[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response of broiler chickens to two levels of endo-1,4-beta xylanase (EC 126.96.36.199) and endo-1,3-beta glucanase (EC 188.8.131.52) combination (with and without), three levels of digestible lysine (0.8%, 0.9% and 1.0% with the applicability of ideal protein concept) and two levels of cottonseed meal (CSM; 20% and 30%) were evaluated in 2 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 2448 male Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical vegetable-based mash diets having 2750 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kg and 18.5% crude protein (CP) from the age of day 1 to 42. The supplemental enzyme had minimum 1100 units of endo-1,4-beta xylanase and 100 units of endo-1,3-beta glucanase/kg of finished diet. The addition of CSM at 30% resulted in increasing arginine to lysine ratio. A decrease in dressing and breast percentages were observed by the addition of 30% CSM. The digestible lysine at 1.0% decreased the body weight (BW) gain and lowered the mortality during day 1 to 21 whereas the BW gain and feed:gain ratio were unaffected among the three digestible lysine levels during day 1 to 42. The antibody titres against Newcastle and infectious bursal disease viruses were improved with the increasing levels of digestible lysine. The enzyme supplementation improved the apparent ME and digestibility coefficient of nitrogen when it was used with 30% CSM. No effect of enzyme, lysine, CSM or their interactions was observed on serum iron, gizzard and liver weights or abdominal fat percentage. The results showed that increasing digestible lysine improved the antibody titre but did not improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics; supplemental enzyme failed to show any improvement in performance of birds fed on CSM-based diets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of water supplementation of KCl on performance of heat-stressed Hubbard broilers was evaluated in the present experiment. The 3 experimental treatments (i.e., control, 0.3 and 0.6% KCl) were allocated to 3 replicates of 15 birds each. The control group was kept on dugout tap water, whereas the other 2 groups were supplied water supplemented with 0.3 and 0.6% KCl (wt/vol) by supplementing 3 and 6 g of KCl, respectively, per liter of drinking water. Broilers were provided ad libitum access to feed and water for the experimental period of 7 to 42 d of age and kept in open-sided house. The birds were reared under continuous thermostress (minimum 28.2 +/- 1.02 and maximum 37.5 +/- 0.78 degrees C) environment. Supplementing drinking water with 0.6% KCl reduced panting-phase blood pH to 7.31 and significantly increased live BW gain by 14.5 (P = 0.036) and 7.9% (P = 0.029) at 28 and 42 d of age, respectively, relative to control. An improved (P = 0.04) feed:gain and lowered body temperature were noted in groups supplemented with 0.6% KCl as compared with control and 0.3% KCl. Enhanced physiological adaptation with 0.6% KCl was evidenced by a more favorable pH during the panting phase in the present study. These findings demonstrated a possibility of better broiler live performance through KCl supplementation under conditions of severe heat stress (35 to 38 degrees C).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response of broiler chickens to 2 levels of endo-1,4-beta xylanase and endo-1,3-beta glucanase combination (with and without), 3 levels of digestible Lys (0.8, 0.9, and 1.0%), and 2 levels of canola meal (CM; 20 and 30%) were evaluated in 2 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 2,448 male Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2,750 kcal of ME.kg(-1) and 19.6% CP from 1 to 42 d of age. The BW gain was significantly reduced when 30% CM was added in the diets during 1 to 21 d. Feed:gain and mortality were also observed to be high. No significant effect of enzyme addition or Lys level was observed on feed intake, BW gain, feed:gain, and mortality during the starter phase. When the data were pooled for 42 d, BW gain and feed:gain were unaffected by enzyme addition or Lys levels. A depression in breast weight was observed due to 30% CM or 0.8 and 0.9% digestible Lys at 43 d. Leg weights were significantly depressed by enzyme addition or increasing digestible Lys to 1.0% of the diets. The AME, nitrogen digestibility, and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal diseases were also unaffected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the 30% CM is not recommended in broiler diets especially during starter phase (1 to 21 d). However, the CM may be used up to 30% of the diets during finishing phase. The digestible Lys can be lowered to 0.8% when amino acids in proportion to digestible Lys follow the ideal AA ratio. The glucanase and xylanase cocktail have no pronounced effect on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to evaluate the response of broiler chicks to different dietary Na + and Cl − concentrations with similar dietary electrolyte balance of 250 mEq/kg during 29 to 42 d of age in a hot environment with average minimum and maximum temperatures of 32.4 and 36.6°C, respectively, and an average RH of 69.2%. Three levels of dietary Na + (0.20, 0.25, and 0.30%) and 3 levels of dietary Cl − (0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%) were used in 3 × 3 factorial arrangement in which BW at 28 d were used as covariate in the statistical analysis. A decreasing linear effect of dietary Na + was observed on breast yield and lowering of abdominal fat, whereas increasing dietary Cl − linearly increased litter moisture and decreased dressing weights. No significant effects of dietary Na + , Cl − , or Na + × Cl − were observed on feed intake, BW gain, feed:gain, rectal temperature, water:feed, or mortality. An improvement in litter condition, toe ash, blood parameters, and lowered abdominal fat yield was observed for the diet having 0.30% dietary Na + . The results of the present study suggest the dietary requirements of 0.20 to 0.25% Na + and 0.30% Cl − during the finisher phase (29 to 42 d) of broiler chicks when the ambient temperature ranged from 32 to 40°C.
