Ines Bouhlel

University of Monastir, Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia

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Publications (54)96.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to characterize the cellular antioxidant effect of the aqueous extract of Crataegus azarolus and its antigenotoxic potential using human myelogenous cells, K562. The antioxidant capacity of this extract was evaluated by determining its cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in K562 cells. Also, preceding antigenotoxicity assessment, its eventual genotoxicity property was investigated by evaluating its capacity to induce the DNA degradation of treated cell nuclei. As no genotoxicity was detected at different exposure times, its ability to protect cell DNA against H2O2 oxidative effect was investigated, using the "comet assay." It appears that 800 μg/mL of extract inhibited the genotoxicity induced by H2O2 with a rate of 41.30 %, after 4 h of incubation. In addition, this extract revealed a significant cellular antioxidant capacity against the reactive oxygen species in K562 cells.
    Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 12/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract An aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall (G extract) was tested on Salmonella typhimurium to assess its mutagenic and antimutagenic effects. This extract showed no mutagenicity when tested with S. typhimurium strain TA104 either with or without exogenous metabolic activation mixture (S9), whereas our findings revealed that the aqueous gall extract induced a mutagenic effect in S. typhimurium TA1538 when tested in the presence, as well as in the absence, of S9 activation mixture at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Thus, the same concentration produced a mutagenic effect, when incubated with S. typhimurium TA100 in the presence of metabolic activation mixture. In contrast, our results showed a weak antimutagenic potential of the same extract against sodium azide in the presence of S. typhimurium TA100 and S. typhimurium TA1538 without metabolic activation (S9), whereas, in the presence of S. typhimurium TA104, we obtained a significant inhibition percentage (76.39%) toward 3.25 µg/plate of methylmethanesulfonate. Antimutagenicity against aflatoxin B1, 4-nitro-o-phenylene-diamine and 2-aminoanthracène was significant, with an inhibition percentage of, respectively, 70.63, 99.3 and 63.37% in the presence of, respectively, S. typhimurium TA100, S. typhimurium TA1538 and S. typhimurium TA104 strains at a concentration of 250 µg/plate after metabolic activation (S9). Antioxidant capacity of the tested extract was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) and the nonenzymatic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) system. G extract exhibited high antioxidant activity.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 07/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Many studies have been performed to assess the potential utility of natural products as immunomodulatory agents to enhance host responses to disease/infection/etc. or to ameliorate immune based pathologies (i.e., inflammation, autoimmune associated diseases, etc.). In this particular study, the immunomodulatory potential of gall aqueous extract from Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. (Zita) was assessed in vitro. RESULTS: The studies first demonstrated that the extract could enhance lysosomal enzyme activity and nitrite oxide production in murine peritoneal macrophages, suggesting a potential role in activation of these cells. In studies to assess potential effects on humoral immunity, the results indicated that the extract could significantly promote LPS-stimulated splenocyte proliferation implying a potential activation of B-cells and enhanced humoral immune responses in hosts given this natural product. In studies to assess any effects of extract on cellular immunity, the results showed that the extract significantly enhanced the killing activity of isolated NK cells but had negligible effects on mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic T-cells. Considerable effects were also observed on the cellular anti-oxidant activity. CONCLUSION: We conclude from these studies that aqueous extract from L. guyonianum gall exhibited an immunomodulator effect which could be ascribed, in part, to its cytoprotective effect via its anti-oxidant capacity. Furthermore, these results suggest that L. guyonianum gall extract contains potent components such as flavonoids which should be potentially used to modulate immune cell functions in physiological and pathological conditions.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among all the pharmaceutical drugs that contaminate the environment, antibiotics occupy an important place due to their high consumption rates in both veterinary and human medicine. The present study examined the ability of Pseudomonas putida to grow on the antibiotic wastewater, currently expanding in Tunisia, containing amoxicillin and cefadroxil. P. putida was very efficient to grow quickly in pharmaceutical wastewater (PW) and in reducing the total dissolved solids to 80.1 %. Cytotoxicity of PW, before and after biodegradation with P. putida mt-2, was evaluated in vitro, using the MTT assay, against four human tumor cell lines such as A549 (lung cell carcinoma), HCT15 (colon cell carcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), and U373 (glioma cell carcinoma). The PW reduced all human cell lines viability in a dose-dependent manner. This activity was very remarkable against U373 cell line. For this reason, we have tested the genotoxicity of PW using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. In fact, PW has statistically significant (p < 0.001) influence on DNA. Indeed, the percentage of genotoxicity was 66.87 and 87.5 %, after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. However, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested the PW obtained after incubation with P. putida mt-2. Our results indicate that P. putida is a promising and improved alternative to treating industrial-scale effluent compared to current chemical treatment procedures used by the industrials.