John M Greally

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (122)991.05 Total impact

  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 06/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Even though recent studies have shown that genetic changes at enhancers can influence carcinogenesis, most methylomic studies have focused on changes at promoters. We used renal cell carcinoma (RCC), an incurable malignancy associated with mutations in epigenetic regulators, as a model to study genome wide patterns of DNA methylation at a high resolution. Experimental Design and Results: Analysis of 1.3 million CpGs by the HELP assay in RCC and healthy microdissected renal tubular controls demonstrated that the RCC samples were characterized by widespread hypermethylation that preferentially affected gene bodies. Aberrant methylation was particularly enriched in kidney specific enhancer regions associated with H3K4Me1 marks. Various important underexpressed genes such as SMAD6 were associated with aberrantly methylated, intronic enhancers and these changes were validated in an independent cohort. MOTIF analysis of aberrantly hypermethylated regions revealed enrichment for binding sites of AP2alpha, AHR, HAIRY, ARNT and HIF-1 transcription factors, reflecting contributions of dysregulated hypoxia signaling pathways in RCC. The functional importance of this aberrant hypermethylation was demonstrated by selective sensitivity of RCC cells to low levels of decitabine. Most importantly, methylation of enhancers was predictive of adverse prognosis in 405 cases of RCC in multivariate analysis. Additionally, parallel copy number analysis from MspI representations demonstrated novel cnvs that were validated in independent cohort of patients. Conclusions: Our study is the first high resolution methylome analysis of RCC; demonstrates that many kidney specific enhancers are targeted by aberrant hypermethylation and reveals the prognostic importance of these epigenetic changes in an independent cohort.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The protein MeCP2 mediates epigenetic regulation by binding methyl-CpG (mCpG) sites on chromatin. MeCP2 consists of six domains of which one, MBD, binds mCpG sites in duplex DNA. We show that solution conditions of physiological or greater salt concentration or the presence of nonspecific competitor DNA are necessary for MDB to discriminate mCpG from CpG with high specificity. The specificity for mCpG over CpG is greater than a hundred fold under these solution conditions. In contrast, MBD does not discriminate hydroxymethyl-CpG from CpG. MBD is unusual among site-specific DNA binding proteins in that i) specificity is not conferred by enhanced affinity for the specific site but rather by suppression of its affinity for generic DNA, ii) its specific binding to mCpG is highly electrostatic and iii) it takes up as well as displaces monovalent cations upon DNA binding. MBD displays an unusually high affinity for single stranded DNA independent of modification or sequence. In addition, MBD forms a discrete dimer on DNA via a noncooperative-binding pathway. Since affinity of the second monomer is an order of magnitude greater than nonspecific binding, the MBD dimer is a unique molecular complex. The significance of these results in the context of neuronal function and development and MeCP2 related developmental disorders such as Rett Syndrome are discussed.
    Biochemistry 05/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA mutational events are increasingly being identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the potential additional role of dysregulation of the epigenome in the pathogenesis of the condition remains unclear. The epigenome is of interest as a possible mediator of environmental effects during development, encoding a cellular memory reflected by altered function of progeny cells. Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD for reasons that are not understood. To explore whether AMA involves covert aneuploidy or epigenetic dysregulation leading to ASD in the offspring, we tested a homogeneous ectodermal cell type from 47 individuals with ASD compared with 48 typically developing (TD) controls born to mothers of ≥35 years, using a quantitative genome-wide DNA methylation assay. We show that DNA methylation patterns are dysregulated in ectodermal cells in these individuals, having accounted for confounding effects due to subject age, sex and ancestral haplotype. We did not find mosaic aneuploidy or copy number variability to occur at differentially-methylated regions in these subjects. Of note, the loci with distinctive DNA methylation were found at genes expressed in the brain and encoding protein products significantly enriched for interactions with those produced by known ASD-causing genes, representing a perturbation by epigenomic dysregulation of the same networks compromised by DNA mutational mechanisms. The results indicate the presence of a mosaic subpopulation of epigenetically-dysregulated, ectodermally-derived cells in subjects with ASD. The epigenetic dysregulation observed in these ASD subjects born to older mothers may be associated with aging parental gametes, environmental influences during embryogenesis or could be the consequence of mutations of the chromatin regulatory genes increasingly implicated in ASD. The results indicate that epigenetic dysregulatory mechanisms may complement and interact with DNA mutations in the pathogenesis of the disorder.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2014; 10(5):e1004402. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by disruption of HSC and progenitor cell differentiation. Frequently, AML is associated with mutations in genes encoding epigenetic modifiers. We hypothesized that analysis of alterations in DNA methylation patterns during healthy HSC commitment and differentiation would yield epigenetic signatures that could be used to identify stage-specific prognostic subgroups of AML. We performed a nano HpaII-tiny-fragment-enrichment-by-ligation-mediated-PCR (nanoHELP) assay to compare genome-wide cytosine methylation profiles between highly purified human long-term HSC, short-term HSC, common myeloid progenitors, and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors. We observed that the most striking epigenetic changes occurred during the commitment of short-term HSC to common myeloid progenitors and these alterations were predominantly characterized by loss of methylation. We developed a metric of the HSC commitment-associated methylation pattern that proved to be highly prognostic of overall survival in 3 independent large AML patient cohorts, regardless of patient treatment and epigenetic mutations. Application of the epigenetic signature metric for AML prognosis was superior to evaluation of commitment-based gene expression signatures. Together, our data define a stem cell commitment-associated methylome that is independently prognostic of poorer overall survival in AML.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(3).
