[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, we determined whether 2-month prednisolone therapy for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome was inferior or not to 6-month therapy despite significantly less steroid exposure. The primary end point was time from start of initial treatment to start of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio of 1.3 with one-sided significance of 5%. We randomly assigned 255 children with an initial episode of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome to either 2 - or 6-month treatment of which 246 were eligible for final analysis. The total prednisolone exposure counted both initial and relapse prednisolone treatment administered over 24 months. Median follow-up in months was 36.7 in the 2-month and 38.2 in the 6-month treatment group. Time to frequent relaps was similar in both groups; however, the median was reached only in the 6-month group (799 days). The hazard ratio was 0.86 (90% confidence interval, 0.64-1.16) and met the non-inferior margin. Time to first relapse was also similar in both groups: median day 242 (2-month) and 243 (6-month). Frequency and severity of adverse events were similar in both groups. Most adverse events were transient and occurred during initial or relapse therapy. Thus, 2 months of initial prednisolone therapy for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, despite less prednisolone exposure, is not inferior to 6 months of initial therapy in terms of time to onset of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome.Kidney International advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.260.
Kidney International 07/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prednisolone, the first-line treatment for children with nephrotic syndrome, causes severe side effects. One of these side effects is ocular hypertension, which can result in severe and permanent visual disturbance. However, the exact prevalence, severity and timing of development of ocular hypertension have yet to be fully explored in this pediatric patient group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and factors associated with progression in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear, especially in Asian children.
We started a nationwide, prospective cohort study of 447 Japanese children with pre-dialysis CKD in 2010, with follow-up in 2011. Progression to ESKD was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis according to CKD stage. Cox regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for progression.
Data were analyzed for 429/447 children. Five patients died, of which four died before progression to ESKD. Fifty-two patients progressed to ESKD (median follow-up 1.49 years), including 9/315 patients with stage 3 CKD, 29/107 with Stage 4 CKD and 14/25 with Stage 5 CKD. One-year renal survival rates were 98.3, 80.0 and 40.9%, for Stages 3, 4 and 5 CKD, respectively. Risk factors for progression to ESKD included CKD stage [versus Stage 3; Stage 4: hazard ratio (HR) 11.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.22-29.28, P < 0.001; Stage 5: HR 26.95, 95% CI 7.71-94.17, P < 0.001], heavy proteinuria (>2.0 g/g urine creatinine; HR 7.56, 95% CI 3.22-17.77, P < 0.001) and age ( < 2 years: HR 9.06; 95% CI 2.29-35.84, P = 0.002; after starting puberty: HR 4.88; 95% CI 1.85-12.85, P = 0.001).
In this cohort, 12.5% of children with pre-dialysis CKD progressed to ESKD with a median-follow-up of 1.49 years. Children with advanced (Stage 4/5) CKD were particularly likely to progress. To our knowledge, this is the first, nationwide, prospective cohort study of children with pre-dialysis CKD in Asia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of the transition from pediatric to adult healthcare has recently been recognized. In patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), the shift in steroid dose during the transition period is a big problem. Thus, change in treatment methods during this transition need to be clarified.
Questionnaires were sent to all councilors of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Nephrology who managed SSNS in children. The questionnaires asked about steroid dose, informed consent, and transition programs. Councilors in 50 of 57 (87.7 %) institutes responded within 2 weeks.
About one-third of pediatric nephrologists (PNs) did not transfer patients to adult units, and half of PNs followed patients after they reached adulthood (i.e., age >20 years). The dose of steroids after puberty varied between doctors, but 74 % of PNs provided short-term daily therapy. 72 % of PNs informed the patients of the shift in steroid dose, but 26 % of PNs did not. About two-thirds of PNs did not consult with adult nephrologists before the transition from pediatric to adult care. No institute had a transition program for SSNS and 2 institutes had transition coordinators.
Transition programs are needed in Japan. But the difference in the steroid regimen between pediatric and adult patients with SSNS is a barrier to transition. This difference needs to be discussed.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 02/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II trial was conducted from July 1, 2005 to March 29, 2011 to compare two protocols for treating children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome using microemulsified cyclosporine.