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2012; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaempferol 3-O-β-isorhamninoside (K3O-ir) and rhamnocitrin 3-O-β-isorhamninoside (R3O-ir) from Rhamnus alaternus L leaves are investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells. We have attempted to characterize apoptotic pathway activated by these two flavonoids. Apoptosis of the human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line was detected by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and by evaluating caspase activity. Apoptosis was observed after 24- and 48-h incubation of the cells with the tested compounds. DNA fragmentation was observed after treatment with flavonoids; this was confirmed by demonstration of PARP cleavage. Caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities were induced by both K3O-ir and R3O-ir flavonoids showing highest activity with compound concentration of 400 μg/ml. We have demonstrated that K3O-ir and R3O-ir induce apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells by the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
    Cell Proliferation 06/2011; 44(3):283-90. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant activity of kaempferol 3-O-β-isorhamninoside (K3O-ir) and rhamnocitrin 3-O-β-isorhamninoside (R3O-ir), isolated from the leaves of Rhamnus alaternus L., was determined by the ability of each compound to inhibit NBT photoreduction and to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+)(.). Genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities were assessed using the SOS chromotest. At a concentration of 150 μg/assay the two compounds showed the most potent inhibitory activity against superoxide anion by respectively 80.4% and 85.6%. K3O-ir was a very potent radical scavenger with an IC(50) value of 18.75 μg/ml. Moreover, these two compounds exhibit an inhibitory activity against genotoxicity induced by nitrofurantoine and aflatoxine B1 using the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. In this study, we have also evaluated correlation between antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of K3O-ir and R3O-ir. The highest correlation was showed with R3O-ir (r=0.999).
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2011; 49(5):1167-73. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of the mutagenic and antimutagenic actions of extracts obtained from aerial part of Teucrium ramosissimum was assayed using the Salmonella typhimurium assay system. The effect of the same extracts on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by aflatoxin B(1) as well as nitrofurantoin was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The different extracts showed no mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98 and TA1535 either with or without S9 mix. In contrast, our results prove that T. ramosissimum extracts possess antimutagenic effects against sodium azide, aflatoxin B1, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. Moreover, the T. ramosissimum tested extracts exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixtures. However, all the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B(1) and nitrofurantoin. The result obtained by the Ames test confirms those of SOS chromotest. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) and the non enzymatic (NBT/riboflavine, DPPH and ABTS assays) systems. All extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity except the chloroform and the methanol extracts in DPPH and NBT/riboflavine assays respectively. Our results underline the potential of T. ramosissimum to avoid mutations and also its antioxidant potential.
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 01/2011; 31(1):220-32.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: In this report the phytochemical profile of Nitraria. Retusa (N. Retusa) leaf extracts were identified and their ability to induce apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562) was evaluated. Apoptosis of the human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562) was evidenced by investigating DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and caspases 3 and 8 inducing activities, in the presence of N. retusa extracts. Our study revealed that the tested extracts from N. Retusa contain many useful bioactive compounds. They induced in a time-dependent manner the apoptosis the tested cancerous our cell line. This result was confirmed by ladder DNA fragmentation profile and PARP cleavage, as well as a release in caspase-3 and caspase-8 level. Our results indicate that the tested compounds have a significant antiproliferative effect which may be due to their involvement in the induction of the extrinsic apoptosic pathway.
    Cancer Cell International 01/2011; 11(1):37. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mutagenic potential of total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate (EA) and petroleum ether (PE) extracts from aerial parts of Teucrium ramosissimum was assessed using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA98, TA100 and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9). None of the different extracts produced a mutagenic effect. Likewise, the antimutagenicity of the same extracts was tested using the “Ames test”. Our results showed that T. ramosissimum extracts possess antimutagenic activity against all the tested genotoxicants (aflatoxin B1, benzo[a]pyrene, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine and sodium azide) in the Salmonella assay systems used in this study. In addition, all extracts showed important free radical scavenging activity toward the radicals DPPH and ABTS except the PE extract.
