[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In the absence of consistent clinical evidence, concerns have been raised that fructose raises postprandial triglycerides.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of fructose on postprandial triglycerides.
Relevant studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (through September 3, 2013).
Relevant clinical trials of ≥7-days were included in the analysis.
Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data with disagreements reconciled by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score (MQS) assessed study quality. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic).
Eligibility criteria were met by 14 isocaloric trials (n = 290), in which fructose was exchanged isocalorically for other carbohydrate in the diet, and two hypercaloric trials (n = 33), in which fructose supplemented the background diet with excess energy from high-dose fructose compared with the background diet alone (without the excess energy). There was no significant effect in the isocaloric trials (SMD: 0.14 [95% CI: −0.02, 0.30]) with evidence of considerable heterogeneity explained by a single trial. Hypercaloric trials, however, showed a significant postprandial triglyceride raising-effect of fructose (SMD: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.30, 1.01]).
Most of the available trials were small, short, and of poor quality. Interpretation of the isocaloric trials is complicated by the large influence of a single trial.
Pooled analyses show that fructose in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrate does not increase postprandial triglycerides, although an effect cannot be excluded under all conditions. Fructose providing excess energy does increase postprandial triglycerides. Larger, longer, and higher-quality trials are needed.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01363791.
Canadian Journal of Diabetes 01/2014; 36(5):S19. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of meta-analyses of cohort studies have assessed the impact of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular outcomes. The picture that emerges is that for women, a significant association appears to exist between the consumption of high GL/GI diets and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This association appears to be stronger in those with greater adiposity and possibly in those with diabetes, although these findings are not uniform. There is also an indication that raised CRP levels may be reduced, which has special implications for women whose CRP levels, as an emerging CVD risk factor, may be higher than men. For men, the situation is not as clear-cut. Although some studies show association, the meta-analyses have not demonstrated a significant direct association with CVD, despite current evidence that risk factors, including LDL-C, may be reduced on low-GI diets. Moreover, in a recent meta-analysis, increases in dietary GL have been associated with increased risk of diabetes, another CVD risk factor, in both men and women. Studies in men expressing relative risk of CVD in relation to GL and GI, with corresponding confidence intervals, are needed to provide the necessary power for future meta-analyses on this topic.
Current Atherosclerosis Reports 01/2014; 16(1):381. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend diet and lifestyle modifications for primary prevention and treatment of hypertension, but do not encourage dietary pulses specifically for lowering blood pressure (BP). To quantify the effect of dietary pulse interventions on BP and provide evidence for their inclusion in dietary guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials was conducted.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were each searched from inception through 5 May 2013. Human trials ≥3 weeks that reported data for systolic, diastolic, and/or mean arterial BPs were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias of included studies. Effect estimates were pooled using random effects models, and reported as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (χ(2) test) and quantified (I(2)).
Eight isocaloric trials (n = 554 participants with and without hypertension) were included in the analysis. Dietary pulses, exchanged isocalorically for other foods, significantly lowered systolic (MD = -2.25 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.22 to -0.28), P = 0.03) and mean arterial BP (MD = -0.75 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.44 to -0.06), P = 0.03), and diastolic BP non-significantly (MD = -0.71 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.74 to 0.31), P=0.17). Heterogeneity was significant for all outcomes.
Dietary pulses significantly lowered BP in people with and without hypertension. Higher-quality large-scale trials are needed to support these findings.
Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT01594567.