Ninety-three children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome were randomly assigned to group A (n=46) or group B (n=47). In both groups, the 2-hour postdose cyclosporine level was monitored. For group A, the cyclosporine target was set to 600-700 ng/ml for the first 6 months and 450-550 ng/ml for the next 18 months; for group B, it was set to 450-550 ng/ml for the first 6 months and 300-400 ng/ml for the next 18 months. The primary end point was the sustained remission rate. At the end of the study, if there was no difference in safety profile between the two groups and the sustained remission rate in group A was superior to group B with a decision threshold of 8%, then the regimen for group A would be determined the better treatment.
Eight children from an ineligible institution, where cyclosporine levels were not measured, were excluded from all analyses. At 24 months, the sustained remission rate was nonsignificantly higher in group A (n=43) than group B (n=42; 64.4% versus 50.0%; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 1.11; P=0.09), and the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher (88.1% versus 68.4%; hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.94; P=0.03). The relapse rate was significantly lower in group A than group B (0.41 versus 0.95 times/person-year; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.84; P=0.02). The rate and severity of adverse events were similar in both treatment groups.
The sustained remission rate was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, but the regimen with the higher 2-hour postdose cyclosporine level target improved progression-free survival and reduced the relapse rate.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal inulin clearance is the gold standard for evaluation of kidney function, but is compromised by problems of collecting urine samples in children, especially those <6 years or with a bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we should utilize the serum cystatin C (cysC)-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for measuring serum cysC. The purpose of the present study is to determine the applicability of the new serum cysC-based eGFR in Japanese children and adolescents, including infants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), for evaluation of renal function.
Inulin clearance and standardized serum cysC level determined by the colloidal gold immunoassay were measured in 135 pediatric CKD patients between the ages of 1 month and 18 years with no underlying disease that affects renal function except CKD, to determine serum cysC-based eGFR in Japanese children and adolescents.
We showed the inulin clearance by expression of 1/serum cysC in pediatric CKD patients, which resulted in the equation: inulin GFR (mL/min/1.73 m(2)) = 104.1 × 1/serum cysC (mg/L) - 7.80. We also validated the cysC-based eGFR formula for Japanese adults. eGFR values obtained with the adult formula significantly underestimated GFR by approximately 8 % in children with CKD.
We determined the new cysC-based eGFR formula is useful for clinical screening of renal function in Japanese children and adolescents, including infants.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 11/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been thought to be a benign disease, but recently severe cases have been reported with increasing recognition. A 3-year-old girl with congenital nephrotic syndrome had rapidly progressed to coma. Computed tomography (CT) of the head showed striking swelling of the brainstem and transtentorial herniation. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed. Consecutively, blood pressure was optimally controlled. The patient gradually recovered to the previous state before onset of PRES. Rapid improvement of clinical symptoms and rapid resolution of abnormal findings on serial CT led to diagnosis of PRES. In severe PRES with unstable vital signs, surgical intervention should be considered as well as appropriate blood pressure management.
Pediatrics International 10/2013; 55(5):644-6. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal inulin clearance is the gold standard for evaluation of kidney function, but cannot be measured easily in children. Therefore, we utilize the serum creatinine (Cr)-based estimated GFR (eGFR) measuring serum Cr by the enzymatic method, and we have reported simple serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese children aged between 2 and 11 years old. Furthermore, we should use serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese adolescents as well as children with chronic kidney disease for evaluation of renal function.
The inulin clearance and serum Cr level determined by an enzymatic method were measured in 131 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients between the ages of 2 and 18 years old with no underlying disease affecting renal function except CKD to determine the serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese children and adolescents.
