[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The newborn heart adapts to postnatal life by shifting from a fetal glycolytic metabolism to a mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Abcc9, an ATP-binding cassette family member, increases expression concomitant with this metabolic shift. Abcc9 encodes a membrane-associated receptor that partners with a potassium channel to become the major potassium-sensitive ATP channel in the heart. Abcc9 also encodes a smaller protein enriched in the mitochondria. We now deleted exon 5 of Abcc9 to ablate expression of both plasma membrane and mitochondria-associated Abcc9-encoded proteins, and found that the myocardium failed to acquire normal mature metabolism, resulting in neonatal cardiomyopathy. Unlike wild-type neonatal cardiomyocytes, mitochondria from Ex5 cardiomyocytes were unresponsive to the KATP agonist diazoxide, consistent with loss of KATP activity. When exposed to hydrogen peroxide to induce cell stress, Ex5 neonatal cardiomyocytes displayed a rapid collapse of mitochondria membrane potential, distinct from wild-type cardiomyocytes. Ex5 cardiomyocytes had reduced fatty acid oxidation, reduced oxygen consumption and reserve. Morphologically, Ex5 cardiac mitochondria exhibited an immature pattern with reduced cross-sectional area and intermitochondrial contacts. In the absence of Abcc9, the newborn heart fails to transition normally from fetal to mature myocardial metabolism.-Fahrenbach, J. P., Stoller, D., Kim, G., Aggarwal, N., Yerokun, B., Earley, J. U., Hadhazy, M., Shi, N.-Q., Makielski, J. C., McNally, E. M. Abcc9 is required for the transition to oxidative metabolism in the newborn heart.
The FASEB Journal 03/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1096/fj.13-244459 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are found in both the sarcoplasmic reticulum (sarcKATP) and the inner membrane of mitochondria (mitoKATP). SarcKATP are composed of a pore containing subunit Kir6.2 and a regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunit (SUR2), but the composition of mitoKATP remains unclear. An unusual intra-exonic splice variant of SUR2 (SUR2A-55) was previously identified in mitochondria of mammalian heart and brain, and by analogy with sarcKATP we proposed SUR2A-55 as a candidate regulatory subunit of mitoKATP. Although SUR2A-55 lacks the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD), it has a hybrid TMD and retains the second NBD. It resembles a hemi-ABC transporter suggesting it could multimerize to function as a regulatory subunit. A putative mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminal domain of SUR2A-55 was removed by truncation and when co-expressed with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 it targeted to the plasma membrane and yielded KATP currents. Single channel conductance, mean open time, and burst open time of SUR2A-55 based KATP was similar to the full-length SUR2A based KATP. However, the SUR2A-55 KATP were 70-fold less sensitive to block by ATP, and twice as resistant to intracellular Ca (2+) inhibition compared with the SUR2A KATP, and were markedly insensitive to KATP drugs, pinacidil, diazoxide, and glybenclamide. These results suggest that the SUR2A-55 based channels would tend to be open under physiological conditions and in ischemia, and could account for cardiac and mitochondrial phenotypes protective for ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with various human diseases, and considerable attention has been paid to investigate their physiological effects. Various ROS are synthesized in the mitochondria and accumulate in the cytoplasm if the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism fails. The critical balance of this ROS synthesis and antioxidant defense systems is termed the redox system of the cell. Various cardiovascular diseases have also been affected by redox to different degrees. ROS have been indicated as both detrimental and protective, via different cellular pathways, for cardiac myocyte functions, electrophysiology, and pharmacology. Mostly, the ROS functions depend on the type and amount of ROS synthesized. While the literature clearly indicates ROS effects on cardiac contractility, their effects on cardiac excitability are relatively under appreciated. Cardiac excitability depends on the functions of various cardiac sarcolemal or mitochondrial ion channels carrying various depolarizing or repolarizing currents that also maintain cellular ionic homeostasis. ROS alter the functions of these ion channels to various degrees to determine excitability by affecting the cellular resting potential and the morphology of the cardiac action potential. Thus, redox balance regulates cardiac excitability, and under pathological regulation, may alter action potential