[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Although most controlled feeding trials have failed to show an adverse effect of fructose on blood pressure, concerns continue to be raised regarding the role of fructose in hypertension. To quantify the association between fructose-containing sugar (high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and fructose) intake and incident hypertension, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was undertaken. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through February 5, 2014) were searched for relevant studies. Two independent reviewers reviewed and extracted relevant data. Risk estimates were aggregated comparing the lowest (reference) quintile with highest quintile of intake using inverse variance random effect models and expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I(2) statistic). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessed study quality. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01608620. Results: Eligibility criteria were met by 3 prospective cohorts (n = 37,375 men and 185,855 women) with 58,162 cases of hypertension observed over 2,502,357 person-years of follow-up. Median fructose intake was 5.7-6.0% total energy in the lowest quintile and 13.9-14.3% total energy in the highest quintile. Fructose intake was not associated with incident hypertension (RR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.99-1.04), with no evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%, p = 0.59). Spline curve modeling showed a U-shaped relationship with a negative association at intakes ≤50th percentile (∼10% total energy) and a positive association at higher intakes. Conclusions: Total fructose intake was not associated with an increased risk of hypertension in 3 large prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 08/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of almonds has been shown to be associated with a decreased risk of CHD, which may be related to their fatty acid (FA) composition. However, the effect of almond consumption on the serum FA composition is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether almond consumption would alter the serum FA profile and risk of CHD, as calculated using Framingham's 10-year risk score, in a dose-dependent manner in hyperlipidaemic individuals when compared with a higher-carbohydrate control group using dietary interventions incorporating almonds. A total of twenty-seven hyperlipidaemic individuals consumed three isoenergetic (mean 1770 kJ/d) supplements during three 1-month dietary phases: (1) full-dose almonds (50-100 g/d); (2) half-dose almonds with half-dose muffins; (3) full-dose muffins. Fasting blood samples were obtained at weeks 0 and 4 for the determination of FA concentrations. Almond intake (g/d) was found to be inversely associated with the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score (P= 0·026). In both the half-dose and full-dose almond groups, the proportions of oleic acid (OA) and MUFA in the TAG fraction (half-almond: OA P= 0·003; MUFA P= 0·004; full-almond: OA P< 0·001; MUFA P< 0·001) and in the NEFA fraction (half-almond: OA P= 0·01; MUFA P= 0·04; full-almond: OA P= 0·12; MUFA P= 0·06) increased. The estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score was inversely associated with the percentage change of OA (P= 0·011) and MUFA (P= 0·016) content in the TAG fraction. The proportions of MUFA in the TAG and NEFA fractions were positively associated with changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Similarly, the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score was inversely associated with the percentage change of OA (P= 0·069) and MUFA content in the NEFA fraction (P= 0·009). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that almond consumption increases OA and MUFA content in serum TAG and NEFA fractions, which are inversely associated with CHD lipid risk factors and overall estimated 10-year CHD risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) advantages, effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and low-glycemic-load (GL) diets have not been assessed in combination. We therefore determined the combined effect of ALA, MUFA, and low GL on glycemic control and CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was a parallel design, randomized trial wherein each 3-month treatment was conducted in a Canadian academic center between March 2011 and September 2012 and involved 141 participants with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 6.5%-8.5% [48-69 mmol/mol]) treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents. Participants were provided with dietary advice on either a low-GL diet with ALA and MUFA given as a canola oil-enriched bread supplement (31 g canola oil per 2,000 kcal) (test) or a whole-grain diet with a whole-wheat bread supplement (control). The primary outcome was HbA1c change. Secondary outcomes included calculated Framingham CVD risk score and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) ratio.RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of the test group and 90% of the control group completed the trial. The test diet reduction in HbA1c units of -0.47% (-5.15 mmol/mol) (95% CI -0.54% to -0.40% [-5.92 to -4.38 mmol/mol]) was greater than that for the control diet (-0.31% [-3.44 mmol/mol] [95% CI -0.38% to -0.25% (-4.17 to -2.71 mmol/mol)], P = 0.002), with the greatest benefit observed in those with higher systolic blood pressure (SBP). Greater reductions were seen in CVD risk score for the test diet, whereas the RHI ratio increased for the control diet.CONCLUSIONS: A canola oil-enriched low-GL diet improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, particularly in participants with raised SBP, whereas whole grains improved vascular reactivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To assess the effect of dietary pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils) on acute satiety and second meal intake, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted.MethodsMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Registry (through May 6, 2013) were searched for acute controlled trials examining the effect of dietary pulses on postprandial satiety or second meal intake compared with isocaloric controls. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by generic inverse variance random effects models and expressed as ratio of means (RoMs) for satiety and mean differences (MDs) for second meal food intake, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Protocol registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01605422.ResultsNine trials met the eligibility criteria. Dietary pulses produced a 31% greater satiety incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (RoM = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.58, P = 0.004; Phet = 0.96; I2 = 0%) without affecting second meal intake (MD = −19.94, 95% CI: −75-35, P = 0.48; Phet = 0.01; I2 = 63%). Our data are limited by the small sample sizes, narrow participant characteristics and significant unexplained heterogeneity among the available trials.Conclusions