    South African Journal of Botany - S AFR J BOT. 01/2011; 77(3):730-740.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of extracts obtained from Teucrium ramosissimum leaves on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by aflatoxin B(1) (0.5 μg/assay) as well as nitrofurantoin (5 μg/assay) was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The T. ramosissimum tested extracts exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixture. However, all the extracts, particularly the total oligomers flavonoids (TOF) extract significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B(1) and nitrofurantoin. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non-enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the most effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction. Our findings emphasize the potential of T. ramosissimum to prevent mutations and also its antioxidant effect.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2010; 49(1):191-201. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, isolated from the leaves of Acacia salicina, was determined by the ability of this compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and to scavenge the free radical 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.-)) diammonium salt. Antigenotoxic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest assay. This compound has the ability to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical by a hydrogen donating mechanism. We also envisaged the study of the antioxidant effect of this compound by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay. Results indicated that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside was a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and superoxide anion scavengers. Moreover, this compound induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxine B1 (AFB1) induced genotoxicity. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 08/2010; 30(6):551-8. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four extracts were prepared from the roots and leaves of Moricandia arvensis: root chloroform extract (ChlR), leaf chloroform extract (ChlL), root ethyl acetate extract (EAR) and leaf ethyl acetate extract (EAL). The genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the induction and inhibition of the genotoxicity induced by the direct-acting mutagen, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), using the "Comet assay." It appears that none of the different extracts produces a genotoxic effect, except the highest tested concentrations of the leaf extracts which were capable to eliciting DNA damage. Human lymphoblast cells K562 were pretreated with different concentrations of each extracts and then treated by H(2)O(2), for the antigenotoxic study. The results showed that all extracts inhibited the genotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) and particularly ChlR (42.5μg/ml) and ChlL (65μg/ml) extracts. In addition, antioxidant potential study of root and leaf extracts using different antioxidant tests indicated that root extracts possess a potent antioxidant activity through namely their capacity to transfer electrons.
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 07/2010; 30(1):61-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Teucrium ramosissimum were evaluated by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535, with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 fraction). The T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no mutagenic effect. In contrast, our results established that it possessed antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD). The antioxidant capacity of the tested essential oil was evaluated using enzymatic, i.e., the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay, and nonenzymatic systems, i.e., the nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT)/riboflavin and the DPPH assays. A moderate free radical-scavenging activity was observed towards DPPH(.) and O2(.-). In contrast, T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no effect for all the tested concentrations in the X/XOD assay.
    Chemistry & Biodiversity 07/2010; 7(7):1754-63. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Phlomis mauritanica: lyophilized infusion, total oligomer flavonoids, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts. The antimutagenic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of the mutagenic effects of direct-acting mutagens such as sodium azide and 4-nitrophenylenediamine and indirect-acting mutagens like aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the Ames assay. The four extracts prepared from P. mauritanica strongly inhibit the mutagenicity induced by AFB1 in both Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98 assay systems. Lyophilized infusion and methanol extracts at the dose of 250 microg per plate reduced AFB1 mutagenicity by 93% and 91%, respectively, in S. typhymurium strain TA 100. We examined also the antioxidant effect of these extracts by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. Result indicated that total oligomer flavonoids and ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase activity. In contrast, lyophilized infusion, total oligomer flavonoids, and methanol extracts exhibited a high degree of superoxide anion scavenging. Our findings emphasize the potential of P. mauritanica extracts to prevent mutations and oxidant effects. Furthermore, the results presented here could be an additional argument to support the use of this species as a medicinal and dietary plant.
    Journal of medicinal food 06/2010; 13(3):717-24. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Nitraria retusa; methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane extracts. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. These extracts from leaf parts of N. retusa showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (microsome fraction). The highest protection against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity was observed with chloroform and methanol extracts with inhibition percentages of 44.93% (at 50 microg/plate in the presence of TA102 strain) and 38% (at 10 microg/plate in the presence of TA104 strain), respectively. Whereas Hexane and chloroform extracts reduced the mutagenicity induced by 2-aminoanthracene by 83.4% (using the S. typhimurium TA104 assay system) and 65.3% (using the S. typhimurium TA 102 assay system), respectively. Antioxidant activity of N. retusa extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. Chloroform extract exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damages and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, with 0.95mM trolox equivalent when tested by the ferric reducing/antioxidant method.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2010; 48(8-9):2283-90. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidant activities from leaf extracts of Moricandia arvensis, which are used in traditional cooking and medicines, were investigated. The MTT assay revealed that only TOF (total oligomer flavonoids), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells. Apoptosis plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer by promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells and limiting the concurrent death of normal cells. Thus, the possible effects of M. arvensis extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells (K562 cells) were investigated. The electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation confirms that TOF, Chl, PE, and EA extracts provoke DNA fragmentation. Using the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the antioxidant capacity of M. arvensis extracts was evaluated by the ability of each extract to inhibit malondialdehyde formation. It was revealed that EA and TOF extracts are the most active in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 12/2009; 33(1):20-7. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data on the safety of an aqueous extract (AQE) from Moricandia arvensis. For this reason, Escherichia coli tested strains PQ35 and PQ37 were used to detect induction of DNA lesions by AQE. The SOS Chromotest showed that AQE induced a marginally genotoxic effect, as expressed by the induction factor (IF) value only with E. coli PQ37 tested strain (IF=1.77 at a dose of 250 microg/assay). The measurement of the anti-genotoxic activity of the AQE was also studied by inhibition of beta-galactosidase induction. A significant anti-genotoxic effect was observed with different tested doses of AQE, which suggests that M. arvensis extract has the potential to protect DNA from the action of nitrofurantoïn (NF) and free radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, AQE showed a free-radical-scavenging capacity towards ABTS+* and DPPH*. Total phenolic content was also evaluated following Folin-Ciocalteu method and results indicated high correlation between total phenol content and anti-genotoxic and antioxidant activities for AQE, but the highest correlation was showed with its capacity to stabilize ABTS+* (R2=0.9944).