propagation to cause arrhythmia. Understanding how redox affects cellular excitability may lead to potential prophylaxis or treatment for various arrhythmias. This review will focus on the studies of redox and cardiac excitation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA) and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and nitric oxide (NO) mediate relaxations to acetylcholine (ACH). However, interactions between NO and the 15-LO-1 pathway have not been explored. Therefore, the effect of physiological and pharmacological concentrations of NO on 15-LO activity and relaxation was studied in rabbit aorta. In indomethacin-treated aortic rings, maximal ACH relaxations of 91.3±4.0%, decreased to 54.5±3.0% by the NO synthase inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine (LNA), to 49.8±3% by the guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, to 63.7±4.9% by the lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and were completely inhibited by the combination of LNA and NDGA. AA relaxations were not affected by GC inhibition but were reduced by LO inhibition. The NO donor, dipropylenetriamine-NONOate (DPTA) caused concentration-related relaxations (EC(50)=4.7×10(-6)M). Aortic metabolism of (14)C-AA to THETA and HEETA was not altered by EC(50) concentrations of DPTA but were reduced 10-fold by 10(-3)M DPTA. In LNA-treated aorta, DPTA (3×10(-6)M) caused relaxations of 38.2.5±4%. Maximum relaxations to ACH did not differ in the presence and absence 3×10(-6)M DPTA (49.5±5% and 44.2±4%, respectively). These results indicate that NO and 15-LO-1 act in parallel to mediate ACH relaxations and NO does not alter 15-LO-1 activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites function as EDHFs in arteries of many species. They mediate cyclooxygenase (COX)- and nitric oxide (NO)-independent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh). However, the role of AA metabolites as relaxing factors in mouse arteries remains incompletely defined. ACh caused concentration-dependent relaxations of the mouse thoracic and abdominal aorta and carotid, femoral, and mesentery arteries (maximal relaxation: 57 ± 4%, 72 ± 4%, 82 ± 3%, 80 ± 3%, and 85 ± 3%, respectively). The NO synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (L-NA; 30 μM) blocked relaxations in the thoracic aorta, and L-NA plus the COX inhibitor indomethacin (10 μM) inhibited relaxations in the abdominal aorta and carotid, femoral, and mesenteric arteries (maximal relaxation: 31 ± 10%, 33 ± 5%, 41 ± 8%, and 73 ± 3%, respectively). In mesenteric arteries, NO- and COX-independent relaxations to ACh were inhibited by the lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitors nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; 10 μM) and BW-755C (200 μM), the K(+) channel inhibitor apamin (1 μM), and 60 mM KCl and eliminated by endothelium removal. They were not altered by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (20 μM) or the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 μM). AA relaxations were attenuated by NDGA or apamin and eliminated by 60 mM KCl. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis revealed arterial [(14)C]AA metabolites that comigrated with prostaglandins, trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (THETAs), hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acids (HEETAs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids were not observed. Mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of 6-keto-PGF(1α), PGE(2), 12-HETE, 15-HETE, HEETAs, 11,12,15-THETA, and 11,14,15-THETA. AA metabolism was blocked by NDGA and endothelium removal. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA relaxations (maximal relaxation: 73 ± 3%) were endothelium independent and blocked by 60 mM KCl. Western immunoblot analysis and RT-PCR of the aorta and mesenteric arteries demonstrated protein and mRNA expression of leukocyte-type 12/15-LO. Thus, in mouse resistance arteries, 12/15-LO AA metabolites mediate endothelium-dependent relaxations to ACh and AA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sulfonylurea receptor-2 (SUR2) is a subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) in heart. Mice with the SUR2 gene disrupted (SUR2m) are constitutively protected from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) cardiac injury. This was surprising because K(ATP), either sarcolemmal or mitochondrial or both, are thought to be important for cardioprotection. We hypothesized that SUR2m mice have an altered mitochondrial phenotype that protects against I/R. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), tolerance to Ca(2+) load, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were studied by fluorescence-based assays, and volumetric changes in response to K(+) were measured by light scattering in isolated mitochondria. For resting SUR2m mitochondria compared with wild type, the ΔΨ(m) was less polarized (46.1 ± 0.4 vs. 51.9 ± 0.6%), tolerance to Ca(2+) loading was increased (163 ± 2 vs. 116 ± 2 μM), and ROS generation was enhanced with complex I [8.5 ± 1.2 vs. 4.9 ± 0.2 arbitrary fluorescence units (afu)/s] or complex II (351 ± 51.3 vs. 166 ± 36.2 afu/s) substrates. SUR2m mitochondria had greater swelling in K(+) medium (30.2 ± 3.1%) compared with wild type (14.5 ± 0.6%), indicating greater K(+) influx. Additionally, ΔΨ(m) decreased and swelling increased in the absence of ATP in SUR2m, but the sensitivity to ATP was less compared with wild type. When the mitochondria were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation, the decrease in respiration rates and respiratory control index was less in SUR2m. ΔΨ(m) maintenance in the SUR2m intact myocytes was also more tolerant to metabolic inhibition. In conclusion, the cardioprotection observed in the SUR2m mice is associated with a protected mitochondrial phenotype resulting from enhanced K(+) conductance that partially dissipated ΔΨ(m). These results have implications for possible SUR2 participation in mitochondrial K(ATP).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfonylurea receptor-containing ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels have been implicated in cardioprotection, but the cell type and constitution of channels responsible for this protection have not been clear. Mice deleted for the first nucleotide binding region of sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) are referred to as SUR2 null since they lack full-length SUR2 and glibenclamide-responsive K(ATP) channels in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle. As previously reported, SUR2 null mice develop electrocardiographic changes of ST segment elevation that were shown to correlate with coronary artery vasospasm. Here we restored expression of the cardiomyocyte SUR2-K(ATP) channel in SUR2 null mice by generating transgenic mice with ventricular cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of SUR2A. Introduction of the cardiomyocyte SUR2A transgene into the SUR2 null background restored functional cardiac K(ATP) channels. Hearts isolated from rescued mice, referred to as MLC2A, had significantly reduced infarct size (27 ± 3% of area at risk) compared with SUR2 null mice (36 ± 3% of area at risk). Compared with SUR2 null hearts, MLC2A hearts exhibited significantly improved cardiac function during the postischemia reperfusion period primarily because of preservation of low diastolic pressures. Additionally, restoration of cardiac SUR2-K(ATP) channels significantly reduced the degree and frequency of ST segment elevation episodes in MLC2A mice. Therefore, cardioprotective mechanisms both dependent and independent of SUR2-K(ATP) channels contribute to cardiac function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardioprotective pathways may involve a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel but its composition is not fully understood.
We hypothesized that the mitoK(ATP) channel contains a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR)2 regulatory subunit and aimed to identify the molecular structure.
Western blot analysis in cardiac mitochondria detected a 55-kDa mitochondrial SUR2 (mitoSUR2) short form, 2 additional short forms (28 and 68 kDa), and a 130-kDa long form. RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) identified a 1.5-Kb transcript, which was generated by a nonconventional intraexonic splicing (IES) event within the 4th and 29th exons of the SUR2 mRNA. The translated product matched the predicted size of the 55-kDa short form. In a knockout mouse (SUR2KO), in which the SUR2 gene was disrupted, the 130-kDa mitoSUR2 was absent, but the short forms remained expressed. Diazoxide failed to induce increased fluorescence of flavoprotein oxidation in SUR2KO cells, indicating that the diazoxide-sensitive mitoK(ATP) channel activity was associated with 130-kDa-based channels. However, SUR2KO mice displayed similar infarct sizes to preconditioned wild type, suggesting a protective role for the remaining short form-based channels. Heterologous coexpression of the SUR2 IES variant and Kir6.2 in a K(+) transport mutant Escherichia coli strain permitted improved cell growth under acidic pH conditions. The SUR2 IES variant was localized to mitochondria, and removal of a predicted mitochondrial targeting sequence allowed surface expression and detection of an ATP-sensitive current when coexpressed with Kir6.2.
We identify a novel SUR2 IES variant in cardiac mitochondria and provide evidence that the variant-based channel can form an ATP-sensitive conductance and may contribute to cardioprotection.