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation contributes to genomic integrity by suppressing repeat-associated transposition. In addition to the canonical DNA methyltransferases, several auxillary chromatin factors are required to maintain DNA methylation at intergenic and satellite repeats. The interaction between Lsh, a chromatin helicase, and the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b facilitates deposition of DNA methylation at stem cell genes, which are hypomethylated in Lsh-/- embryos. We wished to determine if a similar targeting mechanism operates to maintain DNA methylation at repetitive sequences. We mapped genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in Lsh-/- and Dnmt3b-/- somatic cells. DNA methylation is predominantly lost from specific genomic repeats in Lsh-/- cells: LTR-retrotransposons, LINE-1 repeats and mouse satellites. RNA-seq experiments demonstrate that specific IAP LTRs and satellites, but not LINE-1 elements, are aberrantly transcribed in Lsh-/- cells. LTR hypomethylation in Dnmt3b-/- cells is moderate, whereas IAP, LINE-1 and satellite elements are hypomethylated but silent. Repressed LINE-1 elements in Lsh-/- cells gain H3K4me3, but H3K9me3 levels are unaltered, indicating that DNA hypomethylation alone is not permissive for their transcriptional activation. Mis-expressed IAPs and satellites lose H3K9me3 and gain H3K4me3 in Lsh-/- cells. Our study emphasizes that regulation of repetitive elements by Lsh and DNA methylation is selective and context dependent. Silencing of repeats in somatic cells appears not to be critically dependent on Dnmt3b function. We propose a model where Lsh is specifically required at a precise developmental window to target de novo methylation to repeat sequences, which is subsequently maintained by Dnmt1 to enforce selective repeat silencing.
    Genome biology 12/2013; 14(12):R146. · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of the H3K4 trimethylase, PRDM9, as the gene responsible for recombination hotspot localization has provided considerable insight into the mechanisms by which recombination is initiated in mammals. However, uniquely amongst mammals, canids appear to lack a functional version of PRDM9 and may therefore provide a model for understanding recombination that occurs in the absence of PRDM9, and thus how PRDM9 functions to shape the recombination landscape. We have constructed a fine-scale genetic map from patterns of linkage disequilibrium assessed using high-throughput sequence data from 51 free-ranging dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. While broad-scale properties of recombination appear similar to other mammalian species, our fine-scale estimates indicate that canine highly elevated recombination rates are observed in the vicinity of CpG rich regions including gene promoter regions, but show little association with H3K4 trimethylation marks identified in spermatocytes. By comparison to genomic data from the Andean fox, Lycalopex culpaeus, we show that biased gene conversion is a plausible mechanism by which the high CpG content of the dog genome could have occurred.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2013; 9(12):e1003984. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One in eleven people is affected by chronic kidney disease, a condition characterized by kidney fibrosis and progressive loss of kidney function. Epidemiological studies indicate that adverse intrauterine and postnatal environments have a long-lasting role in chronic kidney disease development. Epigenetic information represents a plausible carrier for mediating this programming effect. Here we demonstrate that genome-wide cytosine methylation patterns of healthy and chronic kidney disease tubule samples obtained from patients show significant differences. We identify differentially methylated regions and validate these in a large replication dataset. The differentially methylated regions are rarely observed on promoters, but mostly overlap with putative enhancer regions, and they are enriched in consensus binding sequences for important renal transcription factors. This indicates their importance in gene expression regulation. A core set of genes that are known to be related to kidney fibrosis, including genes encoding collagens, show cytosine methylation changes correlating with downstream transcript levels. Our report raises the possibility that epigenetic dysregulation plays a role in chronic kidney disease development via influencing core pro-fibrotic pathways and can aid the development of novel biomarkers and future therapeutics.