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2009; 48(2):710-5. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The digallic acid obtained from the fruit Pistacia lentiscus exhibits an inhibitory activity against nitrofurantoine and B[a]P induced genotoxicity when tested by the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. The antioxidant activity of the tested compound was determined by its ability to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+), to inhibit the xanthine oxidase, involved in the generation of free radicals, and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that digallic acid shows an important free radical scavenging activity towards the ABTS(+) radical (99%) and protection against lipid peroxidation (68%).
    Toxicology in Vitro 07/2009; 24(2):509-15. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Phlomis L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and encompasses 100 species native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia. It is a popular herbal tea enjoyed for its taste and aroma. Phlomis species are used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation, and wounds. This review aims to summarize recent research on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Phlomis, with particular emphasis on its ethnobotanical uses. The essential oil of Phomis is composed of four chemotypes dominated by monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene and linalool), sesquiterpenes (germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene), aliphalic compounds (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid) and other components (trans-phytol, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol). Flavonoids, iridoids and phenylethyl alcohol constitute the main compounds isolated from Phlomis extracts. The pharmacological activities of some Phlomis species have been investigated. They are described according to antidiabetic, antinociceptive, antiulcerogenic, protection of the vascular system, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2009; 125(2):183-202. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Total Oligomers Flavonoids (TOFs) and ethyl acetate extracts of Cyperus rotundus were analyzed, in vitro, for their antioxidant activity using several biochemical assays: the xanthine (X)/xanthine oxidase (XO), the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and the DNA damage in pKS plasmid DNA assay induced by H(2)O(2)/UV-photolysis and for their apoptotic effect. TOF and ethyl acetate extracts were found to be efficient in inhibiting xanthine oxidase with IC(50) values of 240 and 185 microg/ml and superoxide anion with IC(50) values of 150 and 215 microg/ml, respectively. Also, all the extracts tested were effective in reducing the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and were able to protect against H(2)O(2)/UV-photolysis induced DNA damage. The highest activity, measured as equivalents of MDA concentration, was observed in the ethyl acetate extract (MDA=2.04 nM). In addition, the data suggest that only TOF enriched extract exerts growth inhibition on K562 cells through apoptosis induction. Therefore, these extracts were subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Thus, three major compounds (catechin, afzelechin and galloyl quinic acid) were isolated from the TOF enriched extract and five major compounds (luteolin, ferulic acid, quercetin, 3-hydroxy, 4-methoxy-benzoic acid and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) from ethyl acetate extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with the literature. In addition, we evaluate the biological activities of the catechin, ferulic acid and luteolin. This investigation has revealed that the luteolin was the most active in reducing the production of TBARS (MDA=1.5 nM), inhibiting significantly the proliferation of K562 cells (IC(50)=25 microg/ml) and protecting against H(2)O(2)/UV-photolysis induced DNA damage. In conclusion, the study reveals that the ability of C. rotundus to inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO), the lipid peroxidation and to exert apoptotic effect, may explain possible mechanisms by which C. rotundus exhibits its health benefits.
    Chemico-biological interactions 06/2009; 181(1):85-94. · 2.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

449 Citations
96.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • University of Monastir
      Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia
  • 2007–2011
    • Faculté de Médecine Dentaire de Monastir
      Al Munastīr, Al Munastīr, Tunisia