Ennian Xiao

Columbia University, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (33)145.57 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived MSH peptides and the melanocortin receptor antagonist, agouti-related protein (AgRP), interact to regulate energy balance. Both POMC and AgRP neurons express estrogen receptors, but little is known about estrogen regulation of the melanocortin system in the primate. We have therefore examined the effects of physiological doses of estradiol (E2) on POMC and AgRP in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ovariectomized monkeys. POMC prohormone was measured by ELISA. AgRP was measured by RIA (sensitive for the more biologically active C-terminal AgRP(83-132) but also detects full-length AgRP) and by ELISA (measures primarily full length AgRP). In the first experiment, 14 animals were studied before and after 3 wk of E2. CSF POMC did not change, but AgRP(RIA) decreased from 7.9 +/- 1.2 to 4.7 +/- 1.2 fmol/ml after E2 (P = 0.03) and the POMC/AgRP(RIA) ratio increased from 4.2 +/- 0.89 to 6.8 +/- 1.04 (P = 0.04). AgRP(ELISA) did not change, but the ratio of AgRP(RIA) compared with AgRP(ELISA) was reduced after E2 (P = 0.02). In the second experiment, 11 animals were studied after 6 wk of E2, and similar changes were noted. The degree of AgRP(RIA) suppression with E2 was inversely related to body mass index (r = 0.569; P = 0.03). These results show for the first time that E2 suppresses AgRP(C-terminal) in CSF, increases the POMC to AgRP ratio, and may decrease AgRP processing, thus leading to increased melanocortin signaling. Furthermore, obesity was associated with resistance to the suppressive effects of E2 on AgRP, analogous to what is seen with obesity and leptin resistance.
    Endocrinology 03/2010; 151(3):1002-9. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of ghrelin, a key peptide in the regulation of energy homeostasis, has been shown to decrease LH pulse frequency while concomitantly elevating cortisol levels. Because increased endogenous CRH release in stress is associated with an inhibition of reproductive function, we have tested here whether the pulsatile LH decrease after ghrelin may reflect an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be prevented by a CRH antagonist. After a 3-h baseline LH pulse frequency monitoring, five adult ovariectomized rhesus monkeys received a 5-h saline (protocol 1) or ghrelin (100-microg bolus followed by 100 microg/h, protocol 2) infusion. In protocols 3 and 4, animals were given astressin B, a nonspecific CRH receptor antagonist (0.45 mg/kg im) 90 min before ghrelin or saline infusion. Blood samples were taken every 15 min for LH measurements, whereas cortisol and GH were measured every 45 min. Mean LH pulse frequency during the 5-h ghrelin infusion was significantly lower than in all other treatments (P < 0.05) and when compared with the baseline period (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with astressin B prevented the decrease. Ghrelin stimulated cortisol and GH secretion, whereas astressin B pretreatment prevented the cortisol, but not the GH, release. Our data indicate that CRH release mediates the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on LH pulse frequency and suggest that the inhibitory impact of an insufficient energy balance on reproductive function may in part be mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
    Endocrinology 03/2008; 149(3):869-74. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous release of CRH in stress has been associated with a dysfunctional reproductive endocrine axis. In the rhesus monkey, an inflammatory-like stress challenge in the luteal phase decreases luteal secretory function. Here, we tested the effectiveness of astressin B, a nonspecific CRH receptor antagonist, in constraining the deleterious impact of a 10-d lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the menstrual cycle. Two protocols were carried out in nine animals. In the first, the animals, after showing two normal consecutive control cycles, were injected daily for 10 days with LPS (75-125 mug/d) during the luteal phase of the cycle. The animals were followed through the two postchallenge cycles. The second protocol, carried out in the following year, was identical with protocol 1, except that the animals were treated with astressin B (0.45 mg/kg) 1 h before each daily LPS challenge during the luteal phase. Blood samples were obtained daily to document cyclic hormones levels. The LPS challenge significantly decreased luteal progesterone and LH release during the challenge cycle. Inhibition of luteal progesterone extended to the two successive postchallenge cycles. Astressin B treatment prevented luteal LH but not luteal progesterone decrease during the treatment cycle and restored normal progesterone secretion during the two posttreatment cycles. We conclude that the deleterious impact of a short-term inflammatory stress challenge on luteal function is far longer than the stress period itself. Systemic administration of astressin B accelerates the return to normal luteal function, presumably by restoring normal neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion.