We offer the complex estimated GFR equation using polynomial formulae for reference serum creatinine levels with body length in Japanese children except infants, resulting in the following equation:[Formula: see text] Reference serum Cr levels (y) are shown by the following two equations of body length (x):[Formula: see text] CONCLUSION: The new polynomial eGFR formula showing the relationship with body length and serum Cr level may be applicable for clinical screening of renal function in Japanese children and adolescents aged between 2 and 18 years.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 09/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Renal inulin clearance is the gold standard for glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but is compromised by problems of collecting urine samples in children, especially those <6 years of age or with a bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we should utilize the serum creatinine (Cr)-based estimated GFR (eGFR), measuring serum Cr by enzymatic method. The updated Schwartz formulae were reported by enzymatic Cr instead of by the Jaffe method in American children aged 1-16 years old. We believe it would be better to determine serum Cr-based eGFR by the enzymatic method in Japanese children for evaluation of renal function. METHODS: Serum Cr-based eGFR was determined by measuring inulin clearance and serum Cr level in 76 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (49 males and 27 females) aged 2-11 years with no underlying disease that would affect renal function. RESULTS: We showed the inulin clearance by expression of the body length/serum Cr ratio in pediatric CKD patients, which resulted in the equation: [Formula: see text]. Additionally, we suggest the following serum Cr-based eGFR formula passing through the origin: [Formula: see text], because it is simple and easy to remember, thus making it clinically useful. CONCLUSION: The new eGFR formula derived from body length and serum Cr level is applicable for clinical screening of renal function in Asian as well as Japanese children aged between 2 and 11 years old.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 04/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The data available on reference ranges for cystatin C in children are limited, and there are discrepancies among the available data. The aim of this study was to describe the reference ranges for cystatin C in Japanese children by using 4 automated assays. METHODS: Serum cystatin C levels were measured in 1128 Japanese children aged 3 month to 16 years without kidney disease. We calculated age-, gender-, race- and assay-specific cystatin C ranges. RESULTS: For all 4 assays, the median serum cystatin C levels were raised in term infants compared with older children and decreased by the first 2 years. The median serum cystatin C levels remained constant throughout up to the age of 14 years and decreased in children aged 15-16 years. The median serum cystatin C levels in children aged 12-16 years were slightly higher in males than in females. Assay-specific differences were also observed in the levels of serum cystatin C measured. CONCLUSION: Age-, gender-, race- and assay-specific ranges for serum cystatin C should be used as another tool to assess kidney function in children.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 02/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in pediatric kidney allografts is associated with poor graft survival. Several therapeutic regimens have been proposed, with conflicting results. METHODS: Ten pediatric patients with recurrent FSGS after kidney transplantation were treated with a protocol of methylprednisolone (MP) infusions in combination with cyclosporine (CsA)-based immunosuppression. The patients received a drug regimen with infusions of 20 mg/kg MP on three consecutive days at week 1, week 3, and week 5, and then monthly until six months after transplantation. If a complete or partial remission (PR) was obtained, MP pulse continued every three months until 24 months after transplantation. The CsA dose was adjusted according to AUC0-4. RESULTS: Seven of 10 patients (70%) achieved complete remission (CR) with stable renal function within 18 months of beginning of treatment. One of two patients with PR entered CR 3.5 yr after transplantation. One patient lost her graft due to recurrence four months after transplantation. After observation for 26-119 months, seven patients maintained remission with normal glomerular filtration rate. Few major side effects were observed in association with the high-dose MP infusion therapy. CONCLUSIONS: MP infusion therapy in combination with CsA-based immunosuppression could be safe and effective in treating recurrent FSGS after kidney transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early identification of frequently relapsing children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is desirable. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The relapse status and clinical data of patients previously registered (January of 1993 to December of 2001) in a multicenter prospective study of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children regimen were analyzed for risk of frequent relapsers over a 2-year follow-up period. RESULTS: Of 166 children with nephrotic syndrome (113 boys and 53 girls; median age=5.1 years), 145 (87.3%, median age=5.5 years) children were steroid-sensitive, and 21 (12.7%, median age=2.9 years) children were steroid-resistant. Of 145 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, 32 (22.1%, median age=4.2 years) children experienced frequent relapses over 2 years. The time to initial response was significantly longer (10 versus 7 days, P<0.001, log-rank test) in the 32 frequent relapsers than in the 106 nonfrequent relapsers. The time from start of initial treatment to first relapse was significantly shorter (2.6 versus 6.1 months, P<0.001, log-rank test) in the 32 frequent relapsers than in the 57 infrequent relapsers. In a Cox regression model, the time to initial response ≥9 days and the duration from start of initial treatment to first relapse <6 months were significant predictors of frequent relapses (unadjusted and adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Initial remission time ≥9 days and first relapse within 6 months were associated with frequent relapses. These findings may also be useful also in selecting potential frequent relapsers for clinical trials.