Circulation Research 10/2009; 105(11):1083-93. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.195040 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO-1) metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA) to 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (THETAs) and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (HEETA) that dilate rabbit arteries. Increased endothelial 15-LO-1 expression enhances arterial relaxations to agonists. We tested the effect of hypoxia on 15-LO-1 expression, THETA and HEETA synthesis, and relaxations in rabbit arteries. The incubation of rabbit aortic endothelial cells and isolated aortas in 0.7% O(2) increased 15-LO-1 expression. Rabbits were housed in a hypoxic atmosphere of 12% O(2) for 5 days. 15-LO-1 expression increased in the endothelium of the arteries of rabbits in 12% O(2) compared with room air. THETA and HEETA synthesis was also enhanced in aortas and mesenteric arteries. AA hyperpolarized the smooth muscle cells in indomethacin- and phenylephrine-treated mesenteric arteries of hypoxic rabbits from -29.4 +/- 1 to -50.1 +/- 3 mV. The hyperpolarization to AA was less in arteries of normoxic rabbits (from -26.0 +/- 2 to -37 +/- 2 mV). This AA-induced hyperpolarization was inhibited by the 15-LO inhibitor BW-755C. Nitric oxide and prostaglandin-independent maximum relaxations to acetylcholine (79.7 +/- 2%) and AA (38.3 +/- 4%) were enhanced in mesenteric arteries from hypoxic rabbits compared with the normoxic rabbits (49.7 +/- 6% and 19.9 +/- 2%, respectively). These relaxations were inhibited by BW-755C and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Therefore, hypoxia increased the relaxations to agonists in the rabbit mesenteric arteries by enhancing endothelial 15-LO-1 expression and synthesis of the hyperpolarizing factors THETA and HEETA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1), trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA), and hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) relax arteries. We studied 15-LO-1 expression, THETA and HEETA synthesis, and their effect on arterial relaxations and blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic nonatherosclerotic rabbits.
Immunoblots, RTPCR analysis, and (14)C-AA metabolism revealed that hypercholesterolemia increased 15-LO-1 expression in the endothelium and THETA and HEETA synthesis in the arteries. Isometric tension recording, in presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, showed greater relaxations to acetylcholine (ACH) and AA (max 76.0+/-4.6% and 79.5+/-2.4%, respectively) in aortas from hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared with normal rabbits (max 39.1+/-2.8% and 39.9+/-2.2%, respectively). AA induced greater hyperpolarization in the smooth muscle cells of hypercholesterolemic aortas (-45.85+/-3.0 mV) compared with normal aortas (-31.45+/-1.9 mV). The ACH- and AA-relaxations were inhibited by 15-LO-1 inhibitors. ACH induced hypotensive responses were greater in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in absence (-54.9+/-3.3%) or presence (-48.5+/-3.2%) of NOS and COX-inhibitors compared with control rabbits (-31.6+/-3.3% and -24.3+/-1.6%, respectively). BW755C reduced these responses in hypercholesterolemic rabbits to -29.3+/-2.3%.
Hypercholesterolemia increases endothelial 15-LO-1 expression, THETA and HEETA synthesis and enhances vasorelaxation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from the 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) pathway, trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (THETAs) and hydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (HEETAs), are endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) and relax rabbit arteries. Rabbit vascular 15-LO-1 expression, THETA and HEETA synthesis, and nitric oxide and prostaglandin-independent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) and AA decreased with age (neonates to 16-wk-old). We characterized age-dependent ACh-hypotensive responses in vivo in 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-wk-old rabbits and the contribution of THETAs and HEETAs to these responses. In anesthetized rabbits, blood pressure responses to ACh (4-4,000 ng/kg) were determined in the presence of vehicle or various inhibitors. ACh responses decreased with age (P > 0.001). In the absence or presence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (Indo), maximum responses in 1 (-54.7 +/- 7.4 and -37.9 +/- 3.9%)- and 4 (-48.8 +/- 2.4 and -35.5 +/- 7.8%)-wk-old rabbits were higher than 8 (-30.0 +/- 2.8 and -26.6 +/- 4.4%)- and 16 (-36.7 +/- 3.5 and -27.3 +/- 10%)-wk-old rabbits. A lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, reduced THETA and HEETA synthesis in mesenteric arteries. In the presence of Indo and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine, ACh