[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 19-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of chest pain. He was diagnosed as having pleural cryptococcosis by pleural biopsy. His CD4 positive T-lymphocyte count was low (< 300 microl) and there was no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. He was successfully treated with fluconazole. However, his CD4 positive lymphocyte counts remained low after the recovery and he was diagnosed as idiopathic CD4 positive T-lymphocytopenia. Pleural cryptococcosis is rare and its predisposing condition is still controversial. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural cryptococcosis associated with idiopathic CD4 positive T lymphocytopenia.
Internal Medicine 02/2008; 47(19):1765. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.47.R002 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man presented with a deteriorating fever and productive cough after the administration of drugs including L-carbocisteine against the common cold. Since chest radiograph revealed pulmonary infiltrates in the right lower lung field, he was admitted to our hospital, then L-carbocisteine was continued and antibiotics started. However, his symptoms, laboratory findings, and hypoxia worsened. Pulmonary infiltrates on his chest radiograph increased and chest CT demonstrated pulmonary consolidation with traction bronchiectasis and ground glass opacity with thickened of interlobular septae in the right lung field. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed elevated numbers of total cells, neutrophils and eosinophils, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was 5.65. Under a suspected diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonia, we halted L-carbocisteine administration stopped and began corticosteroid therapy. Subsequently his symptoms and findings markedly improved. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test for L-carbocisteine using peripheral blood lymphocytes showed positive results. On the basis of the clinical course, laboratory and radiographic findings, we considered this case to possibly be drug-induced pneumonia due to L-carbocisteine. To our knowledge, this is possibly the first case of L-carbocisteine-induced pneumonia to be reported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Satoyoshi syndrome is a rare postnatal disorder with muscle spasms, alopecia, and diarrhea of unknown etiology. Nutritional deficiency seems to influence lifespan. We present a patient with this syndrome having a unique "mesh-like" mucosal change radiographically and white granules endoscopically in the gastrointestinal tract. A common antibody against brain, stomach, and duodenal tissue, according to Western blot analysis, was detected in the sera of two patients with this syndrome. These findings suggest that Satoyoshi syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease involving the nervous, endocrine, and gastrointestinal systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CXCR4, which binds the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1, has been reported to be involved in the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells. In addition, AMD3100, an antagonist of CXCR4, has been reported to be an attractive drug candidate for therapeutic intervention in several disorders in which CXCR4 is critically involved. However, little is known about the therapeutic value of AMD3100 in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we examined the effects of AMD3100 on a murine bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. Concurrent administration of AMD3100 and bleomycin apparently attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation. In this process, an inhibition of neutrophil recruitment at early stage followed by the decrease of other inflammatory cell recruitment in the lung were observed. In addition, it also inhibited the expression of cytokines, including MCP-1, MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, and TGF-beta. In contrast, when AMD3100 was administered following bleomycin treatment, the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation progressed and resulted in severe pulmonary fibrosis. In this process, an increase of inflammatory cell recruitment, an up-regulation of lung MCP-1 and TGF-beta, and a remarkable activation of p44/42 MAPK in neutrophils were observed. U0126, an inhibitor of p44/42 MAPK, significantly abolished these effects. Thus, AMD3100 has dual effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Difference of inflammatory cell recruitment and activation might be associated with the dual effect of AMD3100 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2007; 178(9):5888-98. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.178.9.5888 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis occurring in patients with asthma and hypereosinophilia; however, its mechanisms involved in the severe tissue inflammation with vasculitis are poorly understood. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, originally identified as a DNA binding protein, also has potent pro-inflammatory and proangiogenic properties. In this study, we hypothesized that HMGB1 might be associated with CSS, and examined serum HMGB1 levels and compared those of asthma patients and healthy volunteers. We also investigated HMGB1 expression in the lesion, and eosinophil HMGB1 amount in CSS patients. We found that the serum HMGB1 levels in CSS patients were significantly higher than those of asthma patients and healthy volunteers. Eosinophils in the CSS lesion expressed HMGB1 and HMGB1 level in eosinophils from CSS patients was significantly higher than that of asthma patients, while there was no significant difference in HMGB1 levels in peripheral mononuclear cells. The serum HMGB1 level in CSS patients decreased after the steroid therapy, and showed significant positive correlations with several molecules, including soluble interleukin-2 receptor, soluble thrombomodulin, and eosinophil cationic protein in sera. We propose that HMGB1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of CSS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of bronchial asthma attack with lactic acidosis and hypokalemia in a patient receiving high-dose inhalation of procaterol hydrochloride. A 28-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of adynamia, nausea and dyspnea. He had used inhaled procaterol hydrochloride with a pressurized metered dose inhaler about 20 times before admission. On admission, there were no signs of shock state or hypoxemia and laboratory data showed hypokalemia, hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap. Lactic acidosis was identified as the reason for the metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap. Lactic acidosis improved after 12 hours. Lactic acidosis due to high dose inhalation of procaterol hydrochloride was suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that lung cancer patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher risk of postoperative complications than patients without COPD. However, the information regarding preoperative treatment to improve pulmonary function of the lung cancer patients with severe COPD is limited. Here, we report 3 lung cancer cases with severe COPD. Although all patients received medication without tiotropium bromide in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation for 1 or 2 months, their pulmonary function did not improve and the predicted postoperative FEV1/predicted FEV1 was below 40% in all cases. After the approval in Japan for use of tiotropium bromide in the treatment of COPD, all patients were treated with tiotropium bromide. The pulmonary function in all patients improved 2-4 weeks after the start of tiotropium bromide, and we performed lobectomy safely. Currently all patients maintain good pulmonary function without recurrence of lung cancer. We propose that treatment of tiotropium bromide might be one of the effective preoperative methods to improve pulmonary function of lung cancer patients with severe COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a systemic disease that shows marked eosinophilia along with eosinophil infiltration in the tissue. Prolonged eosinophil survival plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CSS; however, its detailed molecular mechanism remains unclear. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase, and its ligand is collagen. DDR1 was expressed in human leukocytes and fibroblasts, and it plays an important role in leukocyte cytokine production and fibroblast survival in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo eosinophil DDR1 expression and its function in CSS patients. The expression level of DDR1 was significantly higher in the eosinophils of CSS patients, and the predominant isoform was DDR1b. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that the tissue-infiltrating eosinophils expressed endogenous DDR1. In CSS patients, DDR1 activation inhibited Fas agonistic antibody-induced apoptosis and up-regulated Fas agonistic antibody-induced cytokine production of eosinophils in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Suppression of DDR1 expression in the eosinophils by using RNA interference and addition of the DDR1-blocking protein abolished these effects. We propose that DDR1 contributes to the eosinophil survival in the tissue microenvironment of CSS and that it might be involved in the development of CSS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which ranks fifth in terms of the global burden of diseases, is one of the major risk factors of post-operative pulmonary complications. Tiotropium bromide is a new inhaled bronchodilator for COPD patients with a sustained duration of action; it has superior efficacy compared to other bronchodilators. However, little is known regarding its clinical value as a preoperative treatment for COPD patients. In this study, we compared the incidence of post-operative complications between COPD patients who received with tiotropium bromide and those who did not.
For 1 month before surgery we examined 84 and 82 patients treated with tiotropium bromide (tiotropium group) and oxitropium bromide (oxitropium group), respectively, in combination with other medications. We performed a statistical comparison of clinical features, pulmonary functions, and postoperative complications between the 2 groups.
The improvements in clinical symptoms and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were better in the tiotropium group than in the oxitropium group. The incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications (refractory bronchospasm, pulmonary infection, and acute respiratory failure) was significantly lower in the tiotropium group than in the oxitropium group. Three patients in the tiotropium group complained of dry mouth; however, the symptoms could be controlled. The incidence of post-operative non-pulmonary complications was not significantly different between the 2 groups.
We propose that tiotropium bromide might be a safe and useful drug for pre-operative treatment of COPD patients.