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine has improved remission rates in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). However, little prospective long-term follow-up data is available. METHODS: We prospectively followed and analyzed 5-year outcomes of all 35 patients enrolled in our previous prospective multicenter trial with cyclosporine and steroids in children with SRNS. At enrollment, 23 cases were classified as minimal change (MC), five as diffuse mesangial proliferation (DMP), and seven as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). RESULTS: Renal survival at 5 years (median 7.7 years) was 94.3 %. Patient status was complete remission (CR) in 31 (88.6 %) (MC/DMP, 25; FSGS, 6); partial remission in one (FSGS); and non-remission in three (MC/DMP), including chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease in one each. Among 31 patients with CR, 22 (71.0 %) were receiving treatment with immunosuppressants at 5 years, including cyclosporine in 19, and seven of these 22 continued to show frequent relapse. Response to cyclosporine at 4 months predicted 5-year outcome in 31 of 35 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although SRNS treatment with cyclosporine provides high renal survival and remission rates, many children require ongoing immunosuppression. Management has advanced from the prevention of end-stage kidney disease to the long-term maintenance of remission and management of relapse after induction therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the safety and efficacy of cyclosporine in children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) have been confirmed, no prospective follow-up data on relapse after cyclosporine have appeared. This study is a prospective follow-up trial after 2-year treatment with cyclosporine to investigate cyclosporine dependency after its discontinuation. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Participants who had undergone 2-year protocol treatment with microemulsified cyclosporine for FRNS between January 2000 and December 2005 were followed for an additional 2 years. The primary end point was relapse-free survival after the complete discontinuation of cyclosporine, and the secondary end point was regression-free survival (time to regression to FRNS). RESULTS: After exclusion of 7 patients who showed regression to FRNS during the 2-year treatment period, 49 children (median age, 6.5 years) were followed, and classified as children without (n=32; group A) and with (n=17; group B) relapse during the initial cyclosporine treatment. Overall, relapse-free survival probability at 24 months after cyclosporine discontinuation was 15.3% and regression to FRNS-free survival probability was 40.8%. By group, the probability of relapse-free survival was significantly higher in group A (17.9%) than in group B (8.3%) (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Children with FRNS who receive cyclosporine are at high risk of relapse after discontinuation, particularly those who experience relapse during cyclosporine treatment.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2012; 7(10):1576-1583. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Serum β2 microglobulin (β2MG) is considered to be a marker of renal function, which is independently associated with age. However, only a few studies have reported the reference values for β2MG in children thus far, particularly in young children. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of serum β2MG values in healthy Japanese children and assessed its clinical usefulness. METHOD: The normal reference value of serum β2MG was assessed in serum samples from 1131 normal Japanese children (504 boys and 627 girls; age 0-17 years). To test the validity of the reference value, serum samples from children with various kidney diseases were also examined retrospectively. RESULTS: The mean values for β2MG were significantly negatively correlated with age (r = -0.47, P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the values of boys and girls in any age group. The established β2MG reference range covered 99.7 % of patients with decreased kidney function below 75 % based on their serum creatinine (Cr) value and body length. CONCLUSION: The newly established β2MG reference value in children can be used to detect kidney impairment in children. Serum β2MG in combination with serum Cr used as markers for predicting glomerular function can provide an accurate detection of kidney dysfunction in children.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 07/2012; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to determine whether the new Schwartz "bedside" equation can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in Japanese children as there are differences in renal function and muscle mass between Japanese and American individuals. It is also important to determine whether one common equation can be used in children from 1 to 16 years old, including the period of adolescence. Blood samples were collected from a total of 1,074 healthy children (466 males and 608 females) between 1 and 16 years old. The estimated GFR (eGFR) derived by the new Schwartz bedside formula [eGFR (in milliliters per minute per 1.73 m(2)) = 0.413 × body length (in centimeters)/serum Cr value (in milligrams per deciliter)] was calculated in all subjects, and the relationship between age and eGFR was analyzed. The eGFR decreased gradually with age, and the decrease was more marked in males than females, mainly in adolescence. Weak negative but significant correlations were observed in 466 males and 608 females. The median of the eGFR value showed a gradual significant decrease with age. Conclusion: A common coefficient cannot be used in children between 1 and 16 years old, including the period of adolescence, with the Schwartz type formula, and the new Schwartz bedside formula cannot be used when we estimated GFR in Japanese children. It is necessary to establish an eGFR equation specifically for Japanese children.