    Genome biology 10/2013; 14(10):R108. · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) hold promise for the detection of new regulatory mechanisms that may be susceptible to modification by environmental and lifestyle factors affecting susceptibility to disease. Epigenome-wide screening methods cover an increasing number of CpG sites, but the complexity of the data poses a challenge to separating robust signals from noise. Appropriate study design, a detailed a priori analysis plan and validation of results are essential to minimize the danger of false positive results and contribute to a unified approach. Epigenome-wide mapping studies in homogenous cell populations will inform our understanding of normal variation in the methylome that is not associated with disease or aging. Here we review concepts for conducting a stringent and powerful EWAS, including the choice of analyzed tissue, sources of variability and systematic biases, outline analytical solutions to EWAS-specific problems and highlight caveats in interpretation of data generated from samples with cellular heterogeneity.
    Nature Methods 09/2013; 10(10):949-55. · 23.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ominous warnings of a `data deluge' in the life sciences from high-throughput DNA sequencing data are being supplanted by a second deluge, of cliches bemoaning our collective scientific fate unless we address the genomic data `tsunami'. It is imperative that we explore the many facets of the genome, not just sequence but also transcriptional and epigenetic variability, integrating these observations in order to attain a genuine understanding of how genes function, towards a goal of genomics-based personalized medicine. Determining any individual's genomic properties requires comparison to many others, sifting out the specific from the trends, requiring access to the many in order to yield information relevant to the few. This is the central big data challenge in genomics that still requires some sort of resolution. Is there a practical, feasible way of directly connecting the scientific community to this data universe? The best answer could be in the stars overhead.
    Genome biology 08/2013; 14(8):129. · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a recently discovered epigenetic modification that is altered in cancers. Genome-wide assays for 5-hmC determination are needed as many of the techniques for 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) determination, including methyl-sensitive restriction digestion and bisulfite sequencing cannot distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC. Glycosylation of 5-hmC residues by beta-glucosyl transferase (β-GT) can make CCGG residues insensitive to digestion by MspI. Restriction digestion by HpaII, MspI or MspI after β-GT conversion, followed by adapter ligation, massive parallel sequencing and custom bioinformatic analysis allowed us determine distribution of 5-mC and 5-hmC at single base pair resolution at MspI restriction sites. The resulting HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR with β-GT (HELP-GT) assay identified 5-hmC loci that were validated at global level by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the locus-specific level by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 5-hmC pull-down DNA. Hydroxymethylation at both promoter and intragenic locations correlated positively with gene expression. Analysis of pancreatic cancer samples revealed striking redistribution of 5-hmC sites in cancer cells and demonstrated enrichment of this modification at many oncogenic promoters such as GATA6. The HELP-GT assay allowed global determination of 5-hmC and 5-mC from low amounts of DNA and with the use of modest sequencing resources. Redistribution of 5-hmC seen in cancer highlights the importance of determination of this modification in conjugation with conventional methylome analysis.
    Nucleic Acids Research 07/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
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    Deepa Rastogi, Masako Suzuki, John M Greally
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    ABSTRACT: While DNA methylation plays a role in T-helper (Th) cell maturation, its potential dysregulation in the non-atopic Th1-polarized systemic inflammation observed in obesity-associated asthma is unknown. We studied DNA methylation epigenome-wide in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 8 obese asthmatic pre-adolescent children and compared it to methylation in PBMCs from 8 children with asthma alone, obesity alone and healthy controls. Differentially methylated loci implicated certain biologically relevant molecules and pathways. PBMCs from obese asthmatic children had distinctive DNA methylation patterns, with decreased promoter methylation of CCL5, IL2RA and TBX21, genes encoding proteins linked with Th1 polarization, and increased promoter methylation of FCER2, a low-affinity receptor for IgE, and of TGFB1, inhibitor of Th cell activation. T-cell signaling and macrophage activation were the two primary pathways that were selectively hypomethylated in obese asthmatics. These findings suggest that dysregulated DNA methylation is associated with non-atopic inflammation observed in pediatric obesity-associated asthma.