    Endocrinology 03/2007; 148(2):841-8. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-MSH has potent antiinflammatory properties, but little is known about the specific melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs) that mediate these effects or about the role of the melanocortin system in modulating cytokine responses to an inflammatory challenge in the primate in vivo. We, therefore, studied the effects of infusion of the alpha-MSH agonist, [Nle(4),d-Phe(7)]-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH); the alpha-MSH antagonist, SHU9119; and the selective MC3-R agonist, D-Trp8-gamma-MSH, compared with saline, on proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6), antiinflammatory cytokine [IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)], and pituitary-adrenal responses to endotoxin in ovariectomized monkeys. In the first study NDP-MSH or SHU9119 was infused iv for 7 h starting at 0800 h, endotoxin was injected at 1000 h, and serial blood samples were collected (n = 6). NDP-MSH significantly attenuated proinflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin. The area under the response curve (AUC) decreased by 61% for TNF-alpha (P = 0.02), 47% for IL-1beta (P = 0.02), and 41% for IL-6 (P = 0.04); there was no effect on IL-1ra or IL-10. SHU9119 did not affect proinflammatory cytokine responses, but decreased the IL-10 response by 31% (P = 0.03). NDP-MSH also attenuated ACTH (P < 0.001) and cortisol (P = 0.02) responses. In a second study, the effects of d-Trp8-gamma-MSH were similarly examined in seven monkeys. The AUC for IL-6 was decreased by 37% (P = 0.04) by d-Trp8-gamma-MSH; the AUC for IL-10 was increased by 22%, but this was not significant. However, the ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 was significantly decreased by d-Trp8-gamma-MSH (P = 0.04), consistent with a relatively more antiinflammatory cytokine environment. These results indicate that NDP-MSH can attenuate proinflammatory cytokine responses in the primate, consistent with previous studies in the rodent, and provide new evidence for a role for MC3-R in this process. Moreover, they show for the first time that SHU9119, a mixed MC3/4-R antagonist, can decrease the IL-10 response, establishing a physiological role for endogenous MSH in modulating the release of an antiinflammatory cytokine.
    Endocrinology 05/2006; 147(4):1878-83. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agouti-related peptide (AGRP), an endogenous melanocortin receptor antagonist, is a powerful orexigenic peptide when infused centrally. AGRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY), another orexigenic peptide, are colocated within the same neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Both NPY and AGRP mRNA expression increases during food restriction, a condition that is known to suppress the GnRH pulse generator and reproductive function. Although NPY has been shown previously to suppress LH secretion in the ovariectomized monkey, data on AGRP are lacking. In this study, we examined the effect of AGRP infusion into the third ventricle on pulsatile LH release in five adult monkeys. The 8-h protocol included a 3-h intraventricular saline infusion to establish baseline pulsatile LH release, followed by a 5-h infusion of AGRP (83-132) [5 microg/h (n=1) or 10 microg/h (n=4)]. In separate experiments, each animal received an 8-h saline treatment as a control. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for LH measurements. Cortisol levels were measured every 45 min. AGRP infusion significantly decreased LH pulse frequency (from a baseline of 0.74 +/- 0.07 pulse/h to 0.36 +/- 0.12 during AGRP infusion; P <0.01) and mean LH concentrations (to 41.1 +/- 7.5% of baseline by h 5 of AGRP infusion; P < 0.001). LH pulse amplitude was not modified by AGRP treatment. AGRP infusion also significantly increased cortisol release, as previously reported. The data demonstrate that central administration of AGRP inhibits pulsatile LH release in the monkey and suggest that AGRP, like NPY, may mediate the effect of a negative energy balance on the reproductive system by suppressing the GnRH pulse generator.
    Endocrinology 02/2005; 146(2):784-9. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Fertility and Sterility - FERT STERIL. 01/2005; 84.