American Journal of Hypertension 09/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objetivo
Comparar la efectividad de una dieta rica en proteínas de soja, fitosteroles y fibra frente a la utilización de una estatina de primera generación en la reducción de colesterol
Ensayo clínico aleatorizado de 2 meses de seguimiento
Clínicas de nutrición y modificación de factores de riesgo de Canadá
Población de estudio
Selección de 55 pacientes adultos sanos (25 varones y 21 mujeres posmenopáusicas) con valores de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL) > 4,1 mmol/l (158 mg/dl). Criterios de exclusión: enfermedad cardiovascular previa, hipertensión arterial no tratada, diabetes, nefropatía, utilización de fármacos con potencial de modificar valores de lípidos
Un mes antes del estudio todos los pacientes siguieron una dieta baja en grasas de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de nivel II del National Cholesterol Education Program (un 7% de grasas saturadas y < 200 mg/colesterol día). Posteriormente los pacientes se asignaron de manera aleatoria a tres grupos: un grupo con dieta baja en grasa con cereales integrales y placebo (grupo control, n = 16), otro grupo con la misma dieta y 20 mg/día de lovastatina (grupo estatina, n = 14) y un tercer grupo que recibió una dieta enriquecida con fibra soluble (9,8 g/1.000 kcal), fitosteroles (1 g/1.000 kcal), proteína de soja (21,4 g/1.000 kcal) y almendras (14 g/kcal) (grupo portafolio dietético, n = 16). El seguimiento fue de un mes. Todas las dietas fueron vegetarianas y todos los alimentos fueron proporcionados, excepto frutas y vegetales frescos. El análisis se hizo por intención de tratar
Medición del resultado
Valores lipídicos, proteína C reactiva y presión arterial
En todos los grupos se observó disminución de LDL: grupo control, 8% (desviación estándar [DE]: 2,1%; p = 0,002); grupo estatina, 30,9% (DE: 3,6%; p < 0,001); grupo portafolio, 28,6% (DE: 3,2%; p < 0,001). La reducción de colesterol y LDL fue mayor en el grupo estatina (–1,55 [DE: 0,23] y –1,43 [DE: 0,18]) y grupo portafolio(–1,52 [DE: 0,22] y –1,36 [DE: 0,18]) respecto al grupo control (–0,40 [DE: 0,11] y –0,37 [DE: 0,09]; < 0,005), pero no se observaron diferencias entre ellos. Los valores de proteína C reactiva fueron significativamente menores en grupo estatina y grupo portafoliorespecto al control (–1,50 [DE: 0,42], –1,25 [DE: 0,62] y –0,28 [DE: 0,16], respectivamente; p < 0,005), pero tampoco se objetivaron diferencias entre el grupo estatina y el portafolio. No hubo diferencias entre los grupos en la presión arterial
Una dieta baja en grasas basada en el consumo de fibra, fitosteroles, proteínas vegetales y almendras puede reducir los valores lipídicos de manera similar a la lovastatina
FMC - Formación Médica Continuada en Atención Primaria 07/2013; 10(10):746.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present randomised parallel study assessed the impact of adding MUFA to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on the intravascular kinetics of apoAI- and apoB-containing lipoproteins in subjects with dyslipidaemia. A sample of sixteen men and postmenopausal women consumed a run-in stabilisation diet for 4 weeks. Subjects were then randomly assigned to an experimental dietary portfolio either high or low in MUFA for another 4 weeks. MUFA substituted 13·0 % of total energy from carbohydrate (CHO) in the high-MUFA dietary portfolio. Lipoprotein kinetics were assessed after the run-in and portfolio diets using a primed, constant infusion of [2H3]leucine and multicompartmental modelling. The high-MUFA dietary portfolio resulted in higher apoAI pool size (PS) compared with the low-MUFA dietary portfolio (15·9 % between-diet difference, P= 0·03). This difference appeared to be mainly attributable to a reduction in apoAI fractional catabolic rate (FCR) after the high-MUFA diet ( - 5·6 %, P= 0·02 v. pre-diet values), with no significant change in production rate. The high-MUFA dietary portfolio tended to reduce LDL apoB100 PS compared with the low-MUFA dietary portfolio ( - 28·5 % between-diet difference, P= 0·09), predominantly through an increase in LDL apoB100 FCR (23·2 % between-diet difference, P= 0·04). These data suggest that adding MUFA to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods provides the added advantage of raising HDL primarily through a reduction in HDL clearance rate. Replacing CHO with MUFA in a dietary portfolio may also lead to reductions in LDL apoB100 concentrations primarily by increasing LDL clearance rate, thus potentiating further the well-known cholesterol-lowering effect of this diet.
The British journal of nutrition 01/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Legumes, including beans, chickpeas, and lentils, are among the lowest glycemic index (GI) foods and have been recommended in national diabetes mellitus (DM) guidelines. Yet, to our knowledge, they have never been used specifically to lower the GI of the diet. We have therefore undertaken a study of low-GI foods in type 2 DM with a focus on legumes in the intervention. METHODS A total of 121 participants with type 2 DM were randomized to either a low-GI legume diet that encouraged participants to increase legume intake by at least 1 cup per day, or to increase insoluble fiber by consumption of whole wheat products, for 3 months. The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values with calculated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score as a secondary outcome. RESULTS The low-GI legume diet reduced HbA1c values by -0.5% (95% CI, -0.6% to -0.4%) and the high wheat fiber diet reduced HbA1c values by -0.3% (95% CI, -0.4% to -0.2%). The relative reduction in HbA1c values after the low-GI legume diet was greater than after the high wheat fiber diet by -0.2% (95% CI, -0.3% to -0.1%; P < .001). The respective CHD risk reduction on the low-GI legume diet was -0.8% (95% CI, -1.4% to -0.3%; P = .003), largely owing to a greater relative reduction in systolic blood pressure on the low-GI legume diet compared with the high wheat fiber diet (-4.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, -7.0 to -2.1 mm Hg; P < .001). CONCLUSION Incorporation of legumes as part of a low-GI diet improved both glycemic control and reduced calculated CHD risk score in type 2 DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01063361.
