Stephen V Faraone

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States

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Publications (993)5194.87 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) and nicotine dependence (ND). Neurocognitive deficits may predict the increased risk of developing SUDs and nicotine dependence.Methods This study comprised three groups derived from the Dutch part of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study: ADHD probands (n = 294), unaffected siblings (n = 161), and controls (n = 214). At baseline (age = 12.2), a range of neurocognitive functions was assessed including executive functions (inhibition, working memory, timing), measures of motor functioning (motor timing and tracking) and IQ. After a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, SUDs and ND were assessed.ResultsNone of the neurocognitive functions predicted later SUDs or ND in ADHD probands, even after controlling for medication use and conduct disorder. Slower response inhibition predicted later nicotine dependence in unaffected siblings (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.22–3.48), and lower IQ predicted increased risk for SUDs in controls (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.12–3.44).Conclusions Cold executive functions, motor functioning, and IQ did not predict the elevated risk of SUDs and ND in ADHD. Future studies should target ‘hot’ executive functions such as reward processing as risk factors for SUDs or ND.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 08/2014; · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical presentation of ADHD between youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD and a sample of youth with ADHD only.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 08/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and ADHD, which increases risk of injuries and accidents.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 07/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neuropsychiatric disorder which is associated with impairments on a variety of cognitive measures and abnormalities in structural and functional brain measures. Genetic factors are thought to play an important role in the etiology of ADHD. The NeuroIMAGE study is a follow-up of the Dutch part of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project. It is a multi-site prospective cohort study designed to investigate the course of ADHD, its genetic and environmental determinants, its cognitive and neurobiological underpinnings, and its consequences in adolescence and adulthood. From the original 365 ADHD families and 148 control (CON) IMAGE families, consisting of 506 participants with an ADHD diagnosis, 350 unaffected siblings, and 283 healthy controls, 79 % participated in the NeuroIMAGE follow-up study. Combined with newly recruited participants the NeuroIMAGE study comprehends an assessment of 1,069 children (751 from ADHD families; 318 from CON families) and 848 parents (582 from ADHD families; 266 from CON families). For most families, data for more than one child (82 %) and both parents (82 %) were available. Collected data include a diagnostic interview, behavioural questionnaires, cognitive measures, structural and functional neuroimaging, and genome-wide genetic information. The NeuroIMAGE dataset allows examining the course of ADHD over adolescence into young adulthood, identifying phenotypic, cognitive, and neural mechanisms associated with the persistence versus remission of ADHD, and studying their genetic and environmental underpinnings. The inclusion of siblings of ADHD probands and controls allows modelling of shared familial influences on the ADHD phenotype.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 07/2014; · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of memantine hydrochloride as an adjunct to stimulant pharmacotherapy for treating executive function deficits (EFDs) in adults with ADHD.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 06/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Jordan
  • The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 06/2014; 204(6):490-491. · 6.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increased abundance of runs of homozygosity (ROH) has been associated with risk for various diseases, including schizophrenia. Here we investigate the characteristics of ROH in Palau, an Oceanic population, evaluating whether these characteristics are related to risk for psychotic disorders and the nature of this association. To accomplish these aims we evaluate a sample of 203 cases with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders—representing almost complete ascertainment of affected individuals in the population—and contrast their ROH to that of 125 subjects chosen to function as controls. While Palauan diagnosed with psychotic disorders tend to have slightly more ROH regions than controls, the distinguishing features are that they have longer ROH regions, greater total length of ROH, and their ROH tends to co-occur more often at the same locus. The nature of the sample allows us to investigate whether rare, highly penetrant recessive variants generate such case–control differences in ROH. Neither rare, highly penetrant recessive variants nor individual common variants of large effect account for a substantial proportion of risk for psychosis in Palau. These results suggest a more nuanced model for risk is required to explain patterns of ROH for this population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 06/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension.Methods 69 late adolescents with VCFS, 23 siblings of youth with VCFS and 30 community controls participated in a longitudinal research project and had repeat neuropsychological test batteries and psychiatric evaluations every 3 years. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – 2nd edition (WIAT-II) Reading Comprehension subtest served as our primary outcome variable.Results Consistent with previous research, children and adolescents with VCFS had mean reading comprehension scores on the WIAT-II, that were approximately two standard deviations below the mean and word reading scores approximately one standard deviation below the mean. A more novel finding is that relative to both control groups, individuals with VCFS demonstrated a longitudinal decline in reading comprehension abilities yet a slight increase in word reading abilities. In the combined control sample, WISC-III FSIQ, WIAT-II Word Reading, WISC-III Vocabulary and CVLT-C List A Trial 1 accounted for 75% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. In the VCFS sample, WISC-III FSIQ, BASC-Teacher Aggression, CVLT-C Intrusions, Tower of London, Visual Span Backwards, WCST Non-perseverative Errors, WIAT-II Word Reading and WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility index accounted for 85% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. A principal component analysis with promax rotation computed on the statistically significant Time 1 predictor variables in the VCFS sample resulted in three factors: Word reading decoding/Interference control, Self-Control/Self-Monitoring and Working Memory.Conclusions Childhood predictors of late adolescent reading comprehension in VCFS differ in some meaningful ways from predictors in the non-VCFS population. These results offer some guidance for how best to consider intervention efforts to improve reading comprehension in the VCFS population.
    Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 06/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents.
    Schizophrenia Research 05/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Erin N Schoenfelder, Stephen V Faraone, Scott H Kollins
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly higher risk of cigarette smoking. The nature of the relationship between smoking and psychostimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD is controversial. Our objective was to examine the relationship between stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking by using meta-analysis, and to identify study and sample characteristics that moderate this relationship. Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo databases identified published studies for inclusion. Included studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD individuals. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, and 14 (total n = 2360) contained sufficient statistical information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two authors extracted odds ratios or frequencies of smokers in the treatment or nontreatment groups, and coded study characteristics including sample source, percentage of male participants, follow-up length, treatment consistency, type of smoking measure, prospective study, and controlling for comorbidities. Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates. Meta-regression indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that used clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, conceptualized stimulant treatment as consistent over time, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder. Nearly all studies were naturalistic, precluding causal inferences. Available data were insufficient to examine additional influences of patient demographics, treatment effectiveness, or other comorbidities. Consistent stimulant treatment of ADHD may reduce smoking risk; the effect was larger in samples with more severe psychopathology. Implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention are discussed.
    PEDIATRICS 05/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to psychosocial stress than L-allele homozygotes. This study aimed to investigate whether 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the effects of stress on ADHD in a multisite prospective ADHD cohort study. 5-HTTLPR genotype, as well as the number of stressful life events in the past 5 years and ongoing long-term difficulties, was determined in 671 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, their siblings, and healthy controls (57.4% male, average age 17.3 years). Linear mixed models, accounting for family relatedness, were applied to investigate the effects of genotype, experienced stress, and their interaction on ADHD severity at time point T2, while controlling for ADHD severity at T1 (mean follow-up time 5.9 years) and for comorbid internalizing problems at T2. The interaction between genotype and stress significantly predicted ADHD severity at T2 (p = .006), which was driven by the effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity (p = .004). Probing of the interaction effect made clear that S-allele carriers had a significantly more positive correlation between stress and ADHD severity than L-allele homozygotes. The results show that the interaction between 5-HTTLPR and stress is a mechanism involved particularly in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension of ADHD, and that this is independent of comorbid internalizing problems. Further research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this interaction effect is warranted.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 05/2014; · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors.
    Behavioural brain research 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we extended our findings from a genome-wide association study of the euphoric response to d-amphetamine in healthy human volunteers by identifying enrichment between SNPs associated with response to d-amphetamine and SNPs associated with psychiatric disorders. We found that SNPs nominally associated (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01) with schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were also nominally associated with d-amphetamine response. Furthermore, we found that the source of this enrichment was an excess of alleles that increased sensitivity to the euphoric effects of d-amphetamine and decreased susceptibility to schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In contrast, three negative control phenotypes (height, inflammatory bowel disease, and Parkinson disease) did not show this enrichment. Taken together, our results suggest that alleles identified using an acute challenge with a dopaminergic drug in healthy individuals can be used to identify alleles that confer risk for psychiatric disorders commonly treated with dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. More importantly, our results show the use of the enrichment approach as an alternative to stringent standards for genome-wide significance and suggest a relatively novel approach to the analysis of small cohorts in which intermediate phenotypes have been measured.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Molecular psychiatry 04/2014; · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD) have been previously shown to be at very high risk for substance use disorders (SUD). We now examine the influence of a parental history of substance use disorders on SUD risk in offspring with and without BPD.Methods We studied 190 parents ascertained through 104 adolescent BPD probands and 189 parents ascertained through 98 control probands using structured interviews. We compared the prevalence of SUD using logistic regression.ResultsWhile adjusting for BPD in our combined sample, probands with a parental history of SUD were more likely to have an alcohol use disorder compared to probands without a parental history. Probands with a parental history of SUD were not more likely to have a drug use disorder or overall SUD compared to probands without a parental history. BPD in the offspring did not pose any additional risk between parental history of SUD and offspring SUD.Conclusion Alcohol use disorders were more common in the offspring of parents with a SUD history compared to parents without SUD and the risk was not influenced by offspring BPD.Scientific SignificanceClarifying the mechanisms linking parental SUD to offspring SUD, particularly in children and adolescents with BPD, would help clinicians to educate and monitor high-risk families, which would facilitate strategies to mitigate risks associated with parental substance abuse. (Am J Addict 2014;XX:1–7)
    American Journal on Addictions 03/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The Lifetime Impairment Survey, conducted in Europe, assessed impairment and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, and experiences of ADHD diagnosis and treatment, as recalled by adults. Adults with ADHD and without ADHD (control group) were invited to participate in an internet-based survey and report on their childhood experiences. History of ADHD diagnosis was self-reported. Groups were compared using impairment and symptom scales. Overall, 588 adults with ADHD and 736 without ADHD participated. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age at diagnosis of ADHD was 20.0 (12.6) years (median 18.0) following consultation with 3.8 (5.1) doctors (median 2) over 44.6 (69.3) months (median 17.0). A total of 64.1% (377/588) of adults with ADHD reported frustration or difficulties during the diagnostic process. The ADHD group had a higher mean (SD) score versus control for general (3.3 [1.2] vs 2.1 [1.2]; p < 0.001) and school impairment (2.8 [0.7] vs 2.3 [0.6]; p < 0.001) but not home impairment (2.1 [0.5] for both groups). Discussion The survey demonstrated that ADHD had a negative impact on all aspects of childhood investigated, as recalled by adults. These data provide insights into childhood impairments and identify areas for improvement in the management and treatment of ADHD.