Internal Medicine 02/2007; 46(17):1373-9. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.47.R001 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged survival of eosinophils plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS); however, its detailed molecular mechanism is still unclear. TRAIL and its receptors are expressed on a variety of cells, including eosinophils. In this study, we examined the expression of TRAIL receptors on eosinophils from patients with CSS.
TRAIL receptor expression was assessed on eosinophils from healthy volunteers, patients with CSS, patients with asthma, and patients with hypereosinophilia due to parasitic infection. TRAIL-induced apoptosis of eosinophils was compared between the patients with CSS and patients with asthma. RNA interference was used to assess the effects of suppression of TRAIL receptor 3.
Expression of TRAIL receptor 3, a decoy receptor that acts as an antiapoptotic receptor, on eosinophils from patients with CSS was significantly higher than that in the other subjects. Moreover, in CSS, serum TRAIL receptor 3 levels showed a significant positive correlation with peripheral eosinophil counts, tissue-infiltrating eosinophils stained positive for this receptor, and peripheral T cells expressed TRAIL on their surface. Compared with asthma patients, eosinophils from CSS patients showed a significantly lower percentage of recombinant TRAIL, less autologous T cell-induced apoptosis, and decreased level of active caspase 3. Suppression of TRAIL receptor 3 through RNA interference significantly increased the recombinant TRAIL-induced apoptosis of eosinophils from CSS patients.
Increased expression of TRAIL receptor 3 on eosinophils from patients with CSS was observed. These alterations in TRAIL receptor 3 expression might be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of CSS eosinophilia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of polymixin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX) hemoperfusion treatment for acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia (IP) has been reported. Here, we report 2 cases of acute exacerbation of IP successfully treated with PMX hemoperfusion. One is a 55-year-old woman who was diagnosed as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) with IP. The other is a 58-year-old man, diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Both cases were treated with PMX hemoperfusion and other therapies. One died on day 44 and the other is still alive. The PMX hemoperfusion treatment decreased the serum levels of several cytokines and activated neutrophil percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Internal Medicine 02/2007; 46(17):1447-54. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.46.0117 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which ranks fifth in terms of the global burden of diseases, is one of the major risk factors of post-operative pulmonary complications. Tiotropium bromide is a new inhaled bronchodilator for COPD patients with a sustained duration of action; it has superior efficacy compared to other bronchodilators. However, little is known regarding its clinical value as a preoperative treatment for COPD patients. In this study, we compared the incidence of post-operative complications between COPD patients who received with tiotropium bromide and those who did not. Methods Retrospective study. Patients For 1 month before surgery we examined 84 and 82 patients treated with tiotropium bromide (tiotropium group) and oxitropium bromide (oxitropium group), respectively, in combination with other medications. We performed a statistical comparison of clinical features, pulmonary functions, and postoperative complications between the 2 groups. Results The improvements in clinical symptoms and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were better in the tiotropium group than in the oxitropium group. The incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications (refractory bronchospasm, pulmonary infection, and acute respiratory failure) was significantly lower in the tiotropium group than in the oxitropium group. Three patients in the tiotropium group complained of dry mouth; however, the symptoms could be controlled. The incidence of post-operative non-pulmonary complications was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusion We propose that tiotropium bromide might be a safe and useful drug for pre-operative treatment of COPD patients.
Internal Medicine 01/2007; 46(17):1373-1380. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.46.0072 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that affects small vessels, resulting in a wide spectrum of organ involvement including the lungs. However, there are little serological markers that predict its prognosis or severity of pulmonary involvement. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic mediator, which has been reported to be elevated in systemic vasculitis. In this study, we measured serum VEGF levels in 22 MPA patients with pulmonary involvement. We also investigated VEGF expression in pulmonary cells using flow cytometry analysis. We found that serum VEGF levels in MPA patients were significantly higher than those in respiratory or urinary tract infection. The serum VEGF levels decreased in parallel with the improvement of MPA symptoms. The serum VEGF levels in MPA patients who died within 5 years were significantly higher than those who survived more than 5 years. The sensitivity of VEGF levels to distinguish MPA patient with poor prognosis from those with good prognosis was 90.9%, and specificity was 81.8% (cutoff value = 802.5 pg/ml). The serum VEGF levels showed significant positive correlation with the composite physiological index, which indicates the severity of pulmonary lesion. In flow cytometry analysis, CD11b positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells expressed VEGF. Immunohistochemically, alveolar macrophages, tissue infiltrating inflammatory cells and alveolar epithelial cells stained positive for VEGF. Measurement of serum VEGF levels in MPA might become one of the markers for prognosis and the severity of pulmonary involvement in MPA. VEGF might contribute to the development of pulmonary lesion of MPA.