Archives of internal medicine 10/2012; · 11.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in some but not all cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association of GI and GL with CHD risk in prospective cohorts.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (through April 5, 2012) and identified all prospective cohorts assessing associations of GI and GL with incidence of CHD. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) methodologies were used. Relative measures of risk, comparing the group with the highest exposure (mean GI of cohorts=84.4 GI units, range 79.9 to 91; mean GL of cohorts=224.8, range 166 to 270) to the reference group (mean GI=72.3 GI units, range 68.1 to 77; mean GL=135.4, range 83 to 176), were pooled using random-effects models, expressed as relative risk (RR) with heterogeneity assessed by χ(2) and quantified by I(2). Subgroups included sex and duration of follow-up. Ten studies (n=240 936) were eligible. Pooled analyses showed an increase in CHD risk for the highest GI quantile compared with the lowest, with RR=1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 to 1.24) and for GL, RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.49), both with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)>42%, P<0.07). Subgroup analyses revealed only a significant modification by sex, with the female cohorts showing significance for GI RR=1.26 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.41) and for GL RR=1.55 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.03).
High GI and GL diets were significantly associated with CHD events in women but not in men. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between GI and GL with CHD in men.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 10/2012; 1(5):e000752.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed whether a wheat bran extract containing arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and influenced other physiologic parameters when consumed in ready-to-eat cereal at two dose levels.
This double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial evaluated the effects of consuming AXOS at 0 (control), 2.2, or 4.8 g/d as part of ready-to-eat cereal for 3 wk in 55 healthy men and women. Fecal microbial levels, postprandial serum ferulic acid concentrations, and other physiologic parameters were assessed at the beginning and end of each condition.
The median bifidobacteria content of stool samples (log(10)/grams of dry weight [DW]) was found to be higher in the subjects consuming the 4.8-g/d dose (10.03) than in those consuming 2.2 g/d (9.93) and control (9.84, P < 0.001). No significant changes in the populations of other fecal microbes were observed, indicating a selective increase in fecal bifidobacteria. Postprandial ferulic acid was measured at 120 min at the start and end of each 3-wk treatment period in subjects at least 50 y old (n = 37) and increased in a dose-dependent manner (end-of-treatment values 0.007, 0.050, and 0.069 μg/mL for the control, AXOS 2.2 g/d, and AXOS 4.8 g/d conditions, respectively, P for trend < 0.001).
These results indicate that AXOS has prebiotic properties, selectively increasing fecal bifidobacteria, and increases postprandial ferulic acid concentrations in a dose-dependent manner in healthy men and women.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of fructose on cardiometabolic risk in humans is controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials to clarify the effect of fructose on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (through 22 March 2012) for relevant trials lasting ≥7 days. Data were aggregated by the generic inverse variance method (random-effects models) and expressed as mean difference (MD) for fasting glucose and insulin and standardized MD (SMD) with 95% CI for glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and glycated albumin. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I(2) statistic. Trial quality was assessed by the Heyland methodological quality score (MQS).
Eighteen trials (n = 209) met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric exchange of fructose for carbohydrate reduced glycated blood proteins (SMD -0.25 [95% CI -0.46 to -0.04]; P = 0.02) with significant intertrial heterogeneity (I(2) = 63%; P = 0.001). This reduction is equivalent to a ~0.53% reduction in HbA(1c). Fructose consumption did not significantly affect fasting glucose or insulin. A priori subgroup analyses showed no evidence of effect modification on any end point.
Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrate improves long-term glycemic control, as assessed by glycated blood proteins, without affecting insulin in people with diabetes. Generalizability may be limited because most of the trials were <12 weeks and had relatively low MQS (<8). To confirm these findings, larger and longer fructose feeding trials assessing both possible glycemic benefit and adverse metabolic effects are required.
Diabetes care 07/2012; 35(7):1611-20. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For some years, there has been interest in exploring the effects of high-fat and high-protein diets on the control of body
weight. More recently, less extreme dieting paradigms have been studied, with a focus on the use of increased plant food components.