The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 06/2007; 16:161-170. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A broiler growth assay was conducted to compare the efficacy of l-lysine HCl and l-lysine sulfate at a graded addition of canola meal (CM). A total of 1,440 1-d-old female Hubbard broiler chicks were allotted randomly to 6 dietary treatments each in 4 replicates of 60 birds per pen. The 2 lysine sources (l-lysine HCl and l-lysine sulfate) and the 3 CM levels (10, 15, and 20%) were used in 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in isonitrogenous (19% CP) and equicaloric (2,700 kcal of ME/kg) diets containing 0.96% digestible lysine. The experiment lasted for 42 d, and a single mash diet was used throughout the experiment. The feed intake during the starter phase (1 to 28 d) decreased linearly as the dietary CM level increased with diets containing l-lysine HCl, whereas feed intake increased linearly with increasing dietary CM level with that of lysine sulfate. Gizzard weight as percentage of carcass weight increased linearly (P < or = 0.016) as dietary CM level increased. No significant effect of lysine sources or CM was observed on body weight gain, feed:gain, mortality, carcass weight, breast and thigh yield, and abdominal fat. In conclusion, l-lysine HCl can be replaced with l-lysine sulfate for broiler diets, and CM can be used as up to 20% of the starter (1 to 28 d) and finisher (29 to 42 d) diets without having any adverse effects of broiler performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding multienzyme preparation (Rovabio Excel AP, Adisseo Asia Pacific Pte Ltd., Singapore) at 2 inclusion levels of sunflower meal (SFM; 20 and 30% of the diets) with 3 levels of digestible Lys (0.8, 0.9, and 1.0%) with and without enzyme in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Each diet was offered to 4 replicates of 51 one-day-old straight-run Hubbard broiler chicks (n = 2448) in a practical vegetable-based mash diet having 2,750 kcal of ME/kg and 19% CP during 2 wk posthatching (1 to 14 d of age). Feed formulation was based on digestible amino acids, which were calculated from the CP and DM contents of each ingredient using AminoDat 2 (Degussa Corp., Allendale, NJ). The enzyme used in this study was authenticated by the supplier to have minimum level of endo-1,4-beta xylanase (22,000 visco units/g) and endo-1,3(4)-beta glucanase (2,000 AGL units/g) and was added at the rate of 50 mg/kg of finished diet. No significant effect of enzyme or level of SFM was observed on BW gain (BWG), feed intake, or mortality during the experimental period. The BWG and feed:gain for birds fed on 30% SFM with enzyme were comparable to those fed on 20% SFM without enzyme during 1 to 14 d of age. However, enzyme at 20% SFM depressed the BWG (P <or=0.006) and feed conversion ratio (P <or=0.027). A quadratic (P <or=0.036) response of digestible Lys was noted for BWG, whereas it was linear (P <or=0.001) for feed:gain during 1 to 7 and 1 to 14 d. A level of 1.0% digestible Lys was observed best for BWG and feed:gain. For BWG, 0.8 and 0.9% digestible Lys was comparable when it was used at 30% SFM, along with enzyme. In conclusion, enzyme supplementation during 2 wk posthatching has no remarkable effect when used in SFM-based diets. Moreover, digestible Lys may be lowered to 0.8% during the first week but not less than 1.0% during the second week post-hatching.