPI. The comparison between FC-ATE and two other flow cytometric tests using the same samples of patients NT, TNC and TC showed that the three techniques presented different reactivity, although categorical correlation between the methodologies were observed. Taken together, the results obtained with the novel FC-ATE method have shown an outstanding performance in the diagnosis and post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with platelet activation, which may be involved in its pathogenesis promoting coagulation and mediating inflammation. We investigated whether the platelet activation status together with the frequency of platelet-leukocyte aggregates/PLA and monocytes tissue factor/TF expression could be used as laboratorial biomarkers for PE diagnosis and prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8+ T cells, and high NO production.
We investigated the immunogenicity and protective effect of LBSapSal vaccination after intradermal challenge with 1 x 107 late-log-phase L. infantum promastigotes in the presence of sand fly saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. The dogs were followed for up to 885 days after challenge.
The LBSapSal vaccine presents extensive antigenic diversity with persistent humoral and cellular immune responses, indicating resistance against CVL is triggered by high levels of total IgG and its subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2); expansion of circulating CD5+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and is Leishmania-specific; and reduction of splenic parasite load.
These results encourage further study of vaccine strategies addressing Leishmania antigens in combination with proteins present in the saliva of the vector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosoma mansoni tegument is involved in essential functions for parasite survival and represents a target for screening candidates for vaccine and diagnosis. Our group using reverse vaccinology selected six candidates, previously demonstrated by proteomics studies to be expressed in the parasite tegument, among them was Sm200. In this work we have cloned and expressed a recombinant form of Sm200 C-terminal (1069-1520) region. The efficacy of rSm200 (1069-1520) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and in the formulation of a vaccine against S. mansoni was assessed respectively in an ELISA based diagnostic assay and immunization protocols in mice. Significant differences between non-infected and acutely infected or chronically infected animals were observed and no cross-recognition was observed with sera from Ascaris suum or Ancylostoma ceylanicum infected mice. rSm200-ELISA test could also discriminate infected individuals from healthy donors not living in endemic area for schistosomiasis but failed to discriminate between individuals from a low endemic area for schistosomiasis known to have positive or negative stools after examination. Recombinant Sm200 also failed to induce protection against schistosomiasis, demonstrating that the C-terminal part of Sm200 is unable to induce protective immune response in mice. Therefore rSm200 (1069-1520)-ELISA represents an important tool to be used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory process, including the biomarker production, and the intense activation of innate immune responses are greater in the malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax than other species. Here, we examined the levels of serum biomarkers and their interaction during acute malaria. Material and Methods. Blood samples were collected from P. vivax-infected patients at admission and from healthy donors. Levels of serum biomarkers were measured by Cytometric Bead Assay or ELISA. Results. P. vivax infection triggered the production of both inflammatory and regulatory biomarkers. Levels of IL-6, CXCL-8, IFN- γ , IL-5, and IL-10 were higher in P. vivax-infected patients than in healthy donors. On the other hand, malaria patients produced lower levels of TNF- α , IL-12p70, and IL-2 than healthy individuals. While the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were found independent on the number of malaria episodes, higher levels of these cytokines were seen in patients with higher parasite load. Conclusion. A mixed pattern of proinflammatory and regulatory biomarkers is produced in P. vivax malaria. Analysis of biomarker network suggests that IL-10 and IL-6 are a robust axis in malaria patients and that this interaction seems to be associated with the parasite load.
Journal of immunology research. 01/2014; 2014:318250.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric syndrome characterized by generalized cognitive deficits that are associated with functional impairment. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulates neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity and is important for cognitive functioning. Evidence points to the involvement of this neuromodulatory system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that alteration of the ECS on peripheral lymphocytes could reflect central changes. The objective of this study was to compare levels of peripheral endocannabinoid receptor expression in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects and find evidence of association between peripheral expression of those receptors and cognitive performance. Patients with stabilized schizophrenia (N = 53) and controls (N = 22) underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation, and assessment of cannabinoid receptor expression on the surface of peripheral immune cells (lymphocytes, natural killer cells and monocytes) by flow cytometry. Patients with schizophrenia had lower levels of cannabinoid receptor expression on total T lymphocytes, but after controlling for possible confounders this difference did not remain significant. In patients, increased cannabinoid receptor expression on lymphocytes and monocytes was significantly correlated with worst cognitive performance. These data provide