[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report summarises the latest research developments in the field of high dilutions and homeopathy, as presented at the GIRI symposium of the leading international organisation of scientists in this field, in Florence, Italy in September 2012. The scientific community's early scepticism concerning the possible biological and pharmacological activity of highly diluted solutions, is giving way to a more open-minded attitude that no longer obstructs critical and experimental investigations in this emerging field of biomedicine.
Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 04/2013; 102(2):151-4. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study concerns the biological effects and physico-chemical variations of extremely diluted solutions (EDS) as a function
of aging-time. The biological efficacy of As2O3 at the 45th decimal dilution/succussion (As 45×) was tested in a wheat
germination model. Ten trials were carried out from 0 to 12 months after treatment preparation, using wheat seeds (Triticum
aestivum L.) of the Pandas variety. Seeds were pre-treated by poisoning with 0.1% As2O3 solution to reduce germination,
to allow a better evaluation of treatment effects. The outcome variable was the number of non-germinated seeds after 96 h.
The As 45× treatment aged for less than three months did not show a significant effect on wheat germination, whereas
when aged for longer (3–12 months) the effect became significant. Concerning the physico-chemical characteristics, specific
conductivity of As 45×aged from 0 to 12 months was measured, using nine samples for each date. The results showed a clear
increasing time trend of specific conductivity, more evident when considering the last three measurements, which correspond
to more than six months of aging. The physico-chemical behavior of EDS strongly supports the significant biological effects
observed in a wheat model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental research on the effects of homeopathic treatments on impaired plants was last reviewed in 1990.
To compile a systematic review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy with abiotically stressed plants using predefined criteria.
The literature search was carried out on publications that reported experiments on homeopathy using abiotically stressed whole plants, seeds, plant parts and cells from 1920 to 2010. Outcomes had to be measured by established procedures and statistically evaluated. Using of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) we identified those publications that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS≥5). A further evaluation was based on the use of adequate controls to investigate specific effects of homeopathic preparations and on the use of systematic negative control experiments.
A total of 34 publications with abiotically stressed plants was identified, published between 1965 and 2010. The 34 publications described a total of 37 experimental studies. Twenty-two studies included statistics, 13 had a MIS≥5, 8 were identified with adequate controls and 4 with negative control experiments. Significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond Avogadro's number. One experimental model was independently assessed by another research team and yielded inverted results compared to the original trial.
Abiotically stressed plant models seem to be a useful approach to investigate homeopathic basic research questions, but more experimentation and especially more independent replication trials are needed. Systematic negative control experiments should be implemented on a routine basis to exclude false-positive results.
Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 10/2011; 100(4):275-87. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (MF) at 10 µT oriented downward, combined with a 16-Hz sinusoidal MF (10 µT), on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. Two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. In the direct treatment, pollen samples were directly exposed during rehydration, germination, or both. In the indirect treatment, the pollen growth medium was prepared with water aliquots (at standard temperature of 20°C and pH = 6.74) that were exposed before use for 8 or 24 h. The main purpose of our research was to identify a biological marker (in vitro pollen germination in a stressing growth medium without Ca2+) susceptible to the effects of direct or indirect ELF-MF exposure. The working variable was the pollen germination rate, as detected blind after 3 h 30 min by an Axioplan microscope. A directionally consistent recovery of germination percentage was observed both for direct exposure (during germination and both rehydration and germination phases) and water-mediated exposure (with water exposed for 24 h and immediately used). Our results suggest that the ELF-MF treatment might partially remove the inhibitory effect caused by the lack of Ca2+ in the culture medium, inducing a release of internal Ca2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of pollen plasma membrane. Although preliminary, findings seem to indicate the in vitro pollen performance as adequate to study the effects of ELF-MFs on living matter.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants) that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃) diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As₂O₃ (As 45x) and water (W 45x), we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effects of temperature and aging on the efficacy of As(2)O(3) at the 45th decimal potency in a wheat germination model, compared against a control and potentized H(2)O 45×. Each treatment-temperature combination was tested on seeds (Triticum aestivum L.) of Pandas variety, using six Petri dishes (33 seeds/dish) per trial, performing eight trials. Seeds were pre-treated by poisoning with 0.1% As(2)O(3) solution to reduce germination, to allow a better evaluation of homeopathic treatment effects. The outcome variable was the number of non-germinated seeds after 96 h. Temperature effect was investigated by heating each treatment in a water bath for 30 min (at 20, 40 or 70°C), or for 5 min (at 100°C), and that of aging by dividing experimental data, collected over a period of nearly five months, into two groups: early and late experiments. Results seem to show that the efficacy of As(2)O(3) 45× is unaltered at 20 and 40°C, increases at 70°C and decreases at 100°C. As regards aging, a notable difference was found between early trials, with no significant efficacy, and late trials, where As(2)O(3) 45× exhibits a repeated significant effect versus control, except at 100°C. A reduction in variability was observed for As(2)O(3) 45× at 20°C versus control, confirming the findings of previous work. The main conclusion suggested by this experiment is that the efficacy of As(2)O(3) 45× on wheat germination may be influenced by heating degree and seems to have an increasing trend as a function of aging.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2009; 2011:696298. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The last comprehensive review of experimental research on effects of homeopathic treatments on plants was published in 1984, and lacked formal predefined criteria to assess study quality. Since then several new studies with more advanced methods have been published.
