Andrew L Rivard

University of Mississippi, University, MS, United States

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Publications (26)34.52 Total impact

  • The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 05/2011; 28(5):993-4. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Andrew L Rivard
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 04/2011; 8(4):220.
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    ABSTRACT: The CryoMaze procedure is usually limited to endocardial ablation under cardio-pulmonary bypass. Epicardial ablation is considered inferior as endocardial islets of atrial tissue could theoretically remain viable, protected from cryoinjury by epicardial fat and endocardial circulating warm blood. Novel argon-powered cryoprobes with lower ablation temperatures have recently become available. It is unclear if these instruments can reliably induce transmural atrial fibrosis by epicardial cryoablation on the beating heart. Ten sheep were divided into two equal groups. CryoMaze ablations were applied using an argon-powered cryoprobe with an ablation temperature of -185°C. In the control group, standardized ablations (n = 50) were applied endocardially under cardiopulmonary bypass. In the experimental group, corresponding ablations (n = 50) were applied epicardially on the beating heart. Postoperatively the animals were monitored for 30 days. At necropsy, the lesions were explanted and analyzed histologically for evidence of transmural fibrosis. Two animals in the control group and one animal in the experimental group died prematurely. Autopsy of the remaining animals showed that all lesions (n = 70) had retained their structural integrity. In the control group, histology demonstrated transmural fibrosis in 94% (28/30) of the endocardially applied lesions. In the experimental group, histology demonstrated transmural fibrosis in 95% (38/40) of the epicardially applied lesions. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.96). Argon-powered epicardial cryoablation on the beating heart is as efficient in inducing transmural fibrosis as the traditional technique of endocardial ablation under cardio-pulmonary bypass.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 03/2011; 26(2):240-3. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) spectrum usually includes very hypoplastic right ventricles (RVs) and tricuspid valves (TVs) and often RV-coronary artery connections (RV-CACs). These abnormalities are often thought irreversible and typically only 30% reach a 2-ventricle repair (2VR). Our hypothesis, however, has been PAIVS is a developmental defect and catch-up growth is possible in all. To answer this question, we attempted to obtain up to 10 year echo data on RV and TV growth and function in the 24 survivors (of 28 patients) from 1989 to 1999. To maximize the validity of the growth results obtained, we used only paired studies and required biplane echos to accurately estimate RV volumes, TV size, and function. Measurements were indexed to determine the z score (standard deviation of the mean from predicted).All patients had an RV outflow patch and ASD reduction. We have found catch-up growth required complete relief of RV obstruction and a mildly restrictive (3–5 mm Hg) ASD to encourage TV flow. A central shunt was placed in 38%. RV-CACs (2.7 ± 1.6/pt) were uneventfully ligated off bypass in 9/28 (32%). For the 24 survivors, 19 adequate paired biplane studies were obtained from here and elsewhere and for 12 allowed a 10 year follow-up.The RV volume z scores grew from − 5.1 ± 2.5 to 0.9 ± 1.9 about 10 years later. The TVs, even with increased flow early, grew more slowly than the RVs. Nevertheless, the very small TVs in 10 pts went from z scores of − 4.6 ± 0.4 to − 0.04 ± − 1.5 within about 5–10 years. Valvotomies were done in 3. RV function was high normal (EF = 74.5 ± 0.1%) presumably because of pulmonary regurgitation in the 8 pts who had adequate studies.We conclude: (1) Catch-up growth appears reliable in PAIVS pts when RV obstruction is relieved and TV flow is increased (2) RV function was good and resembled well-repaired TOF (3) These results encourage pursuing 2VRs in PAIVS patients.
    Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In percutaneous aortic valve replacement (AVR), whilst calcifications are used as landmarks in fluoroscopic placement of the stent, they may also complicate stent placement. In response to this problem, the study aim was to examine severe aortic root calcification by using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), to better understand the pathology complicating percutaneous valve placement. In 33 patients with severe aortic stenosis and scheduled for surgery, the 'inner orifice' and 'outer fibrous' annulus diameter and area (with and without calcification) were measured, in addition to the distances of the calcifications and coronary ostia from the annulus, using by ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT. Aortic root calcification was evaluated as minimal (< 25% of total circumference), mild (25-50%), moderate (50-75%), and severe (75-100%). The inner orifice annulus area was 5.9 +/- 1.9 cm2 (range: 1.4-10.1 cm2), while the outer fibrous area was 7.5 +/- 1.8 cm2 (range: 4.7-11.5 cm2). The proximal-to-distal extent of valve calcification from the annulus in the mid-center of leaflets was 0.8 +/- 0.26 cm. In 36% of patients, valvular calcification extended +/- 3 mm within the coronary-ostium level. The distance of the coronary ostia from the annulus was variable, with a mean of 1.3 +/- 0.35 cm (range: 0.6-2.4 cm) for the left coronary artery. In 42% of patients, a 'low coronary ostium' (< or = 1.1 cm), and in 6% a 'critical-low-coronary ostium' (< or = 8 mm) was identified. Annulus calcification was present in 100% of cases, but the severity varied widely (severe 50%, moderate 35%, mild 15%). In 36% of cases, the aortic annulus calcification extended caudally into the membranous part of the interventricular septum (and thus into the left ventricular outflow tract), and in 42% of cases (n = 14) into the anterior mitral valve leaflet. The present results indicated that cardiac MDCT may qualify as a primary pre-procedural imaging modality to select patients for percutaneous AVR, based on the measurement and characterization of the aortic root and valve calcification. In comparison to echocardiography, CT will reduce--if not eliminate--difficulties in visualizing the aortic orifice area in heavily calcified valves. Furthermore, knowledge of the exact location of calcific deposits provides a distinct advantage to the fluroscopist for precise placement of the percutaneous aortic valve. Likewise, knowledge of the coronary arteries orifice in relation to the valve plane is critical to prevent inadvertent coronary artery occlusion, and would clearly be beneficial when planning future valve designs.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 11/2009; 18(6):662-70. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a consequence of technology improvements and refinement, perfusion of the donor heart has moved from the research laboratory to clinical studies. Multiple investigators are currently leading pre-clinical trials of devices using perfusion preservation, and one device is now in European clinical trials. One major problem with the donor heart is the high metabolism relative to other organs, and depletion of ATP leads rapidly to acidosis and necrosis of the myocardium. Two techniques in development to address the issue are normothermic and hypothermic perfusion. This review examines the current issues regarding donor heart preservation and techniques of preclinical evaluation necessary for regulatory approval.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 09/2009; 41(3):140-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Effective outcomes in cardiothoracic surgical research using rodents are dependent upon adequate techniques for intubation and mechanical ventilation. Multiple methods are available for intubation of the rat; however, not all techniques are appropriate for survival studies. This article presents a refinement of intubation techniques and a simplified mechanical ventilation setup necessary for intrathoracic surgical procedures using volatile anesthetics. The procedure is defined and complications of the procedure are elucidated that provide a justification for animal numbers needed for initiating new studies. Lewis rats weighing 178-400 g (287 +/- 44) were anesthetized using Enflurane and intubated with a 16-G angiocatheter using transillumination. Mechanical ventilation (85 bpm, 2.5 mL TV, enflurane 1.5-2%) maintained adequate sedation for completion of an intrathoracic procedure. Complications of the intubation and ventilation included mortality from anesthetic overdose, intubation difficulty, pneumothorax, traumatic extubation, and ventilation disconnection. Anesthetic agents and their related effects on the rat heart and reflexes are compared. This article also underscores the importance of refinement, reduction, and replacement in the context of cardiothoracic surgery using rodent models.
    Journal of Investigative Surgery 07/2009; 19(4):267-74. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the pattern of feeding milestones following primary repair of long-gap esophageal atresia (EA). A questionnaire based upon well established feeding milestones was used. Children after long-gap EA repair, n=40, were compared from after primary repair to healthy children from birth, n=102. The age when surveyed of the EA group and controls was different: 6.2+/-4.7 (mean+/-standard deviation) years, range 1.1-20.9, versus 2.5+/-2.4 years, range 0.0-12.1, p=0.00. The esophageal gap length in the EA group was 5.1+/-1.2 cm and age at repair was 5.5+/-5.0 months. There was no statistically significant difference between the atresia group and controls for feeding milestones; Self feeding finger foods approached significance. There was, however, greater variability in the timing of milestones in the atresia group compared to controls. Feeding milestones were negatively correlated with age at primary repair: drinking with a covered sippy cup, rho=-0.51, p=0.01 and self feeding finger foods, rho=-0.36, p=0.04 were statistically significant. Drinking from a cup correlated with gestational age, rho=0.38, p=0.04, and negatively correlated to esophageal gap length, rho=-0.45, p=0.01. Despite delayed onset of feeding, major milestones after EA repair occurred in similar pattern to normal infants. An early referral for primary repair is beneficial for earlier acquisition of milestones for infants with long-gap EA.