relaxations were reduced by BW755C to a greater extent in the mesenteric arteries from the younger rabbits. In 4-wk-old rabbits treated with l-NAME and Indo, the maximum ACh hypotension was reduced by the potassium channel inhibitors apamin and charybdotoxin to -6.9 +/- 0.9%, by apamin alone to -19.5 +/- 1.4%, and by BW755C to -18.8 +/- 3.5%. The present study indicates that the age-related decrease in ACh-induced hypotension is mediated by the decreased synthesis of the 15-LO-1 metabolites THETAs and HEETAs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) causes endothelium-dependent smooth muscle hyperpolarizations and relaxations that are mediated by a 15-lipoxygenase-I (15-LO-I) metabolite, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12,15-THETA). We propose that AA is metabolized sequentially by 15-LO-I and hydroperoxide isomerase to an unidentified hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA), which is hydrolyzed by a soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to 11,12,15-THETA. After incubation of aorta with 14C-labeled AA, metabolites were extracted and the HEETAs were resolved by performing HPLC. Mass spectrometric analyses identified 15-Hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-H-11,12-EETA). Incubation of aortic incubates with methanol and acetic acid trapped the acid-sensitive 15-H-11,12-EETA as methoxydihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (MDHEs) (367 m/z, M-H). Pretreatment of the aortic tissue with the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA; 10(-6) M) increased the formation of 15-H-11,12-EETA, measured as MDHEs. Thus 15-H-11,12-EETA is an acid- and sEH-sensitive precursor of 11,12,15-THETA. Aortic homogenates and endothelial cells contain a 57-kDa protein corresponding to the rabbit sEH. In preconstricted aortic rings, AA (10(-7)-10(-4) M) and acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-6) M) caused concentration-related relaxations that were enhanced by pretreatment with AUDA. These enhanced relaxations were inhibited by increasing extracellular [K(+)] from 4.8 to 20 mM. AA (3 x 10(-6) M) induced cell membrane hyperpolarization (from -31.0 +/- 1 to -46.8 +/- 2 mV) in aortic strips with an intact endothelium, which was enhanced by AUDA. These results indicate that 15-H-11,12-EETA is produced by the aorta, hydrolyzed by sEH to 11,12,15-THETA, and mediates relaxations by membrane hyperpolarization. 15-H-11,12-EETA represents an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid is metabolized by the 15-lipoxygenase-1 pathway to the vasodilatory eicosanoids hydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. We determined the in vitro and in vivo effects of the 15-lipoxygenase-1 metabolites in rabbits infected with adenovirus containing cDNA for human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Ad-15-LO-1). Forty hours after intravenous adenoviral injection, 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression increased in liver and mesenteric arteries 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Expression of 15-LO-1 was limited to the endothelium of mesenteric arteries. Overexpression did not occur in tissues from rabbits infected with a β-galactosidase containing adenovirus. Trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and hydroxy- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid synthesis per milligram of tissue increased by 2.1- and 1.5-fold, respectively, in mesenteric arteries from Ad-15-LO-1-infected rabbits compared with normal rabbits. Pretreatment with a 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor BW755C inhibited the synthesis. NO and prostaglandin-independent, maximal relaxations to acetylcholine were greater in mesenteric arteries from Ad-15-LO-1-infected rabbits (98.3±1.7%) compared with normal (60.93±10.5%) and β-galactosidase containing adenovirus-infected rabbits (68.3±7.7%). Pretreatment with BW755C decreased these relaxations. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate did not differ in Ad-15-LO-1-infected rabbits compared with normal or β-galactosidase containing adenovirus-infected rabbits. The hypotensive responses to acetylcholine in the presence and absence of inhibition of NO and prostaglandins were greater in Ad-15-LO-1-infected rabbits (-52±2% and -47±2%) compared with normal (-31±3% and -25±5%) or β-galactosidase containing adenovirus-infected rabbits (-38±2% and -30±3%). Therefore, increased expression of 15-LO-1 increases acetylcholine relaxation in arteries and hypotensive responses in rabbits because of increased hydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabbit 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) into 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, which is then converted to the vasodilatory 