Respiratory Medicine 11/2006; 100(10):1724-33. DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2006.02.006 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case 1 is a 78-year-old woman in whom lung adenocarcinoma with multiple brain metastasis (cT2N3M1, stage IV) was diagnosed. She was treated with Gefitinib alone. Her lung tumor and metastatic brain lesions decreased 6 months after the start of therapy. She has no recurrence and is still alive with a good performance status after 25 months. Case 2 is an 80-year-old woman in whom lung adenocarcinoma with multiple brain (cT2N3M1, stage IV) was diagnosed. She was also treated with Gefitinib alone and her lung tumor and metastatic brain becomes improved 6 months after the start of therapy. She maintained a good performance status for more than 2 years (29 months). However, 29 months after beginning treatment, she had recurrence in bone and died 2 months later, 31 months after the start of therapy. The prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer with multiple brain metastasis is very poor and the efficacy of chemotherapy for the treatment of multiple brain metastases is limited, and longterm survival remains disappointing. We report two lung adenocarcinoma patients with multiple brain metastasis who survived more than 2 years by treatment with Gefitinib alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of selenoprotein N, 1 gene (SEPN1) cause rigid spine with muscular dystrophy type 1 (RSMD1), multiminicore disease, and desmin-related myopathy. We found two novel SEPN1 mutations in two Japanese patients with RSMD1. To clarify the pathomechanism of RSMD1, we performed immunohistochemical studies using a newly developed antibody for selenoprotein N. Selenoprotein N was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of the control muscle, but was reduced and irregularly expressed in the cytoplasm of a patient with RSMD1. The expression pattern was very similar to that of calnexin, a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Selenoprotein N seems to be an endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein, and loss of this protein leads to disturbance of muscular function. One of the families had the SEPN1 homozygous mutation in the initiation codon 1_2 ins T in exon 1 and showed truncated protein expression. The other had a homozygous 20-base duplication mutation at 80 (80_99dup, frameshift at R27) which, in theory, should generate many nonsense mutations including TGA. These nonsense mutations are premature translation termination codons and they degrade immediately by the process of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). However, truncated selenoprotein N was also expressed. A possible mechanism behind this observation is that SEPN1 mRNAs may be resistant to NMD. We report on the possible molecular mechanism behind these mutations in SEPN1. Our study clarifies molecular mechanisms of this muscular disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old woman was admitted with dyspnea on effort. She suffered from adult T-cell leukemia and received peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Eight months after the PBSCT, she developed dyspnea on effort and was treated with bronchodilator, inhaled corticosteroid, anti-leukotriene drug, theophylline and oxytropium bromide. However her symptoms progressed and she was admitted. We diagnosed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) because of obstructive pulmonary dysfunction, diffuse patchy high density of the lung field on chest computed tomography and decreased ventilation with peripheral patchy accumulation on ventilation scintigraphy. She was treated with corticosteroid and cyclosporine A and her symptoms and her pulmonary function were improved. However, in parallel with corticosteroid tapering, her symptoms and pulmonary functions worsened. Treatment with Tiotropium bromide was started and her pulmonary function improved significantly. Her pulmonary function did not worsen and tapering steroid dose was successfully achieved. PBSCT was reported to up-regulate the muscarinic receptor activity in lung. Tiotropium bromide might become one additional option for the treatment of BOS.