    Early human development 02/2009; 85(6):387-92. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The modern era of cardiac surgery is largely considered to have begun in the animal research laboratories. Today, animal models continue to be used for the study of cardiovascular diseases and are required for the preclinical assessment of pharmaceuticals, mechanical devices, therapeutic procedures, and/or continuation therapies. This chapter was designed to provide readers and potential investigators with important background information necessary for the process of matching an experimental hypothesis to an animal species that will serve as an appropriate model for studying a specific cardiovascular disease or for testing a given medical device. A review of the current animal models used in cardiac research is provided and arranged by disease state. Critical factors to consider when choosing an appropriate animal model including cost, reproducibility, and degree of similarity of the model to human disease are discussed. Thus, this chapter can be utilized as a practical guide for planning of research protocols. KeywordsAnimal model–Isolated cardiomyocytes–Isolated perfused heart–Valve disease–Atrial fibrillation–Myocardial ischemia–Heart failure–Heart transplantation–Mechanical device testing–Cardiomyoplasty–Stem cell research
    12/2008: pages 393-410;
  • Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 12/2008; 5(11):1157-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A major problem in procurement of donor hearts is the limited time a donor heart remains viable. After cardiectomy, ischemic hypoxia is the main cause of donor heart degradation. The global myocardial ischemia causes a cascade of oxygen radical formation that cumulates in an elevation in hydrogen ions (decrease in pH), irreversible cellular injury, and potential microvascular changes in perfusion. To determine the changes of prolonged storage times on donor heart microvasculature and the effects of intermittent antegrade perfusion. Using porcine hearts flushed with a Ribosol-based cardioplegic solution, we examined how storage time affects microvascular myocardial perfusion by using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at a mean (SD) of 6.1 (0.6) hours (n = 13) or 15.6 (0.6) hours (n = 11) after cardiectomy. Finally, to determine if administration of cardioplegic solution affects pH and microvascular perfusion, isolated hearts (group 1, n = 9) given a single antegrade dose, were compared with hearts (group 2, n = 8) given intermittent antegrade cardioplegia (150 mL, every 30 min, 150 mL/min) by a heart preservation device. Khuri pH probes in left and right ventricular tissue continuously measured hydrogen ion levels, and perfusion intensity on magnetic resonance images was plotted against time. Myocardial perfusion measured via magnetic resonance imaging at 6.1 hours was significantly greater than at 15.6 hours (67% vs 30%, P = .00008). In group 1 hearts, the mean (SD) for pH at the end of 6 hours decreased to 6.2 (0.2). In group 2, hearts that received intermittent antegrade cardioplegia, pH at the end of 6 hours was higher at 6.7 (0.3) (P = .0005). Magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant differences between the 2 groups in contrast enhancement (group 1, 62%; group 2, 40%) or in the wet/dry weight ratio. Intermittent perfusion maintains a significantly higher myocardial pH than does a conventional single antegrade dose. This difference may translate into an improved quality of donor hearts procured for transplantation, allowing longer distance procurement, tissue matching, improved outcomes for transplant recipients, and ideally a decrease in transplant-related costs.
    Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) 07/2008; 18(2):127-33. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2008; 144(2):445-445.
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    ABSTRACT: Although histological evaluation of the cardiac tissue is the current gold standard for evaluation of rejection, we hypothesized that cardiac perfusion MRI is a safe non-invasive method that correlates tissue blood flow changes with biopsy proven rejection in the cardiac transplant patient. In a retrospective study from 1984-2001, 83 patients underwent 135 MR Gd-DTPA imaging studies. In 8 patients (9%), biopsies graded 2 or higher (by ISHLT criteria) provided evidence of rejection. Patients were age and sex matched to 11 non-rejected controls for imaging analysis. Time-signal intensity curves generated for a mid-ventricle LV short axis slice during rest and adenosine stress allowed determination of myocardial blood flow (MBF, ml/min/gm). ROC curve analysis by SPSS allowed estimation of sensitivity and specificity. At rest, there was no difference in MBF between patients with prior rejection vs. those without (1.18 +/- 0.26 vs. 1.16 +/- 0.29). At stress there was a decrease in MBF for patients with prior rejection episodes (3.27 +/- 0.74) compared to no rejection (3.60 +/- 0.72), P = 0.067). The area under the ROC curve was 0.82, with specificity and sensitivity of 75% and 81%, respectively. This study suggests that perfusion MR imaging can be used in assessing the cardiac transplant patient for rejection related microvascular changes. The high specificity and sensitivity recorded from the ROC curve illustrates the potential utility of this diagnostic test for future studies.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2007; 23(5):575-82. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, prosthetic heart valve testing is performed on animal models with no underlying cardiovascular pathologies. Unfortunately, unforeseen adverse events may occur when heart valves tested in animals in normal sinus rhythm are implanted in patients suffering from arrhythmias. For example, the Medtronic Parallel valve functioned well in pre-clinical testing, but a high rate of thromboembolic complications appeared when the valve was placed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the increasing number of patients afflicted with AF, an animal model of the disorder is needed to more accurately predict a valve's function in the clinical setting. Among methods available for inducing AF, electrophysiological pacing is the most practiced, but the challenges associated with pacing have led to the development of alternative methods of inducing AF These methods include gene transfer and a pharmacologic approach with acetylcholine and catecholamines. Finally, although stem cells have been widely investigated in terms of their therapeutic benefits, the use of their well-reported pro-arrhythmic behavior shows great promise for the development of an AF model in sheep. Such a model would have the potential for detecting adverse outcomes with mechanical heart valves before implantation in the clinical setting.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 06/2007; 16(3):314-23. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Black bear bile has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat liver and eye related illnesses for centuries. A major constituent of bile is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Recent analysis of the cellular effects of UDCA and its taurine conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) have demonstrated their antiapoptotic properties through regulation of Bcl-2 family and survival signaling proteins (Bax, Bad, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TUDCA administered to rats prior to a myocardial infarction (MI) would exhibit anti-apoptotic effects and improve cardiac function. Prior to ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, TUDCA (50 mg/ml, 400 mg/kg, IV) or PBS was administered to rats. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after ligation for terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 activity to assess apoptosis. Additional TUDCA or PBS treated rats underwent pre-operative,1 and 4 week transthoracic ultrasounds to assess heart function by quantification of shortening fraction (SF) and infarct area. TUNEL labeling of the cardiac tissue revealed a significant reduction in apoptotic cells in rats given TUDCA prior to ischemic injury (p = 0.05). In support of reducing apoptosis, caspase-3 activity in the TUDCA treated animals also decreased (p = 0.02). By 4 weeks, a significantly smaller infarct area was present in the TUDCA group compared to the PBS group (0.05 vs. 0.13 cm(2), p = NS) and there was also an improvement in SF. The results provide evidence for TUDCA as a viable treatment for reducing apoptosis in a model of myocardial infarction. Additional studies will distinguish the functional result of improved cell survival following infarction, suggesting the potential for clinical application of this anti-apoptotic drug in treatment of acute MI.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 02/2007; 35(2):279-95. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - J HEART LUNG TRANSPLANT. 01/2007; 26(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The in-vivo performance of the Triflo trileaflet mechanical valve was evaluated in an ovine model. The aim of long-term follow up was to gather site-specific performance data demonstrating device safety, as required for regulatory approval of this new valve design, prior to its use in clinical trials. The Triflo trileaflet valve was implanted in 26 sheep using 29-mm mitral (n=8; animal body weight 63.3 +/- 10.3 kg, age 112.0 +/- 30.7 weeks) or 21-mm aortic mechanical valves (n=19; body weight 73.0 +/- 4.36 kg, age 112.6 +/- 23.6 weeks) using standard techniques. Animals were allocated to 150- or 365-day survival cohorts. The 150-day cohort was further subdivided into mitral valve (n=6) and aortic valve (n=11) implants. The 365-day cohort was organized into aortic (n=7) and mitral (n=2) implants. Angiography, echocardiography, and pathology were performed to assess valve performance. Angiographically monitored pressure measurements for the trileaflet mitral valve at 150 and 365 days were within established ranges in terms of mean aortic pressure, systolic and diastolic aortic pressure, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In animals receiving a mitral valve the transvalvular gradient was 3.5 +/- 0.71 mmHg at 365 days, and 0.2 +/- 0.4 mmHg at 150 days. The Triflo mitral valve had only mild (physiologic) regurgitation. Cardiac output was within normal limits in animals receiving the Triflo valve in the aortic position. Laboratory values reflected no ongoing infection or destruction of blood cells as a result of device implantation. No significant abnormality was noted at necropsy in any animal, except for evidence of thromboembolic events in the kidneys (4-20%). Pathological evaluation was reflected by mild to moderate fibrous tissue formation at the inflow orifice (n=15), and minimal growth was observed in the outflow tract of one valve. This was consistent with that seen in sheep implanted with a standard St. Jude Medical bileaflet valve. The study results showed the Triflo valve to perform to safety levels comparable with those of the standard St. Jude Medical bileaflet design, when implanted in the aortic and mitral positions. Additional analysis of historic control data suggested that the trileaflet valve design may offer a reduction in outflow tract obstruction by allowing for a greater effective orifice area index when compared to an equal-sized-orifice bileaflet valve. Notably, the Triflo valve was associated with a statistically significant reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, further reducing the potential for patient-prosthesis mismatch. Overall, the Triflo valve appeared to more closely emulate the hemodynamic properties of the native tissue valve than the traditional bileaflet design. Hence, the trileaflet design may offer the function of a tissue valve while retaining the durability of the mechanical valve.