To compile a review of the literature on basic research in homeopathy with healthy plants with particular reference to studies investigating specific effects of homeopathic remedies.
The literature search included English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish publications from 1920 to April 2009, using predefined selection criteria. We included experiments with healthy whole plants, seeds, plant parts and cells. The outcomes had to be measured by established procedures and statistically evaluated. We developed a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) and included only publications which provided enough information for proper interpretation (MIS>or=5). A formalised Study Methods Evaluation Procedure (SMEP) was used to evaluate these studies, and the subgroup of studies with adequate controls to identify specific effects.
A total of 86 studies in 79 publications was identified, 43 studies included statistics, 29 had MIS>or=5, and 15 studies investigated the specificity of homeopathic preparations. Specific effects of decimal, centesimal and fifty millesimal potencies were found including dilution levels far beyond the Avogadro number. In consecutive series of potencies only some of the tested potencies showed effects. There were many individual studies with diverse methods and very few reproduction trials.
Healthy plant models seem an useful approach to investigate basic research questions about the specificity of homeopathic preparations. More investigations with more advanced methods are recommended, especially in the sectors of potentisation techniques, effective potency levels and conditions for reproducibility. Systematic negative control experiments should become a routine procedure to control the stability of the experimental systems.
Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 10/2009; 98(4):228-43. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The literature on the applications of homeopathy for controlling plant diseases in both plant pathological models and field trials was first reviewed by Scofield in 1984. No other review on homeopathy in plant pathology has been published since, though much new research has subsequently been carried out using more advanced methods.
To conduct an up-to-date review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy using phytopathological models and experiments in the field.
A literature search was carried out on publications from 1969 to 2009, for papers that reported experiments on homeopathy using phytopathological models (in vitro and in planta) and field trials. The selected papers were summarized and analysed on the basis of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) to identify those that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS>or=5). These were then evaluated using a Study Methods Evaluation Procedure (SMEP).
A total of 44 publications on phytopathological models were identified: 19 papers with statistics, 6 studies with MIS>or=5. Publications on field were 9, 6 with MIS>or=5. In general, significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond the Avogadro's number.
The prospects for homeopathic treatments in agriculture are promising, but much more experimentation is needed, especially at a field level, and on potentisation techniques, effective potency levels and conditions for reproducibility. Phytopathological models may also develop into useful tools to answer pharmaceutical questions.
Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 10/2009; 98(4):244-66. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polyamine spermidine and the metalloid arsenic increased resistance responses in the well-known pathosystem NN tobacco/tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Both the hypersensitive response to TMV in a leaf disk model system (inoculated disks floating in the 0.1 mM treatments) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in whole plants were significantly affected. In the latter case, 1 mM foliar sprays of spermidine and arsenic were as effective as TMV and dl-β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), both taken as positive controls, in improving the plant's response to subsequent challenge inoculation with TMV. Moreover, this phenotypic response was correlated with changes in the endogenous concentration of the SAR-related molecule salicylic acid and in transcript levels of some pathogenesis/stress-related genes (pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1a and PR-2 and arginine decarboxylase (ADC)). Concentrations of free salicylic acid and of 2-O-β-d-glucosylsalicylic acid and mRNA amount of PR-1a, PR-2 and ADC were analyzed in plants treated with either spermidine or arsenic, and compared with those from untreated plants and from positive (TMV-inoculated or BABA-treated) controls. Conjugated salicylic acid content and ADC transcripts were found to significantly increase, at both the local and systemic levels, relative to untreated controls.
«ITALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY», 2008, 3, n° 3 supplemento, pp. 467 - 468 (atti di: 10th Congress of the European Society for Agronomy, Bologna, Italy15-16 settemnbre 2008) [atti di convegno-relazione]. 09/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most criticism about homeopathy concerns the lack of a scientific basis and theoretical models. In order to be accepted as
a valid part of medical practice, a wellstructured research strategy for homeopathy is needed. This is often hampered by methodological
problems as well as by gross underinvestment in the required academic resources. Fundamental research could make important
contributions to our understanding of the homeopathic and high dilutions mechanisms of action.
Since the pioneering works of Kolisko on wheat germination (Kolisko, 1923) and Junker on growth of microorganisms (paramecium,
yeast, fungi) (Junker, 1928), a number of experiments have been performed either with healthy organisms (various physiological
aspects of growth) or with artificially diseased organisms, which may react more markedly to homeopathic treatments than healthy
ones. In the latter case, the preliminary stress may be either abiotic, e.g. heavy metals, or biotic, e.g. fungal and viral
pathogens or nematode infection. Research has also been carried out into the applicability of homeopathic principles to crop
growth and disease control (agrohomeopathy): because of the extreme dilutions used, the environmental impact is low and such
treatments are well suited to the holistic approach of sustainable agriculture (Betti et al., 2006). Unfortunately, as Scofield
reported in an extensive critical review (Scofield, 1984), there is little firm evidence to support the reliability of the
reported results, due to poor experimental methodology and inadequate statistical analysis. Moreover, since there is no agricultural
homeopathic pharmacopoeia, much work is required to find suitable remedies, potencies and dose levels.
in: Biologia e biofisica della alte diluizioni. Una base scientifica per l'omeopatia, VERONA, Scuola di medicina omeopatica di Verona, 2007, pp. 1 - 6 (atti di: Biologia e biofisica della alte diluizioni. Una base scientifica per l'omeopatia, Verona, 1 di; 12/2007
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of glutamyl polyamines (PAs) and changes in activity and levels of transglutaminase (TGase, EC 18.104.22.168), the enzyme responsible for their synthesis, are reported during the progression of the hypersensitive reaction (HR) of resistant NN tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Mature leaves of tobacco were collected over 0-72 h after inoculation with TMV or phosphate buffer (mock). In vivo synthesis of polyamine glutamyl derivatives (glutamyl PAs), catalyzed by TGase activity, was evaluated after supplying labeled putrescine (Pu, a physiological substrate of TGase) to leaves. Results show that, starting from 24 h, mono-(gamma-glutamyl)-Pu and bis-(gamma-glutamyl)-Sd were recovered in TMV-inoculated samples but not in mock-inoculated ones; 2 days later, in the former, the amount of glutamyl derivatives further increased. An in vitro radiometric assay showed that, in TMV-inoculated leaves, TGase activity increased from 24 h onwards relative to mock controls. An immunoblot analysis with AtPng1p polyclonal antibody detected a 72-kDa protein whose amount increased at 72 h in TMV-inoculated leaves and in the lesion-enriched areas. A biotin-labeled cadaverine incorporation assay showed that TGase activity occurred in S1 (containing soluble proteins), S2 (proteins released by both cell walls and membranes) and S3 (membrane intrinsic proteins) fractions. In S3 fraction, where changes were the most relevant, TGase activity was enhanced in both mock-inoculated and TMV-inoculated samples, but the stimulation persisted only in the latter case. These data are discussed in the light of a possible role of TGase activity and glutamyl PAs in the defense against a viral plant pathogen.
Physiologia Plantarum 11/2007; 131(2):241-50. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has accumulated concerning the biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in different plant models. In the present study, effects of ELF-MFs in tobacco plants reacting to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with a hypersensitive response (HR) were evaluated. Plants were exposed for 8 or 24 h (either before or after TMV inoculation) to a static MF, at either -17 or 13 microT, combined with a 10 Hz sinusoidal MF with different intensities (25.6 or 28.9 microT). The working variables were the area and number of hypersensitive lesions in leaves. Following ELF-MFs exposure, an increased resistance was detected, particularly after an 8-h treatment, as shown by the decrease in lesion area and number. Moreover, two enzyme activities involved in resistance mechanisms were analyzed: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Uninoculated leaves previously exposed to ELF-MFs in general showed a significant increase relative to controls in ODC and PAL activities, in particular for 13 microT static MF plus 28.9 microT, 10 Hz sinusoidal MF (24 h) treatment. In conclusion, ELF-MFs seem to influence the HR of tobacco to TMV, as shown by the increased resistance and changes in ODC and PAL activities, indicating the reliability of the present plant model in the study of bioelectromagnetic interactions.