This article reviews these diets from the standpoint of potential therapeutic use in cardiovascular risk reduction. We conducted
a search of the literature published in 2008 and 2009 for studies assessing the effect of diet on body weight control, especially
where there was an emphasis on differences in macronutrient profiles and food sources used (e.g., plant vs. animal). No clear
picture emerged on the ideal macronutrient profile for weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction. However,
in general, the use of more plant food-based approaches had the greatest effect in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors,
including blood lipids and blood pressure. Alterations in the proportion of protein and fat intakes gave inconsistent effects
on body weight reduction.
KeywordsCardiovascular health-Diet-Weight control-Macronutrients
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 04/2012; 4(2):89-100.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First defined in the mid-1990s, prebiotics, which alter the composition and activity of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to improve health and well-being, have generated scientific and consumer interest and regulatory debate. The Life Sciences Research Organization, Inc. (LSRO) held a workshop, Prebiotics and the Health Benefits of Fiber: Future Research and Goals, in February 2011 to assess the current state of the science and the international regulatory environment for prebiotics, identify research gaps, and create a strategy for future research. A developing body of evidence supports a role for prebiotics in reducing the risk and severity of GI infection and inflammation, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis as well as bowel function disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics also increase the bioavailability and uptake of minerals and data suggest that they reduce the risk of obesity by promoting satiety and weight loss. Additional research is needed to define the relationship between the consumption of different prebiotics and improvement of human health. New information derived from the characterization of the composition and function of different prebiotics as well as the interactions among and between gut microbiota and the human host would improve our understanding of the effects of prebiotics on health and disease and could assist in surmounting regulatory issues related to prebiotic use.
Journal of Nutrition 03/2012; 142(5):962-74. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperuricemia is linked to gout and features of metabolic syndrome. There is concern that dietary fructose may increase uric acid concentrations. To assess the effects of fructose on serum uric acid concentrations in people with and without diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials (through August 19, 2011). Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥ 7 d investigating the effect of fructose feeding on uric acid under isocaloric conditions, where fructose was isocalorically exchanged with other carbohydrate, or hypercaloric conditions, and where a control diet was supplemented with excess energy from fructose. Data were aggregated by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I(2). A total of 21 trials in 425 participants met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrate did not affect serum uric acid in diabetic and nondiabetic participants [MD = 0.56 μmol/L (95% CI: -6.62, 7.74)], with no evidence of inter-study heterogeneity. Hypercaloric supplementation of control diets with fructose (+35% excess energy) at extreme doses (213-219 g/d) significantly increased serum uric acid compared with the control diets alone in nondiabetic participants [MD = 31.0 mmol/L (95% CI: 15.4, 46.5)] with no evidence of heterogeneity. Confounding from excess energy cannot be ruled out in the hypercaloric trials. These analyses do not support a uric acid-increasing effect of isocaloric fructose intake in nondiabetic and diabetic participants. Hypercaloric fructose intake may, however, increase uric acid concentrations. The effect of the interaction of energy and fructose remains unclear. Larger, well-designed trials of fructose feeding at "real world" doses are needed.
Journal of Nutrition 03/2012; 142(5):916-23. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent analyses have challenged the effectiveness of soy foods as part of a cardiovascular risk reduction diet.
The objective of the study was to show whether equol status determines the effectiveness of soy foods to lower LDL cholesterol and to raise HDL cholesterol.
Eighty-five hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women (42 men, 43 women) participated in 1 of 3 studies that represented a range of soy interventions and that followed the same general protocol at a Canadian university hospital research center. Soy foods were provided for 1 mo at doses of 30-52 g/d for the 3 studies as follows: 1) soy foods with either high-normal (73 mg/d) or low (10 mg/d) isoflavones, 2) soy foods with or without a prebiotic to enhance colonic fermentation (10 g polyfructans/d), or 3) soy foods with a low-carbohydrate diet (26% carbohydrate). Studies 1 and 2 were randomized controlled crossover trials, and study 3 was a parallel study.
The separation of the group into equol producers (n = 30) and nonproducers (n = 55) showed similar reductions from baseline in LDL cholesterol (-9.3 ± 2.5% and -11.1 ± 1.6%, respectively; P = 0.834), with preservation of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I only in equol producers compared with reductions in nonproducers (HDL cholesterol: +0.9 ± 2.7% compared with -4.3 ± 1.1%, P = 0.006; apolipoprotein A-I: -1.0 ± 1.1% compared with -4.7 ± 1.0%; P = 0.011). The amount of urinary equol excreted did not relate to the changes in blood lipids.