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, a nutrition-related peptide secreted by the stomach, is elevated during prolonged food deprivation. Because undernutrition is often associated with a suppressed reproductive axis, we have postulated that increasing peripheral ghrelin levels will decrease the activity of the GnRH pulse generator. Adult ovariectomized rhesus monkeys (n = 6) were subjected to a 5-h iv human ghrelin (100- to 150-microg bolus followed by 100-150 microg/h) or saline infusion, preceded by a 3-h saline infusion to establish baseline pulsatile LH release. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals throughout the experiment. Ghrelin infusion increased plasma ghrelin levels 2.9-fold of baseline. Ghrelin significantly decreased LH pulse frequency (from 0.89 +/- 0.07/h in baseline to 0.57 +/- 0.10/h during ghrelin infusion; P < 0.05, mean +/- sem), whereas LH pulse frequency remained unchanged during saline treatment. LH pulse amplitude was not affected. Ghrelin also significantly stimulated both cortisol and GH release, but had no effect on leptin. We conclude that ghrelin can inhibit GnRH pulse activity and may thereby mediate the suppression of the reproductive system observed in conditions of undernutrition, such as in anorexia nervosa. Ghrelin also activates the adrenal axis, but the relevance of this to the inhibition of GnRH pulse frequency remains to be established.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 11/2004; 89(11):5718-23. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Fertility and Sterility - FERT STERIL. 01/2004; 82.
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, which plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance, can also modulate the inflammatory response. Although leptin-deficient rodents are more sensitive to the toxic effects of bacterial endotoxin, it is unknown if leptin can modulate inflammatory cytokine or neuroendocrine responses to inflammation in a primate model. We have therefore studied the effects of leptin on plasma cytokine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to endotoxin (5 microg iv) in nine ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Human leptin (50 microg/h) or saline was infused iv for 16 h before and 4 h after endotoxin injection; mean plasma leptin increased from 3.6 +/- 1.0 ng/ml to 18 +/- 1.7 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Leptin infusion had no effect on baseline plasma cytokine and hormone levels before endotoxin injection. As expected, endotoxin stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), ACTH, and cortisol in the saline-infused animals (P < 0.001). There was a significant attenuation of the IL-6 (P < 0.005) and cortisol (P < 0.001) responses (repeated measures ANOVA) to endotoxin in the leptin-infused animals. There was a significant reduction (by paired analysis) in the responses of the leptin compared with saline-treated animals: 47% for TNF-alpha, 48% for IL-6, 30% for IL1ra, 42% for ACTH, and 22% for cortisol (P < 0.05). We conclude that an increase in circulating leptin, within the physiological range of our monkey colony, can blunt the inflammatory cytokine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to an inflammatory challenge. These results, coupled with our recent finding that endotoxin stimulates leptin release in the monkey, demonstrate that leptin can be both released in response to inflammatory cytokines and act to attenuate the responses to these cytokines.
    Endocrinology 11/2003; 144(10):4350-3. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An association between epilepsy and reproductive disturbances with an apparent increase in a polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been reported. Whether this association can be attributed to epilepsy itself or is related to antiepileptic drug therapy, in particular valproate (VPA), remains controversial. We studied effects of a long-term VPA treatment on cycling monkeys, postulating that, if VPA monotherapy were to promote abnormal endocrine and metabolic parameters that are characteristic of PCOS, changes in cyclicity would be readily demonstrated. After a 2-month control, a 12- to 15-month VPA monotherapy was initiated in 7 regularly cycling rhesus monkeys. Overall mean levels of VPA were 88.7 +/- 4.0 (SE) microg/ml. Mean body weight increased progressively during VPA treatment from 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg before treatment to 9.6 +/- 0.7 kg in the last week of treatment (P < 0.05). Monkeys continued to have regular ovulatory menstrual cycles throughout VPA monotherapy. Length of the cycles was 28 +/- 0.58 d in control and 28.4 +/- 1.18 d in the last 3 months of VPA treatment. Follicular and luteal lengths and peak preovulatory estradiol and integrated luteal progesterone levels did not differ between control and treatment. Ovaries from VPA-treated monkeys showed histological evidence of ovulation, and none had characteristic features of PCOS. Endocrine PCOS markers, such as increased early follicular LH/FSH ratio and androgen levels were not different in control and VPA treatment cycles. LH and 17-hydroxyprogesterone responses to GnRH agonist challenges and the insulin response to glucose tolerance tests were similar in control and VPA groups. Lipid profiles were not affected by VPA treatment. The data indicate that a 12- to 15-month therapeutic exposure to VPA does not induce cyclic hormonal or morphological ovarian abnormalities or characteristics of the PCOS when administered to nonepileptic normally cycling nonhuman primates.