additional evidence of the involvement of the ECS in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the murine models have the feasibility to reproduce some signs of Dengue Virus (DENV) infection, the use of isogenic hosts with polarized immune response patterns does not reproduce the particularities of human disease. Our goal was to investigate the kinetics of peripheral blood biomarkers in immunocompetent Callithrix penicillata non-human primates subcutaneously infected with DENV-3. The viral load of infected animals was determinated by quantitative real time PCR. Measurements of DENV-3/IgM were performed, and several parameters were assessed by hemogram: Red blood cells count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells count, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets count. The coagulogram was performed by Prothrombin time (PT), and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays. The renal function was monitored by Urea and Creatinine, and the liver function by the aspartate (AST), and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases. Also, the level of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 was quantified during the experimental study. Data analysis was performed considering relevant differences when baseline fold changes were found outside from 0.75 to 1.5 range. Our data demonstrated that infected animals presented relevant signs of dengue disease, including peaks of viremia at 5 days-post-infection (dpi), peaks of anti-DENV-3 IgM at 15 dpi and hemaglutination inhibition assay (HIA) from 15 to at 60 dpi. Despite early monocytosis, slight neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, animals developed persistent leucopenia starting at 4 dpi. Anemia episodes were steady at 3-4 dpi. Patent thrombocytopenia was observed from 1-15 dpi with sporadic decrease of APTT. A substantial increase of ALT and AST was observed with higher peak at 4 dpi. Moreover, early increases of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma besides late increase of IFN- gamma were observed. The analysis of biomarkers network pointed out two relevant strong axes during early stages of dengue fever, a protective axes TNF-alpha/Lymphocytes/Platelets, and a pathological IL-2/IL-6/Viremia/Monocyte/PT bond. Later on, the biomarker network highlighted the interaction IFN-gamma/PLT/DENV-3(IgM;HAI)/PT, and the involvement of type-2 cytokines (IL-4;IL-5). Our findings demonstrated that C. penicillata is a feasible experimental model for Dengue Virus infection, which could be useful to pathogenesis studies, discovery of novel antiviral drugs as well as to evaluate vaccine candidates against DENV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we analyzed cellular immunophenotypic profiles of 52 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum, clinically classified as follows: asymptomatic dogs-I (AD-I), seronegative/PCR+; asymptomatic dogs-II (AD-II), seropositive/PCR+; oligosymptomatic dogs (OD) and symptomatic dogs (SD). Seven non-infected dogs (CD) were included as a control group. AD-II presented higher levels of CD8+ T splenocytes and lower TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio in comparison with CD. OD and SD showed lower percentages of CD21+ as compared with AD-II. All seropositive dogs presented lower levels of CD45RA+ than CD. Regardless of the stimuli used, the proliferation index from splenocytes in vitro was inversely correlated with clinical status. After LSA stimulation, there was a higher percentage of specific CD8+ T in AD-II than CD and non-stimulated culture. In contrast, splenocytes from SD under in vitro LSA stimulation induced decreased MHC-II+ expression in comparison with all groups, and non-stimulated culture. In conclusion, the role of CD8+ T splenocytes seems to be important for an effective immunological response, a hallmark of asymptomatic CVL, whereas the pronounced loss of MHC-II expression upon LSA stimulation is a biomarker of symptomatic CVL.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 11/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test in a broad range of serum samples using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C. Non-infected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test had an outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic-II, oligosymptomatic, symptomatic). However, in dogs which present positive results by PCR-RFLP but negative by conventional serology (asymptomatic-I), it was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune®, Leish-Tec®, LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype presented high performance particularly in dogs with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificity, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the prototype's potential for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis, with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 10/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunological biomarkers profiles were evaluated using Luminex as putative measures to monitor canine mammary carcinomas (MCs). Forty female dogs were categorized into benign mixed tumour (MC-BMT = 28) and mammary carcinoma (MC=12). The ascendant biomarker signatures were used to compare the groups. For example, a higher frequency of MC-BMT animals producing IL-6, CXCL-8 and CXCL-10 was observed, whereas for the MC group IL-2 and CXCL-8 were detected. MC-BMT animals without metastasis had an increase in the levels of IL-2, CXCL-8, CXCL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-15 and a decrease in IL-10 and CXCL-8. MC-BMT animals with metastasis showed only an increase in CXCL-10 and a decrease in IL-18. After comparing the ascendant signatures following the presence of metastasis in both groups, a higher frequency of dogs exhibiting IL-10 production was observed. Pearson correlation (P = 0.0273) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that this pattern was associated with worse outcome and lower survival rates in MC animals.
