ABSTRACT: Selective cerebral perfusion is a proven adjunct to hypothermia for neuroprotection in complex aortic surgery. The ideal conditions for the provision of selective cerebral perfusion, however, including optimal perfusion pressure, remain unknown. We investigated the effects of various perfusion pressures during selective cerebral perfusion on cerebral physiology and outcome in a long-term porcine model.
Thirty piglets (26.3 +/- 1.4 kg), cooled to 20 degrees C on cardiopulmonary bypass with alpha-stat pH management (mean hematocrit 23.6%), were randomly assigned to 90 minutes of selective cerebral perfusion at a pressure of 50 (group A), 70 (group B), or 90 (group C) mm Hg. With fluorescent microspheres and sagittal sinus sampling, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism were assessed at baseline, after cooling, at two points during selective cerebral perfusion, and for 2 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Visual evoked potentials were monitored during recovery. Neurobehavioral scores were assessed blindly from standardized videotaped sessions for 7 postoperative days.
Cerebral blood flow during selective cerebral perfusion was significantly increased by higher-pressure perfusion (P = .04), although all groups sustained similar levels of cerebral oxygen metabolism during selective cerebral perfusion (P = .88). After the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, the cerebral oxygen metabolism increased to above baseline in all groups, with the highest levels seen in group C (P = .06). Intracranial pressure was significantly higher during selective cerebral perfusion in group C (P = .0002); visual evoked potentials did not differ among groups. Neurobehavioral scores were significantly better in group A (P = .0002).
Selective cerebral perfusion at 50 mm Hg provides neuroprotection superior to that at higher pressures. The increased cerebral blood flow with higher-pressure selective cerebral perfusion is associated with cerebral injury, reflected by high post-cardiopulmonary bypass cerebral oxygen metabolism and poorer neurobehavioral recovery.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 05/2008; 135(4):784-91. · 3.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The ideal hematocrit (HCT) level during hypothermic selective cerebral perfusion (SCP)--to ensure adequate oxygen delivery without excessive perfusion--has not yet been determined.
Twenty pigs (26.0+/-2.6 kg) were randomized to low or high HCT management. The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit was primed with crystalloid in the low HCT group (21+/-1%), and with donor blood in the high HCT group (30+/-1%). Pigs were cooled to 20 degrees C and SCP was carried out for 90 min. During rewarming, whole blood was added in the low HCT group and crystalloid in the high HCT group to produce equivalent HCT levels by the end of the procedure. Using fluorescent microspheres and sagittal sinus sampling, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) were assessed at baseline, after cooling, at two points during SCP (30 and 90 min), and at 15 min and 2 h post-CPB. In addition, a range of physiological and metabolic parameters, including intracranial pressure (ICP), were recorded throughout the procedure. The animals' behavior was videotaped and assessed blindly for 7 days postoperatively (maximum score=5).
HCT levels were equivalent at baseline, 2 h post-CPB, and at sacrifice, but significantly different (p<0.0001) during cooling and SCP. Mean arterial pressure, pH and pCO2, and CMRO2 were equivalent between groups throughout. ICP was similar in the two groups throughout cooling, SCP, and rewarming, but was significantly higher in the low HCT animals after the termination of CPB. CBF was similar at baseline, but thereafter markedly higher in the low HCT group. Neurobehavioral performance was significantly better in the high HCT animals (median score 3.5 vs 4.5 on day 3, and 4.5 vs 4.75 on day 7, p=0.003).
Higher HCT levels for SCP produced a significantly superior functional outcome, suggesting that the higher CBF with a lower HCT may be injurious, possibly because of an increased embolic load.
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 10/2007; 32(3):514-20. · 2.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Sacrifice of intercostal and lumbar arteries simplifies thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery and enables endovascular stenting. Little is known about alterations in cord perfusion after extensive segmental artery sacrifice. We explored this question using hypothermia to reduce metabolism.
Twelve juvenile Yorkshire pigs (mean weight, 22.3 kg) were randomized to segmental artery sacrifice at 32 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Cord integrity was assessed with myogenic-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring. Stepwise craniocaudal sacrifice of segmental arteries was continued until MEP diminution occurred; the last segmental artery was then reopened. Fluorescent microspheres were used to measure spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) at baseline, 5 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after segmental artery sacrifice. Hind limb function was monitored for 5 days.
All animals recovered normal hind limb function. At 32 degrees C, more segmental arteries, 16.5 versus 15 (p = 0.03), could be sacrificed without MEP loss. Baseline SCBF at 32 degrees C was 50% that at 37 degrees C (p = 0.003) and remained fairly stable throughout. At 37 degrees C, SCBF to the craniocaudal extremes of the cord (C1 to T3 and L2 to L6) increased markedly (p = 0.01) at 1 hour and returned toward normal at 3 hours. Concomitantly, SCBF fell in the middle portion of the cord (T9 to T13) at 1 hour before returning to normal at 3 hours.
Almost all segmental arteries can be sacrificed with preservation of spinal cord function. No major change occurs in the central cord in normothermic animals, but there is significant transient hyperemia in segments adjacent to extrasegmental vessels. Hypothermia reduces SCBF and abolishes this possible steal phenomenon. Metabolic and hemodynamic manipulation should enable routine sacrifice of all segmental arteries without spinal cord injury.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2007; 84(3):789-94. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The residual aorta's behavior after repair of acute type A dissection is incompletely understood. We analyzed segmental growth rates, distal reoperation, and factors influencing long-term survival.
One hundred seventy-nine consecutive patients (70% male; mean age, 60 years) with acute type A dissection underwent aggressive resection of the intimal tear and open distal anastomosis (1986-2003). Hospital mortality was 13.4%. Survivors had serial computed tomographic scans: digitization yielded distal segmental dimensions. Segment-specific average rates of enlargement and factors influencing faster growth were analyzed. Distal reoperations and patient survival were examined.
Eighty-nine (57%) patients had imaging data sufficient for growth rate calculations. The median diameters after repair were as follows: aortic arch, 3.6 cm; descending aorta, 3.7 cm; and abdominal aorta, 3.2 cm. Subsequent growth rates were 0.8, 1.0, and 0.8 mm/y, respectively. Initial size of greater than 4 cm (P = .005) and initial diameter of less than 4 cm with a patent false lumen (P = .004) predicted greater growth in the descending aorta, and male sex (P = .05) significantly affected growth in the abdominal aorta. No significant factors were found for the aortic arch. There were 25 distal aortic reoperations (16 patients), and risk of reoperation was 16% at 10 years. Risk factors reducing long-term survival after repair of acute type A dissection included age (P < .0001), new neurological deficit at presentation (P = .04), absence of preoperative thrombus in the false lumen of the ascending aorta (P = .03), and a patent distal false lumen postoperatively (P = .06) but not distal reoperation.
Growth of the distal aorta after repair of acute type A dissection is typically slow and linear. Distal reoperation is uncommon, and late risk of death is approximately twice that of a healthy population.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 02/2007; 133(1):127-35. · 3.41 Impact Factor