    CNS spectrums 02/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associated patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and dysfunction vary by referral source. ASD youth referred to a specialized ambulatory program for ASD (N = 143) were compared to ASD youth referred to a general child psychiatry clinic (N = 217). More ASD clinic youth met criteria for a more robust form of ASD (autistic disorder); more youth referred to the psychiatry clinic met criteria for broader spectrum ASD (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified). General psychiatry clinic youth with ASD suffered from a greater burden of psychopathologies and higher levels of dysfunction. The presentation of ASD in psychiatrically referred youth differs between general and ASD-specialized clinics, though both referral populations have high levels of comorbidity and dysfunction.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 02/2014; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).
    Journal of Attention Disorders 02/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high school dropout and being out of the work last year. Childhood ADHD symptoms, sex differences, comorbidities of other mental disorders, and adult ADHD symptoms were examined by historical data, clinician interviews, and questionnaires. High levels of ADHD symptom severity in childhood were related to dropping out of high school [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], as were higher numbers of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in childhood. Significantly, more women than men were long-term work disabled (OR = 2.0). After adjusting for age and gender, persisting high levels of ADHD inattention symptoms in adulthood (OR = 2.5), number of comorbid disorders, and particularly anxiety disorders were significantly related to long-term work disability. Childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and overall severity of childhood ADHD symptoms were associated with high school dropout rates; however, persisting ADHD inattention symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in adulthood were more correlated to occupational impairment. These findings underline proposals for studies on early recognition and interventions for ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. They further suggest that inattentive symptoms be a focus of adult ADHD treatment and that workplace interventions be considered to prevent long-term work disability.
    ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 02/2014;

Publication Stats

43k Citations
5,194.87 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Neuroscience and Physiology
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Syracuse University
      Syracuse, New York, United States
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Statistical Science
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Department of Psychology
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 2008–2013
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Clinical Neuropsychology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Nihon University
      • Department of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2007–2013
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Syracuse VA Medical Center
      Syracuse, New York, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Psychology
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Mental Health
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Community Health and Epidemiology
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Michigan
      • Center for Statistical Genetics
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1990–2013
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Commonwealth of Massachusetts
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1985–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Commonwealth Research Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Cardiff University
      • Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
    • University of Bergen
      • Department of Biomedicine
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2011–2012
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Buffalo, NY, United States
    • York University
      • Department of Psychology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Alabama
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Tuscaloosa, AL, United States
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
    • Chang Jung Christian University
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2006–2012
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • King's College London
      • • MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Southampton
      • Developmental Brain-Behaviour Laboratory (DBBL)
      Southampton, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2011
    • National Taiwan University Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2005–2011
    • National Taiwan University
      • • Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine
      • • Department of Psychology
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2002–2011
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • Elgin Mental Health Center
      Elgin, Illinois, United States
    • Tufts University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, GA, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1993–2011
    • Harvard University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Social Neuroscience and Psychopathology Laboratory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2007–2010
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine
      La Jolla, CA, United States
    • University of Oslo
      • Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Division of Health Sciences and Technology
      Cambridge, MA, United States
    • Universität Mannheim
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008–2009
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2007–2009
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Brain Research Institute
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Trinity College Dublin
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Genetics
      Dublin, L, Ireland
    • University Center Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • National Health Research Institutes
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2005–2008
    • New York University
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Peking University People's Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1998–2005
    • California State University, Sacramento
      Sacramento, California, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • McLean Hospital
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995–2004
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989–2004
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Neurology
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • School of Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 1997
    • Davis School District
      Davis, California, United States