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 10/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dermotropic Leishmania species belonging to the Viannia subgenera, with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis considered the main agent in Brazil. After infection, a local inflammatory process is initiated, inducing the expression of several cytokine/chemokine genes. We evaluated the immunity to CL of patients living in the indigenous community Xakriabá, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by performing detailed analyses of the mRNA expression of different cytokines and chemokines in CL lesions, considering the time evolution (recent or late). We also studied the profile of the inflammatory infiltrate by histopathological analysis. The histopathological features of recent CL lesions showed an intense inflammatory reaction, characterized by the presence of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, whereas late CL lesions exhibited a predominance of mononuclear leukocytes. The gene expression of cytokines/chemokines in skin biopsies from the CL group showed higher transcript levels of modulatory (IL10 and TGFB1), anti-inflammatory (IL4), and pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFNG, IL12B, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL10) biomarkers in recent lesions than in late lesions. Our findings suggest that differential gene expression of cytokines and chemokines found in skin lesions from CL patients is associated with time evolution of lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study population comprised HNSCC patients, risk-positive controls (tabagism and alcoholism habits), and risk-negative controls (without risk factors). Significant increases in the activation status of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, and higher migration potentials of lymphocytes were observed in HNSCC patients compared with control groups. Although decreased frequency of CD19(+)-B lymphocytes was observed in HSNCC patients, a higher percentage of HLA-DR(+)CD19(+)-B lymphocytes was detected in these individuals as compared with other evaluated groups. Metastasis and tumor grading were the major pathological parameters associated with significant alterations in the expression of activation molecules on circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. A reduced frequency of CD38-expressing CD8(+) T-cells was the most relevant biomarker associated with HNSCC aggressiveness. Performance analysis suggested a cut-off point for the CD8(+)CD38(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio of 7.0 for segregating patients according to tumor grading. In contrast, a higher proportion of CD8(+)CD54(+)/CD8(+) T-cells could represent a relevant biomarker associated with metastasis in HNSCC patients, and performance analysis suggested a cut-off point for the CD8(+)CD54(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio of 30 for segregating patients according to absence or presence of metastasis. The results obtained can increment immunological aspects of HNSCC and provide tools for the determination of cut-off scores of clinically relevant immunophenotypic prognostic biomarkers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several efforts have been made to establish novel biomarkers with relevant predictive values to monitor HCV-infected patients under pegilated Interferon-α2A-(PEG-IFN-α2A)/ribavirin therapy. The aim of this study was to monitor the kinetics of HCV viral load, serum levels of pro-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines and leukocyte activation status before and after PEG-IFN-α2A/ribavirin therapy in 52 volunteers, including 12 chronic HCV patients and 40 controls. The HCV viral load, serum levels of cytokines (IL-8/IL-6/TNF-α/IL-12/IFN-γ/IL-4/IL-10) and the phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes were evaluated before and after 4, 12 and 24 weeks following the PEG-IFN-α2A/ribavirin therapy. Our results demonstrated that sustained virological response-(SVR) is associated with early decrease in the viral load after 4 weeks of treatment. The presence of a modulated pro-inflammatory profile at baseline favors SVR, whereas a strong inflammatory response at baseline predisposes to therapeutic failure. Furthermore, a time-dependent increase on serum IL-12 levels in patients under treatment is critical to support the SVR, while the early predominance of IL-10 correlates to late virological relapse. On the other hand, a broad but unguided "cytokine storm" is observed in the non-responder HCV patients after 12 weeks of treatment. Corroborating these findings, monocyte/lymphocyte activation at baseline is associated with the non-responders to therapy whereas high CD8(+) T-cell numbers associate with SVR. All in all, these data suggest that the baseline pattern of serum pro-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines and the immunological activation status of chronic HCV patients undergoing PEG-IFN-α2A/ribavirin therapy are closely related with the therapeutic response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dilated chronic cardiomyopathy (DCC) from Chagas disease is associated with myocardial remodeling and interstitial fibrosis, resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. In this study, we characterized for the first time, the serum MMPs 2 and 9 levels, as well as their main cell sources in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients presenting the indeterminate (IND) or cardiac (CARD) clinical forms of Chagas disease. Our results showed that serum levels of MMP-9 are associated with the severity of Chagas disease. The analysis of MMPs production by T lymphocytes showed that CD8(+) T cells are the main mononuclear leucocytes source of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 molecules. Using a new 3-dimensional model of fibrosis we observed that serum from patients with Chagas disease induced an increase in the extracellular matrix components in cardiac spheroids. Furthermore, MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed different correlation with matrix proteins and inflammatory cytokines in patients with Chagas disease. Our results suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 show distinct activities in Chagas disease pathogenesis. While MMP-9 seems to be involved with the inflammation and cardiac remodeling of Chagas disease, MMP-2 does not correlate with inflammatory molecules.
Infection and immunity 07/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the frequency, the activation and the cytokine and chemokine profile of HTLV-1 carriers with or without dermatological lesions were thoroughly described and compared. The results indicated that HTLV-1-infected patients with dermatological lesions have distinct frequency and activation status when compared to asymptomatic carriers. Alterations in the CD4(+)HLA-DR(+), CD8(+) T cell, macrophage-like and NKT subsets as well as in the serum chemokines CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were observed in the HTLV-1-infected group with skin lesions. Additionally, HTLV-1 carriers with dermatological skin lesions showed more frequently high proviral load as compared to asymptomatic carriers. The elevated proviral load in HTLV-1 patients with infectious skin lesions correlated significantly with TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, while the same significant correlation was found for the IL-12/IL-10 ratio and the high proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with autoimmune skin lesions. All in all, these results suggest a distinct and unique immunological profile in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1-infected patients with skin disorders, and the different nature of skin lesion observed in these patients may be an outcome of a distinct unbalance of the systemic inflammatory response upon HTLV-1 infection.