    Scientific Reports 07/2013; 3:2164. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the epigenetic regulation required for germ cell-specific gene expression in the mouse, we analysed DNA methylation profiles of developing germ cells using a microarray-based assay adapted for a small number of cells. The analysis revealed differentially methylated sites between cell types tested. Here, we focused on a group of genomic sequences hypomethylated specifically in germline cells as candidate regions involved in the epigenetic regulation of germline gene expression. These hypomethylated sequences tend to be clustered, forming large (10 kb to ∼9 Mb) genomic domains, particularly on the X chromosome of male germ cells. Most of these regions, designated here as large hypomethylated domains (LoDs), correspond to segmentally duplicated regions that contain gene families showing germ cell- or testis-specific expression, including cancer testis antigen genes. We found an inverse correlation between DNA methylation level and expression of genes in these domains. Most LoDs appear to be enriched with H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, usually regarded as a repressive histone modification, although some LoD genes can be expressed in male germ cells. It thus appears that such a unique epigenomic state associated with the LoDs may constitute a basis for the specific expression of genes contained in these genomic domains.
    DNA Research 07/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Smchd1 gene encodes a large protein with homology to the SMC family of proteins involved in chromosome condensation and cohesion. Previous studies have found that Smchd1 has an important role in CpG island (CGI) methylation on the inactive X chromosome (Xi), and in stable silencing of some Xi genes. In this study, using genome-wide expression analysis, we show that Smchd1 is required for the silencing of around 10% of genes on Xi, apparently independent of CGI hypomethylation, and moreover that these genes non-randomly occur in clusters. Additionally we find that Smchd1 is required for CpG island methylation and silencing at a cluster of four imprinted genes in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) locus on chromosome 7, and genes from the Protocadherin-alpha and -beta clusters. All of the affected autosomal loci display developmentally regulated brain-specific methylation patterns which are lost in Smchd1 homozygous mutants. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the function of Smchd1 in epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
    Molecular and cellular biology 06/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The microenvironment where a tumor originates plays an important role in its initiation, growth, progression and metastatic capability. Since in most cancers the microenvironment is not derived from the malignant clone and does not contain oncogenic mutations, it is likely that the tumor microenvironment is reprogrammed epigenetically to support the growth of the tumor. To test this hypothesis, Fibroblasts associated with primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas (N=7) & healthy fibroblast controls (N=4) were analyzed for genome wide alterations in DNA cytosine methylation by the HELP assay (HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR). Methylome profiling revealed widespread aberrant cytosine methylation in Pancreatic cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) with demethylation of many important gene promoters as the predominant epigenetic event. In addition to loss of methylation, aberrant hypermethylation of GALNTS, JAZF1, MTCH1, SP8, GRB14 was also seen in CAFs. In addition to epigenetic differences, pancreatic CAFs were also found to have widespread transcriptmoic differences as seen by parallel gene expression profiling. Next, we analyzed tumor mediated reprogramming of microenvironment at a higher resolution by a Massive parallel sequencing based methylation analysis (HELP-Tagging) on CAFs differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence of pancreatic cancer cell conditioned medium. HELP-tagging showed widespread epigenetic reprogramming with 11,100 hypomethylated and 1709 hypermethylated loci. Comparison of in-vitro reprogramed loci with the aberrantly methylated loci from primary CAFs showed a core set of 140 loci that were commonly differentially methylated in both samples. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 was observed to overexpressed & demethylated in both cohorts & was found to be expressed on the surface of primary pancreatic CAFs by immunohistochemistry. Functional studies demonstrated that co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with CAFs (from MSCs) led to significant increase in malignant cell invasion when compared to co-culture with naïve MSCs. This increased invasion was abrogated by blockade of CXCR4 by AMD-3100 and by knockdown of CXCR4 by siRNAs in orthotopically derived CAFs; demonstrating a critical role for this receptor in regulating tumor promoting abilities of the microenvironment. Thus our results reveal for the first time that pancreatic CAFs are characterized by widespread epigenomic reprogramming that includes loss of methylation at many important loci. Validation of an aberrantly demethylated target, CXCR4, shows that inhibition of this receptor can abrogate the ability of CAFs in promoting cancer cell invasion. These results also provide a preclinical rationale for the use of clinically relevant CXCR4 antagonist AMD-3100 (plerixafor) in pancreatic cancer.