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 07/2003; 88(6):2908-15. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-MSH antagonizes many of the immune and neuroendocrine effects induced by inflammatory cytokines. Studies have shown that alpha-MSH attenuates the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and plays a physiological role in limiting the HPA response to IL-1. Recently an alpha-MSH antagonist, agouti-related protein (AGRP), has been identified in the hypothalamus, which stimulates food intake by antagonizing the effects of alpha-MSH at specific melanocortin receptors. It is unknown whether AGRP can also modulate neuroendocrine responses to inflammatory cytokines. We have therefore examined the effects of AGRP on the HPA axis and on prolactin (PRL) at baseline and in response to stimulation by IL-1 beta in nine ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. In the first study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) infusion of 20 microg (n = 6) and 50 micro g (n = 4) of human AGRP (83-132)-NH(2) were compared with icv saline infusion. There was a significant stimulatory effect of 20 microg AGRP on cortisol release over time (P < 0.001). The area under the hormone response curve (AUC) for cortisol increased by 29% after 20 microg AGRP vs. saline; the AUC for ACTH increased by 166% (P = 0.028); the AUC for PRL increased by 108% (P = 0.046). There was a significant stimulatory effect of 50 microg AGRP on ACTH (P < 0.001), cortisol (P < 0.001), and PRL (P < 0.001) release over time. The AUC for ACTH after 50 microg AGRP increased by 98%; the AUC for cortisol increased by 37%; the AUC for PRL increased by 161%. The effects of AGRP on ACTH, cortisol, and PRL release were prevented by alpha-MSH infusion. In the second study, animals received icv either 50 ng of human IL-1 beta or 20 microg of AGRP followed by 50 ng IL-1 beta. AGRP significantly enhanced the ACTH (P < 0.05) response to IL-1 beta. The peak ACTH response to IL-1 beta alone was 124 +/- 55 pg/ml vs. 430 +/- 198 pg/ml after IL-1 beta plus AGRP; the peak cortisol response was 70 +/- 8.2 microg/dl vs. 77 +/- 6.2 microg/dl, but this was not significantly different. In conclusion, AGRP stimulated ACTH, cortisol, and PRL release in the monkey and enhanced the ACTH response to IL-1 beta. These studies suggest that, in addition to its known orexigenic effects, AGRP may play a role in neuroendocrine regulation and specifically that AGRP may interact with alpha-MSH to modulate neuroendocrine responses to inflammation.
    Endocrinology 06/2003; 144(5):1736-41. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, which plays a key role in regulating energy homeostasis, may also modulate the inflammatory response. An inflammatory challenge with endotoxin has been shown to stimulate leptin release in the rodent. This finding has not been reproduced in humans or in nonhuman primates, although leptin levels have been reported to increase in septic patients. We have therefore examined the effects of endotoxin injection on plasma leptin levels in nine ovariectomized monkeys and four postmenopausal women. In an initial study in five monkeys, mean leptin levels did not increase during the first 5 h after endotoxin treatment, but did increase significantly from 6.4 +/- 2.1 ng/ml at baseline to 12.3 +/- 4.4 ng/ml at 24 h (P = 0.043). In a second study, a significant increase in leptin over time was noted after endotoxin treatment (P < 0.001); leptin release during the 16- to 24-h period after endotoxin injection was 48% higher than during the control period (P = 0.043). A similar stimulatory effect of endotoxin on leptin was observed when monkeys received estradiol replacement. In a third study, repeated injections of endotoxin over a 3-d period stimulated IL-6, ACTH, cortisol, and leptin release (P < 0.001). Leptin increased during the first day of treatment in all animals, but only monkeys with baseline plasma leptin levels greater than 10 ng/ml exhibited a sustained increase in leptin throughout the 3-d period. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.81; P = 0.008) between the mean baseline leptin level and the percent increase in leptin over baseline on the last day of treatment. In the human subjects, plasma leptin concentrations did not change significantly during the 7-h period after endotoxin injection. However, leptin increased in all four women from a mean baseline of 8.34 +/- 3.1 to 13.1 +/- 4.3 ng/ml 24 h after endotoxin (P = 0.038). In summary, endotoxin stimulates the release of leptin into peripheral blood in the human and nonhuman primate, but the time course is different from that reported in the rodent. These results are consistent with previous reports of increased blood leptin levels in patients with sepsis. The significance of these findings and the potential role of leptin in modulating the response to inflammation in the human require further study.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 03/2003; 88(3):1285-91. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -MSH antagonizes many of the immune and neuroendocrine effects induced by inflammatory cytokines. Studies have shown that -MSH attenuates the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and plays a physiological role in limiting the HPA response to IL-1. Re- cently an -MSH antagonist, agouti-related protein (AGRP), has been identified in the hypothalamus, which stimulates food intake by antagonizing the effects of -MSH at specific melanocortin receptors. It is unknown whether AGRP can also modulate neuroendocrine responses to inflammatory cytokines. We have therefore examined the effects of AGRP on the HPA axis and on prolactin (PRL) at baseline and in response to stimulation by IL-1 in nine ovariectomized rhe- sus monkeys. In the first study, the effects of intracerebro- ventricular (icv) infusion of 20 g( n 6) and 50 g( n 4) of human AGRP (83-132)-NH2 were compared with icv saline infusion. There was a significant stimulatory effect of 20 g AGRP on cortisol release over time (P < 0.001). The area under the hormone response curve (AUC) for cortisol increased by 29% after 20 g AGRP vs. saline; the AUC for ACTH increased by 166% (P 0.028); the AUC for PRL increased by 108% (P 0.046). There was a significant stimulatory effect of 50 g AGRP on ACTH (P < 0.001), cortisol (P < 0.001), and PRL (P < 0.001) release over time. The AUC for ACTH after 50 g AGRP increased by 98%; the AUC for cortisol increased by 37%; the AUC for PRL increased by 161%. The effects of AGRP on ACTH, cortisol, and PRL release were prevented by -MSH infusion. In the second study, animals received icv either 50 ng of hu- man IL-1 or 20 g of AGRP followed by 50 ng IL-1. AGRP significantly enhanced the ACTH (P < 0.05) response to IL-1. The peak ACTH response to IL-1 alone was 124 55 pg/ml vs. 430 198 pg/ml after IL-1 plus AGRP; the peak cortisol response was 70 8.2 g/dl vs. 77 6.2 g/dl, but this was not significantly different. In conclusion, AGRP stimulated ACTH, cortisol, and PRL release in the monkey and enhanced the ACTH response to IL-1. These studies suggest that, in addition to its known orexigenic effects, AGRP may play a role in neuroendocrine regulation and specifically that AGRP may interact with -MSH to modulate neuroendocrine responses to inflammation. (Endocrinology 144: 1736-1741, 2003) -MSH, A PEPTIDE derived from the proopiomelano- cortin (POMC) precursor protein, and agouti-related
    Endocrinology 01/2003; 144(5):1736-1741. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the pharmacokinetics of a long-acting FSH analog containing the hCG-beta carboxyterminal peptide (recombinant hFSH-CTP) with native recombinant hFSH and describe the pharmacodynamics of recombinant hFSH-CTP after SC injection in female rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkey study. Academic research environment. Ten female rhesus monkeys. Recombinant hFSH and recombinant hFSH-CTP were administered via a single SC or IV dose to rhesus monkeys, and serial phlebotomy was performed (n = 2 and n = 4 for SC recombinant hFSH and recombinant hFSH-CTP, respectively; for IV dosing, n = 1 in each group). An additional two monkeys were pretreated with SC ganirelix and received SC recombinant hFSH-CTP after confirmation of pituitary suppression. Plasma disappearance rate of recombinant hFSH and recombinant hFSH-CTP and serum estradiol levels. The elimination half-life of recombinant hFSH-CTP was twofold and fourfold longer than that for recombinant hFSH after SC and IV dosing, respectively. The absorption half-life was approximately threefold longer for recombinant hFSH-CTP than for recombinant hFSH after SC administration. Recombinant hFSH-CTP stimulates estradiol secretion for 5-7 days after an isolated SC dose. Addition of the hCG-beta carboxyterminal peptide to hFSH-beta results in an FSH analog with longer absorption and elimination half-lives compared with native hormone. This analog is capable of prolonged ovarian stimulation in rhesus monkeys after an isolated SC injection.