European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2012; 171(9):1401-4. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective trial of corticosteroid (steroid) withdrawal after pediatric renal transplantation was started in 1990. Fifty-eight recipients with functioning grafts reached their final height. They were transplanted at a mean age of 10.7 yr. Immunosuppressive therapy with CyA, MP, and MZ was started after transplantation. MP was reduced to an alternate-day dose in 49 patients and was withdrawn in 23. Their mean height SDS was -2.4 at the time of transplantation and -2.1 at their final height. Mean final height was 157.9 cm in men and 147.6 cm in women. In 18 patients who had been withdrawn from MP for more than two yr before reaching final height, mean age at transplantation was 8.9 yr. Their mean height SDS of -2.2 at the time of transplantation increased to -1.6 at their final height (p = 0.02), and mean final height was 163.8 cm in men and 147.8 cm in women. The height SDS in all 58 patients was maintained during the immunosuppressive therapy with steroid minimization, and final height SDS increased in recipients older than five yr at transplantation with steroid withdrawal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with IgA nephropathy showing diffuse (>80%) mesangial proliferation are at high risk for end-stage renal failure (ESRF). A previous controlled trial showed that combination therapy consisting of prednisolone, azathioprine, heparin-warfarin, and dipyridamole early in the course of disease reduces immunologic renal injury and prevents the progression of sclerosed glomeruli. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of combination therapy in children with IgA nephropathy showing diffuse mesangial proliferation.
A secondary analysis of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 78 children with IgA nephropathy who received either 2-year combination therapy or heparin-warfarin and dipyridamole (control) therapy was conducted.
The median duration of observation was 10 years (range, 0.5 to 18). Two of 40 patients (5%) who received combination therapy and five of 34 patients (14.7%) who received control therapy developed ESRF. A Kaplan-Meier plot of renal survival showed that the outcomes of patients in the combined therapy group were better than those in the control therapy group (log-rank P = 0.03). The 10-year renal survival probability of each group was 97.1% (95% confidence interval, 81.4 to 99.6%) and 84.8% (95% confidence interval, 55.4 to 95.5%), respectively. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that the 2-year combination therapy was significantly associated with renal survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses.
Two-year combination therapy not only ameliorated the activity of the acute phase of nephritis but also improved the long-term outcome of severe childhood IgA nephropathy.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2011; 6(6):1301-7. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was originally used to describe a reversible, predominantly posterior leukoencephalopathy in patients who had renal insufficiency, hypertension, or who received immunosuppressive therapy. Since PRES is prevalent in children with kidney diseases, awareness and understanding of it is important for practicing pediatric nephrologists. A comprehensive approach to the diagnosis of PRES includes thorough determination of predisposing factors, clinical symptoms, and mandatory appropriate imaging. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of PRES is still obscure and specificity of radiological examination has not yet been established. Two major predisposing factors, namely hypertension and calcineurin inhibitors, are well recognized. In addition, nephrotic syndrome is a common underlying condition for development of PRES. Frequent symptoms include altered consciousness (coma, stupor, lethargy, confusion), seizure, headache, and visual disturbance. Most of these symptoms usually develop abruptly and resolve within a few weeks after proper management. Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the first-line modality of imaging studies for detecting PRES. Diffusion-weighted imaging with quantification of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values by ADC mapping may provide more accurate and specific images in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzymatic methods have recently been used to measure creatinine (Cr) instead of the Jaffe method. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the reference serum Cr value for these enzymatic methods to evaluate renal function in Japanese children.
To determine reference values of serum Cr in Japanese children, 1151 children (517 male, 634 female) aged between 1 month and 18 years had their serum Cr values measured by an enzymatic method. To be included in the study the children had to be without kidney disease, urogenital disease, infectious disease, inflammatory disease, dehydration, muscular disease, anomaly syndrome, cardiovascular disease, malignant disease, hypertension, liver or pancreas disease, or pregnancy.
The medians of reference values increased gradually with age, i.e., 0.30 mg/dl at 4 years old and 0.41 mg/dl at 10 years old. In adolescence, they increased significantly more rapidly in males than in females. We found a linear regression equation capable of estimating the reference value of serum Cr in children aged 2-11 years, and quintic regression equations capable of estimating the reference values of serum Cr in male and female children of all ages.
The reference serum Cr levels determined by an enzymatic method related to age, gender, and body length, and our linear and polynomial equations showing the relationship between body length and serum Cr level will be applicable for screening of renal function in Asian as well as Japanese children.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 04/2011; 15(5):694-9. · 1.25 Impact Factor