Soy foods reduced serum LDL cholesterol equally in both equol producers and nonproducers. However, in equol producers, ~35% of our study population, soy consumption had the added cardiovascular benefit of maintaining higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than those seen in equol nonproducers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00877825 (study 1), NCT00516594 (study 2), and NCT00256516 (study 3).
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2012; 95(3):564-71. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The contribution of fructose consumption in Western diets to overweight and obesity in populations remains uncertain.
To review the effects of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library (through 18 November 2011).
At least 3 reviewers identified controlled feeding trials lasting 7 or more days that compared the effect on body weight of free fructose and nonfructose carbohydrate in diets providing similar calories (isocaloric trials) or of diets supplemented with free fructose to provide excess energy and usual or control diets (hypercaloric trials). Trials evaluating high-fructose corn syrup (42% to 55% free fructose) were excluded.
The reviewers independently reviewed and extracted relevant data; disagreements were reconciled by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score was used to assess study quality.
Thirty-one isocaloric trials (637 participants) and 10 hypercaloric trials (119 participants) were included; studies tended to be small (<15 participants), short (<12 weeks), and of low quality. Fructose had no overall effect on body weight in isocaloric trials (mean difference, -0.14 kg [95% CI, -0.37 to 0.10 kg] for fructose compared with nonfructose carbohydrate). High doses of fructose in hypercaloric trials (+104 to 250 g/d, +18% to 97% of total daily energy intake) lead to significant increases in weight (mean difference, 0.53 kg [CI, 0.26 to 0.79 kg] with fructose).
Most trials had methodological limitations and were of poor quality. The weight-increasing effect of fructose in hypercaloric trials may have been attributable to excess energy rather than fructose itself.
Fructose does not seem to cause weight gain when it is substituted for other carbohydrates in diets providing similar calories. Free fructose at high doses that provided excess calories modestly increased body weight, an effect that may be due to the extra calories rather than the fructose.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01363791).
Annals of internal medicine 02/2012; 156(4):291-304. · 13.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contrary to concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, there is evidence that small, 'catalytic' doses ( ≤ 10 g/meal) of fructose decrease the glycaemic response to high-glycaemic index meals in human subjects. To assess the longer-term effects of 'catalytic' doses of fructose, we undertook a meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥ 7 d featuring 'catalytic' fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) in isoenergetic exchange for other carbohydrates. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I 2. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score assessed study quality. A total of six feeding trials (n 118) met the eligibility criteria. 'Catalytic' doses of fructose significantly reduced HbA1c (MD - 0·40, 95 % CI - 0·72, - 0·08) and fasting glucose (MD - 0·25, 95 % CI - 0·44, - 0·07). This benefit was seen in the absence of adverse effects on fasting insulin, body weight, TAG or uric acid. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed evidence of effect modification under certain conditions. The small number of trials and their relatively short duration limit the strength of the conclusions. In conclusion, this small meta-analysis shows that 'catalytic' fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) may improve glycaemic control without adverse effects on body weight, TAG, insulin and uric acid. There is a need for larger, longer ( ≥ 6 months) trials using 'catalytic' fructose to confirm these results.
The British journal of nutrition 02/2012; 108(3):418-23. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised about the adverse effect of fructose on blood pressure. International dietary guidelines, however, have not addressed fructose intake directly. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of fructose in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures. Studies were identified using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (through January 9, 2012). Human clinical trials of isocaloric oral fructose exchange for other carbohydrate sources for ≥7 days were included in the analysis. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q-statistic and quantified by I(2). Study quality was assessed using the Heyland Methodological Quality Score. Thirteen isocaloric (n=352) and 2 hypercaloric (n=24) trials met the eligibility criteria. Overall, fructose intake in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates significantly decreased diastolic (mean difference: -1.54 [95% CI: -2.77 to -0.32]) and mean arterial pressure (mean difference: -1.16 [95% CI: -2.15 to -0.18]). There was no significant effect of fructose on systolic blood pressure (mean difference: -1.10 [95% CI: -2.46 to 0.44]). The hypercaloric fructose feeding trials found no significant overall mean arterial blood pressure effect of fructose in comparison with other carbohydrates. To confirm these results, longer and larger trials are needed. Contrary to previous concerns, we found that isocaloric substitution of fructose for other carbohydrates did not adversely affect blood pressure in humans.