    Fertility and Sterility 07/2002; 77(6):1248-55. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are expressed during follicular development. Our objective was to investigate the role of VEGF in the early follicular phase to test whether early cyclic follicle development and selection are angiogenesis-dependent processes. After documentation of two normal ovulatory cycles, female rhesus monkeys (n = 6) received five iv injections of anti-VEGF receptor 2 (anti-VEGF-R2) antibody at 3-d intervals starting on cycle d 2-4. To evaluate nonspecific effects of the treatment antibody, all monkeys also received iv injections of nonspecific humanized mouse IgG, using an identical regimen. Daily measurements of FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone were obtained, throughout the entire period, to monitor cyclicity. Administration of anti-VEGF-R2 antibody resulted in a significant decline in mean inhibin B levels [control, 181.0 +/- 29.6 (mean +/- SE); treatment d 2, 44.5 +/- 13.1 pg/ml; P < 0.05]. No decrease was observed after IgG treatment. Anti-VEGF-R2 antibody treatment also delayed the first significant increase in estradiol and lengthened the follicular phase from 10-12 d in the preceding two control cycles to 20-42 d in treatment cycles. FSH and LH concentrations increased significantly, within 24 h after anti-VEGF-R2 antibody treatment, to levels 2-2.5 times over controls. Our results demonstrate that anti-VEGF-R2 antibody therapy in the early follicular phase interferes with the normal development of the cohort of recruited antral follicles. The data clearly indicate that the recruitment-selection process of follicles in the early follicular phase in the nonhuman primate is controlled by VEGF, through the VEGF-R2.
    Endocrinology 07/2002; 143(7):2496-502. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of our goal to develop nonhuman primate models to prospectively study how different types of stress may affect the menstrual cycle, we have investigated whether a short-term stress challenge that includes a significant psychogenic component can induce cyclic dysfunction. The study was performed in rhesus monkeys. The stress challenge had several components that included the psychological response to both a tethering system and to a simultaneous move to an unfamiliar environment and the response to the short surgical procedures required to install and disconnect the tethering system. The stress challenge lasted for 12 d and was initiated in the follicular (n = 5) or luteal (n = 6) phase of the menstrual cycle. At the end of the stress period, the tethering system was removed, and the animal was returned to its regular housing. To monitor cyclicity, FSH, LH, E2, and progesterone were measured daily throughout the two preceding control cycles, the experimental cycle, and the two poststress cycles, whereas the adrenal endocrine axis response was monitored by measuring cortisol. Animals remained ovulatory after the short-term stress; however, integrated progesterone secretion in the luteal phase (from the day of LH surge +1 to the day of menstruation -1) of the stress cycle was significantly decreased by 51.6% when the stress was initiated in the follicular phase and by 30.9% when it started in the luteal phase. Lower integrated LH levels (luteal d 5-13) accompanied the decreased progesterone. Cyclic parameters were still abnormal in the first poststress cycle, such as a prolonged follicular phase after a stress in the preceding follicular phase or inadequate luteal function after a stress in the preceding luteal phase. Within 4 h of the stress, there was a rapid 3-fold increase in cortisol levels over controls. Levels decreased progressively thereafter but remained significantly higher than controls during the entire short-term stress period. They were still significantly higher in the first 2 wk after stress. Overall, the data suggest that secretory inadequacy of the corpus luteum represents a first clinical stage in the damage that stress can inflict on the normal menstrual cycle. Of interest is the observation that this limited 12-d stress, which includes a significant psychogenic component, continues to produce detrimental effects on the menstrual cycle past the period during which it is exerted. Significant decreases in integrated luteal LH values in the poststress cycle suggest that these effects may be related to continuing disturbances in the neuroendocrine component of the reproductive axis.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 06/2002; 87(5):2232-7. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endotoxin and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are potent activators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although estradiol (E(2)) has been shown to enhance the HPA response to certain types of stress, previous studies in the rodent have shown that HPA responses to endotoxin and to IL-1 were enhanced by ovariectomy and attenuated by E(2). The mechanisms underlying these observations are unclear, but there is evidence that E(2) may have direct inhibitory effects on IL-6 synthesis and release. Because endotoxin and IL-1 both stimulate IL-6, it is possible that the E(2)-induced suppression of the HPA response to endotoxin and IL-1 results from decreased IL-6 release. We have therefore examined the ACTH response to IL-6 and IL-1beta in six ovariectomized rhesus monkeys with and without 3 weeks of E(2) replacement. In the first study, plasma ACTH levels peaked at 60 min after iv injection of 6 microg recombinant human IL-6. Both the ACTH response, over time, and the area under the ACTH response curve were significantly higher in the E(2)-treated animals (P < 0.05). The peak ACTH level was 66 +/- 16 pg/ml without E(2) vs. 161 +/- 69 pg/ml with E(2). In the second study, iv infusion of recombinant human IL-1beta (400 ng) produced plasma IL-6 levels comparable with those seen after IL-6 injection in the first study. In the IL-1 study, however, there was a significant attenuation of the ACTH response, over time, in the E(2)-treated animals (P < 0.001); the peak ACTH level was 83 +/- 34 pg/ml vs. 13 +/- 4.4 pg/ml after E(2). The IL-6 response was similarly attenuated (P < 0.001); the peak IL-6 level was 614 +/- 168 pg/ml vs. 277 +/- 53 pg/ml after E(2) treatment. Our results demonstrate that physiological levels of E(2) enhance the ACTH response to IL-6 but attenuate the ACTH response to IL-1. The attenuated ACTH response to IL-1 was accompanied by a blunted IL-6 response. Our results suggest that the blunted HPA response to IL-1 can be explained, at least in part, by E(2)-induced alterations in IL-6 release. It remains to be determined whether E(2) affects other inflammatory mediators that also participate in this process.