    AACR 104th Annual Meeting 2013, Washington, DC; 04/2013
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: DNA methylation and the Polycomb Repression System are epigenetic mechanisms that play important roles in maintaining transcriptional repression. Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation can attenuate the binding of Polycomb protein components to chromatin and thus plays a role in determining their genomic targeting. However, whether this role of DNA methylation is important in the context of transcriptional regulation is unclear. RESULTS: By genome-wide mapping of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2)-signature histone mark, H3K27me3, in severely DNA hypomethylated mouse somatic cells, we show that hypomethylation leads to widespread H3K27me3 redistribution, in a manner that reflects the local DNA methylation status in wild-type cells. Unexpectedly, we observe striking loss of H3K27me3 and PRC2 from Polycomb-target gene promoters in DNA hypomethylated cells, including Hox gene clusters. Importantly, we show that many of these genes become ectopically expressed in DNA hypomethylated cells, consistent with loss of Polycomb-mediated repression. CONCLUSIONS: An intact DNA methylome is required for appropriate Polycomb-mediated gene repression by constraining PRC2 targeting. These observations identify a previously unappreciated role for DNA methylation in gene regulation and therefore influence our understanding of how this epigenetic mechanism contributes to normal development and disease.
    Genome biology 03/2013; 14(3):R25. · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic changes play important roles in carcinogenesis and influence initial steps in neoplastic transformation by altering genome stability and regulating gene expression. To characterize epigenomic changes during the transformation of normal plasma cells to myeloma, we modified the HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated PCR assay to work with small numbers of purified primary marrow plasma cells. The nano-HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated PCR assay was used to analyze the methylome of CD138 cells from 56 subjects representing premalignant (monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance), early, and advanced stages of myeloma, as well as healthy controls. Plasma cells from premalignant and early stages of myeloma were characterized by striking, widespread hypomethylation. Gene-specific hypermethylation was seen to occur in the advanced stages, and cell lines representative of relapsed cases were found to be sensitive to decitabine. Aberrant demethylation in monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance occurred primarily in CpG islands, whereas differentially methylated loci in cases of myeloma occurred predominantly outside of CpG islands and affected distinct sets of gene pathways, demonstrating qualitative epigenetic differences between premalignant and malignant stages. Examination of the methylation machinery revealed that the methyltransferase, DNMT3A, was aberrantly hypermethylated and underexpressed, but not mutated in myeloma. DNMT3A underexpression was also associated with adverse overall survival in a large cohort of patients, providing insights into genesis of hypomethylation in myeloma. These results demonstrate widespread, stage-specific epigenetic changes during myelomagenesis and suggest that early demethylation can be a potential contributor to genome instability seen in myeloma. We also identify DNMT3A expression as a novel prognostic biomarker and suggest that relapsed cases can be therapeutically targeted by hypomethylating agents.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; 190(6):2966-75. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alterations in methylation of protein-coding genes are associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Dysregulation of non-coding RNAs occurs during carcinogenesis, but has never been studied in BE or EAC. We applied high-resolution methylome analysis to identify changes at genomic regions that encode non-coding RNAs in BE and EAC. METHODS: We analyzed methylation of 1.8 million CpG sites using massively parallel sequencing-based HELP-tagging in matched EAC, BE, and normal esophageal tissues. We also analyzed human EAC (OE33, SKGT4, and FLO-1) and normal (HEEpiC) esophageal cells. RESULTS: BE and EAC exhibited genome-wide hypomethylation significantly affecting intragenic and repetitive genomic elements as well as non-coding regions. These methylation changes targeted small and long non-coding (lnc) regions, discriminating normal from matched BE or EAC tissues. One lncRNA, AFAP1-AS1, was extremely hypomethylated and overexpressed in BE and EAC tissues and EAC cells. Its silencing by small interfering RNA inhibited proliferation and colony-forming ability, induced apoptosis, and reduced EAC cell migration and invasion without altering the expression of its protein-coding counterpart, AFAP1. CONCLUSIONS: BE and EAC exhibit reduced methylation that includes non-coding regions. Methylation of the long noncoding RNA AFAP1-AS1is reduced in BE and EAC, and its expression inhibits cancer-related biologic functions of EAC cells.
    Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
991.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Hospital Universitario de Salamanca
      Helmantica, Castille and León, Spain
  • 2010
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Division of Molecular Pharmacology & Chemistry
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Biology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2003
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Medical Genetics
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2001–2003
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Genetics
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1999
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, MA, United States