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 12/2006; 15(6):791-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) can be injured in a variety of pathologic processes that involve activated complement. We reported previously that porcine ECs incubated with exogenous IL-4 or IL-13 are protected from cytotoxicity by human complement and also from apoptosis by TNF-alpha. The resistance to complement consists of an intrinsic mechanism that is lost a few days after cytokine removal. In our current study, we investigated whether transfer of the IL-4 gene into porcine ECs in vitro and into porcine vascular tissues in vivo would induce efficient and durable protection from human complement. We found that ECs transduced with adenoIL-4 or adenoIL-13 exhibited continuous production of the cytokine and prolonged protection from complement-mediated killing. IL-4 also protected ECs from activation: ECs incubated with IL-4 did not develop cell retraction and intercellular gaps upon stimulation with sublytic complement. The endothelium and subendothelium of pig iliac arteries that were transduced with the IL-4 gene were effectively protected from complement-dependent immediate injury after perfusion with human blood. However, after similar perfusion, the endothelium was immediately lost from arteries that were transduced with a control adenovirus. The protection was not due to up-regulation of the complement regulators decay accelerating factor, membrane cofactor protein, and CD59, or to reduced complement activation, but required the participation of Akt. Although our studies model protection in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation, our findings of IL-4 induction of Akt-mediated protection may be more broadly applicable to EC injury as manifested in ischemia-reperfusion, allotransplantation, and various vascular diseases.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2006; 177(10):7355-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The donor heart undergoes degradation during hypothermic storage. An assessment of donor heart preservation is typically done with histological or biochemical methods that are not feasible in the clinical setting. We describe a method to study the donor heart using cardiac perfusion MRI that is potentially feasible for clinical use. Standard cardiectomy was performed in the pig model and the hearts were stored in normal saline at 5 degrees C. Imaging was performed by using a rapid gradient-echo sequence (FLASH) with saturation-recovery preparation for T1-weighting in the short axis and horizontal long axis views. Approximately 80 serial images were acquired at a rate of 1/s during administration of 0.006 mmol/ml Gd-DTPA (500 ml, 1 l/min). Signal intensity vs. time curves were generated for each heart and slice imaged and compared to a 0.006 mmol/ml Gd-DTPA reference. H&E stained biopsies of the LV, RV, and septum were also obtained. The mean duration of heart storage (N=10) was 8.8 h (range 4.2-19.2 h). Histologically, no differences were seen in H&E stained biopsies among hearts at different storage times. However cardiac MRI revealed a decrease in perfusion units in each subsequent heart tested after 4.2 h. (R=0.49). Average peak up-slope was used as a surrogate measure for flow capacity through the microvasculature and peak contrast enhancement was used as a measurement of viable microvasculature. The 4 h heart had 83% peak contrast enhancement of the reference standard, as compared to 44% for the 19.2 h heart. The decrease in peak enhancement is directly related to the duration of storage time. No correlation of peak up-slope of the intensity curve to storage time was found. This new application of cardiac MRI in the donor heart is applicable to: (1) assessing marginal hearts, (2) evaluating donor heart preservation techniques, and (3) correlating pre- to post-transplant viability.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 05/2006; 22(2):243-51. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The psychiatric and psychosocial evaluation of the heart transplant candidate can identify particular predictors for postoperative problems. These factors, as identified during the comprehensive evaluation phase, provide an assessment of the candidate in context of the proposed transplantation protocol. Previous issues with compliance, substance abuse, and psychosis are clear indictors of postoperative problems. The prolonged waiting list time provides an additional period to evaluate and provide support to patients having a terminal disease who need a heart transplant, and are undergoing prolonged hospitalization. Following transplantation, the patient is faced with additional challenges of a new self-image, multiple concerns, anxiety, and depression. Ultimately, the success of the heart transplantation remains dependent upon the recipient's ability to cope psychologically and comply with the medication regimen. The limited resource of donor hearts and the high emotional and financial cost of heart transplantation lead to an exhaustive effort to select those patients who will benefit from the improved physical health the heart transplant confers.
    Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) 10/2005; 15(3):276-82. · 0.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

118 Citations
34.52 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • University of Mississippi
      • Department of Radiology
      University, MS, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Radiology
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Surgery
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
    • Geisinger Medical Center
      Danville, Pennsylvania, United States