    Endocrinology 07/2001; 142(7):2736-41. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indirect evidence in the nonhuman primate and human suggests that angiogenesis and regulators of angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may play an active role in cyclic folliculogenesis. Indeed, the follicle selected for maturation and ovulation possesses a denser microvascular network, and VEGF messenger ribonucleic acid and its protein have been identified in granulosa cells of the developing follicle during the mid- and late follicular phases, with a more intense signal in the mature follicle. The objective of this study was to obtain direct evidence in the nonhuman primate for an active role of VEGF in follicular growth and maturation by studying the effect of VEGF-blocking antibodies in this process. After documenting two normal ovulatory cycles, female rhesus monkeys (n = 7) received iv injections of anti-VEGF antibodies (0.5 mg) twice on successive days in the late follicular phase. Three monkeys also received nonspecific goat IgG (0.5 mg) twice on successive days in the late follicular phase. Daily measurements of estradiol, progesterone, LH, and FSH were obtained during the two control cycles, the anti-VEGF treatment and posttreatment cycles, and the IgG treatment cycle. Anti-VEGF antibody administration significantly lengthened the follicular phase in six of seven monkeys to 17.8 +/- 1.7 vs. 10.0 +/- 0.7 and 9.8 +/- 0.6 in control cycles and 10.7 +/- 0.3 days (mean +/- SE) in IgG-treated cycles. The expected late follicular phase rise in estradiol, as documented in the control cycles (day 0, 96.1 +/- 6.0; day 1, 125.5 +/- 20.0; day 2, 165.5 +/- 24.9; day 3, 183.8 +/- 11.0 pg/mL), was interrupted by anti-VEGF antibody treatment (99.3 +/- 5.0, day 0, preinjection control) to 63.3 +/- 12.2 (day 1), 48.5 +/- 8.7 (day 2), and 57.6 +/- 9.0 (day 3). Mean FSH levels were significantly increased by day 2 of anti-VEGF antibody treatment. After a variable delay, estradiol concentrations increased to reach a preovulatory peak in all anti-VEGF-treated animals, followed by ovulation, normal luteal function, and a normal posttreatment cycle. The data clearly demonstrate that short-term inhibition of angiogenesis with an anti-VEGF-blocking antibody during the later growth phase of the dominant follicle interferes with normal follicular development. Persistence of estradiol secretion and delayed resumption of its rise also suggest recovery of the follicle. We conclude that the angiogenic regulator VEGF is a crucial component in the process of follicular growth in the primate.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 03/2001; 86(2):768-72. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endotoxin and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are potent activators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although estradiol (E2) has been shown to enhance the HPA response to certain types of stress, previous studies in the rodent have shown that HPA responses to endotoxin and to IL-1 were en- hanced by ovariectomy and attenuated by E2. The mechanisms un- derlying these observations are unclear, but there is evidence that E2 may have direct inhibitory effects on IL-6 synthesis and release. Because endotoxin and IL-1 both stimulate IL-6, it is possible that the E2-induced suppression of the HPA response to endotoxin and IL-1 results from decreased IL-6 release. We have therefore examined the ACTH response to IL-6 and IL-1b in six ovariectomized rhesus mon- keys with and without 3 weeks of E2 replacement. In the first study, plasma ACTH levels peaked at 60 min after iv injection of 6 mg recombinant human IL-6. Both the ACTH response, over time, and the area under the ACTH response curve were significantly higher in the E2-treated animals (P , 0.05). The peak ACTH level was 66 6 16 pg/ml without E2 vs. 161 6 69 pg/ml with E2. In the second study, iv infusion of recombinant human IL-1b (400 ng) produced plasma IL-6 levels comparable with those seen after IL-6 injection in the first study. In the IL-1 study, however, there was a significant attenuation of the ACTH response, over time, in the E2-treated animals (P , 0.001); the peak ACTH level was 83 6 34 pg/ml vs. 13 6 4.4 pg/ml after E2. The IL-6 response was similarly attenuated (P , 0.001); the peak IL-6 level was 614 6 168 pg/ml vs. 277 6 53 pg/ml after E2 treatment. Our results demonstrate that physiological levels of E2 enhance the ACTH response to IL-6 but attenuate the ACTH response to IL-1. The attenuated ACTH response to IL-1 was accompanied by a blunted IL-6 response. Our results suggest that the blunted HPA response to IL-1 can be explained, at least in part, by E2-induced alterations in IL-6 release. It remains to be determined whether E2 affects other inflammatory mediators that also participate in this process. (Endo- crinology 142: 2736 -2741, 2001)