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA). We studied the age-dependent expression of the 15-LO-1 in rabbit aorta and its effects on the synthesis of THETA, HEETA, and vasoactivity. Aortas of 1-wk-old rabbits express greater amounts of 15-LO-1 mRNA and protein compared with aortas of 4-, 8-, or 16-wk-old rabbits. The synthesis of THETA and HEETA in the rabbit aorta was also reduced with age. THETA synthesis was maximal in 1-wk-old aortas but decreased in aortas of 4- (42%), 8- (4%), and 16-wk-old (1%) rabbits. Similarly, THETA and HEETA synthesis decreased with age in mesenteric arteries from 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-wk-old rabbits. The maximum vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (10(-6) M) in the presence of indomethacin and nitro-l-arginine decreased in the order of 1 wk (64.5 +/- 6.9%), 4 wk (52.6 +/- 8.9%), 8 wk (53.0 +/- 9.4%), and 16 wk (33.3 +/- 6.6%). Similarly, the maximum relaxation to AA (3 x 10(-4) M) decreased with age in the order of 1 wk (60.4 +/- 8.9%), 4 wk (56.3 +/- 5.8%), 8 wk (41.8 +/- 12.3%), and 16 wk (28.9 +/- 1.6%). In contrast, the vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was not significantly altered by age. These data indicate that aortic 15-LO-1 expression and activity are downregulated with aging in rabbits. This decrease is paralleled by the reduced synthesis of vasoactive THETA and HEETA and aortic relaxations to acetylcholine and AA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is antiinvasive in androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cells. Invasion of PC-3 cells is also inhibited by exogenously added noladin ether, a non-hydrolyzable analog of 2-AG. In contrast, exogenous 2-AG has the opposite effect. Cell invasion significantly increased with high concentrations of exogenous 2-AG. In PC-3 cells, arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) concentrations increased along with exogenously added 2-AG, and 12-HETE concentrations increased with exogenously added AA. Invasion of PC-3 cells also increased with exogenously added AA and 12(S)-HETE but not 12(R)-HETE. The exogenous 2-AG-induced invasion of PC-3 cells was inhibited by 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP, an inhibitor of 2-AG hydrolysis) and baicalein (a 12-LO inhibitor). Western blot and RT-PCR analyses indicated expression of 12-HETE producing lipoxygenases (LOs), platelet-type 12-LO (P-12-LO) and leukocyte-type 12-LO (L-12-LO), in PC-3 cells. These results suggest that exogenous 2-AG induced, rather inhibited, cell invasion because of its rapid hydrolysis to free AA, and further metabolism by 12-LO of AA to 12(S)-HETE, a promoter of PC cell invasion. The results also suggest that PC-3 cells and human prostate stromal (WPMY-1) cells released free AA, 2-AG, and 12-HETE. In the microenvironment of the PC cells, this may contribute to the cell invasion. The 2-AG hydrolysis and concentration of 2-AG in microenvironment are critical for PC cell's fate. Therefore, inhibitors of 2-AG hydrolysis could potentially serve as therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2007; 121(5):984-91. DOI:10.1002/ijc.22761 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the rabbit aorta is mediated by either nitric oxide (NO) or arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) pathways. 15-LO-1 metabolites of AA, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA), and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) cause concentration-dependent relaxation. We tested the hypothesis that in the 15-LO pathway of AA metabolism, 15-LO-1 is sufficient and is the rate-limiting step in inducing relaxations in rabbit aorta. Aorta and rabbit aortic endothelial cells were treated with adenoviruses containing human 15-LO-1 cDNA (Ad-15-LO-1) or beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta-Gal). Ad-15-LO-1-transduction increased the expression of a 75-kDa protein corresponding to 15-LO-1, detected by immunoblotting with an anti-human15-LO-1 antibody, and increased the production of HEETA and THETA from [(14)C]AA. Immunohistochemical studies on Ad-15-LO-1-transduced rabbit aorta showed the presence of 15-LO-1 in endothelial cells. Ad-15-LO-1-treated aortic rings showed enhanced relaxation to AA (max 31.7 +/- 3.2%) compared with Ad-beta-Gal-treated (max 12.7 +/- 3.2%) or control nontreated rings (max 13.1 +/- 1.6%) (P < 0.01). The relaxations in Ad-15-LO-1-treated aorta were blocked by the 15-LO inhibitor cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-a-cyanocinnamate. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 in the rabbit aortic endothelium is sufficient to increase the production of the vasodilatory HEETA and THETA and enhance the relaxations to AA. This confirms the role of HEETA and THETA as endothelium-derived relaxing factors.