    Endocrinology 01/2001; 142(7):2736-2741. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • E Xiao, L Xia-Zhang, M Ferin
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    ABSTRACT: Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS), the pathogenic moiety of gram-negative bacteria, is a well-known trigger for the central release of cytokines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of systemic endotoxin administration on LH and cortisol secretion in a non-human primate model and to investigate whether these endocrine effects are mediated by centrally released interleukin-1 (IL-1) using the receptor antagonist to IL-1 (IL-1ra). An additional objective is to investigate whether endogenous opioid peptides mediate these endocrine effects of LPS, using the opiate antagonist naloxone. The experiments were performed in long-term-ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Blood samples for hormone determination were obtained at 15-min intervals for a period of 8 h, which included a 3-hour baseline period. Since the effective central dose of IL-1ra in the monkey was unknown, in the first experiment we tested the potency of several doses of this antagonist in preventing the effects of centrally administered IL-1alpha, a cytokine which is known to inhibit LH and stimulate cortisol release. Rhesus monkeys received a 30-min intracerebroventricular infusion of IL-1alpha (4.2 microg/30 min) alone or together with various doses of IL-1ra (30-180 microg/h i.c.v.). IL-1ra infusion was initiated 1 h before IL-1 and extended over the experimental period. As previously reported, IL-1alpha induced a significant inhibition of LH, to 36.5 +/- 3.3% (mean +/- SE) by 5 h as a percentage from the 3-hour baseline. This inhibitory effect was reversed by cotreatment with the 180 microg/h dose of IL-1ra (to 82.5 +/- 3.8% by 5 h; NS vs. saline) but not with the lower doses. IL-1 stimulated cortisol release to 165.9 +/- 7.7%, but this increase was prevented by IL-1ra (66.6 +/- 8.9%; p < 0.05 vs. IL-1, NS vs. saline). In the second experiment, LPS (50 microg) was administered intravenously, alone or in combination with intracerebroventricular IL-1ra infusion. LPS induced a significant decrease in LH secretion (to 57.1 +/- 5.2%). These effects were not reversed by intracerebroventricular administration of IL-1ra (52.5 +/- 9.6%). Cortisol secretion increased in response to LPS, but this stimulatory effect was not affected by IL-1ra (178.3 +/- 13.4 vs. 166.9 +/- 5.7%). There were no effects of IL-1ra alone. In experiment 3, we investigated whether the opiate antagonist naloxone reverses the endocrine effects of endotoxin. Both LPS (50 microg) and naloxone (5-mg bolus + 5 mg/h) were infused intravenously. Naloxone was effective in preventing the inhibitory effect of LPS on LH (to 124.6 +/- 22.1%, NS vs. saline) but not the increase in cortisol (to 166.7 +/- 16.7%; p < 0.05 vs. saline, NS vs. LPS). Naloxone alone has no significant effect on LH or cortisol secretion. These data demonstrate that, in the ovariectomized monkey, a systemic inflammatory/immune- like stress challenge acutely inhibits tonic LH secretion while concomitantly stimulating cortisol release. Although endotoxin is known to affect central cytokine release, these endocrine effects do not require a mediatory role of central IL-1 in the primate. In contrast, endogenous opioid pathways appear to be involved in this process.
    NeuroImmunoModulation 01/2000; 7(1):6-15. · 1.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

649 Citations
145.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2008
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2005
    • West Georgia Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Georgetown, Georgia, United States
  • 1996–2001
    • Devry College of New York, USA
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1997
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Reproductive Specialists of New York
      New York City, New York, United States