Pooled analyses show that dietary pulses contribute to acute satiety but not second meal intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Evidence from controlled trials encourages the intake of dietary pulses (beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas) as a method of improving dyslipidemia, but heart health guidelines have stopped short of ascribing specific benefits to this type of intervention or have graded the beneficial evidence as low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. METHODS:We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected trials for relevant articles published through Feb. 5, 2014. We included RCTs of at least 3 weeks' duration that compared a diet emphasizing dietary pulse intake with an isocaloric diet that did not include dietary pulses. The lipid targets investigated were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol. We pooled data using a randomeffects model. RESULTS:We identified 26 RCTs (n = 1037) that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Diets emphasizing dietary pulse intake at a median dose of 130 g/d (about 1 serving daily) significantly lowered LDL cholesterol levels compared with the control diets (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.25 to -0.09 mmol/L). Treatment effects on apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol were not observed. INTERPRETATION:Our findings suggest that dietary pulse intake significantly reduces LDL cholesterol levels. Trials of longer duration and higher quality are needed to verify these results. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01594567.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 04/2014; · 6.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:In the absence of consistent clinical evidence, there are concerns that fructose contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine the effect of fructose on markers of NAFLD, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials.Subjects/Methods:We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 3 September 2013). We included relevant trials that involved a follow-up of 7 days. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) for intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) and mean difference (MD) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I(2) statistic).Results:Eligibility criteria were met by eight reports containing 13 trials in 260 healthy participants: seven isocaloric trials, in which fructose was exchanged isocalorically for other carbohydrates, and six hypercaloric trials, in which the diet was supplemented with excess energy (+21-35% energy) from high-dose fructose (+104-220 g/day). Although there was no effect of fructose in isocaloric trials, fructose in hypercaloric trials increased both IHCL (SMD=0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.72)) and ALT (MD=4.94 U/l (95% CI: 0.03, 9.85)).Limitations:Few trials were available for inclusion, most of which were small, short (4 weeks), and of poor quality.Conclusions:Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrates does not induce NAFLD changes in healthy participants. Fructose providing excess energy at extreme doses, however, does raise IHCL and ALT, an effect that may be more attributable to excess energy than fructose. Larger, longer and higher-quality trials of the effect of fructose on histopathological NAFLD changes are required.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 26 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.8.
Canadian Journal of Diabetes 02/2014; 36(5):S10. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objective:Nut consumption has been found to decrease risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes and to promote healthy body weights possibly related to their favorable macronutrient profile. We therefore assessed the effect of pistachios on postprandial glucose and insulin levels, gut hormones related to satiety and endothelial function.Subjects/Methods:In this randomized crossover study, 20 subjects with metabolic syndrome consumed five study meals over 5-10 weeks. The meals differed in fat type and quantity, but were matched according to available carbohydrates (CHOs). Three meals had 50 g available CHO: white bread (WB50g), white bread, butter and cheese (WB+B+Ch) and white bread and pistachios (WB+P). Two meals had 12 g available CHO: white bread (WB12g) and pistachios (P).Results:Within each group of available CHO meals, postprandial glucose levels were the highest following the white bread-only meals, and glucose response was significantly attenuated when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed (P<0.05). Postprandial insulin levels were highest after the WB+B+Ch meal (P<0.05), but did not differ between the white bread-only and pistachio meals. Both endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index) significantly increased after the white bread-only meals compared with the WB+B+Ch meal (all P<0.05). Insulin secretagogue levels were higher when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed than when white bread only was consumed (P<0.05).Conclusions:Compared with white bread, pistachio consumption reduced postprandial glycemia, increased glucagon-like-peptide levels and may have insulin-sparing properties. These effects could be beneficial for individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.275.
European journal of clinical nutrition 01/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raisins are popular snacks with a favourable nutrient profile, being high in dietary fibre, polyphenols and a number of vitamins and minerals, in addition to being rich in fructose. In light of evidence demonstrating improvements in glycaemic control with moderate fructose intake and low-glycaemic index (GI) fruits, our aim was to determine the GI, insulin index (II) and postprandial responses to raisins in an acute feeding setting. A total of ten healthy participants (four male and six female) consumed breakfast study meals on four occasions over a 2- to 8-week period: meal 1: white bread (WB) (108 g WB; 50 g available carbohydrate) served as the control and was consumed on two separate occasions; meal 2: raisins (R50) (69 g raisins; 50 g available carbohydrate); and meal 3: raisins (R20) (one serving, 28 g raisins; 20 g available carbohydrate). Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured over a 2 h period for the determination of GI, glycaemic load (GL) and II. The raisin meals, R50 and R20, resulted in significantly reduced postprandial glucose and insulin responses when compared with WB (P < 0·05). Furthermore, raisins were determined to be low-GI, -GL and -II foods. The favourable effect of raisins on postprandial glycaemic response, their insulin-sparing effect and low GI combined with their other metabolic benefits may indicate that raisins are a healthy choice not only for the general population but also for individuals with diabetes or insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In the absence of consistent clinical evidence, concerns have been raised that fructose raises postprandial triglycerides.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of fructose on postprandial triglycerides.
Relevant studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (through September 3, 2013).
Relevant clinical trials of ≥7-days were included in the analysis.
Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data with disagreements reconciled by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score (MQS) assessed study quality. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic).
Eligibility criteria were met by 14 isocaloric trials (n = 290), in which fructose was exchanged isocalorically for other carbohydrate in the diet, and two hypercaloric trials (n = 33), in which fructose supplemented the background diet with excess energy from high-dose fructose compared with the background diet alone (without the excess energy). There was no significant effect in the isocaloric trials (SMD: 0.14 [95% CI: −0.02, 0.30]) with evidence of considerable heterogeneity explained by a single trial. Hypercaloric trials, however, showed a significant postprandial triglyceride raising-effect of fructose (SMD: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.30, 1.01]).
Most of the available trials were small, short, and of poor quality. Interpretation of the isocaloric trials is complicated by the large influence of a single trial.
Pooled analyses show that fructose in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrate does not increase postprandial triglycerides, although an effect cannot be excluded under all conditions. Fructose providing excess energy does increase postprandial triglycerides. Larger, longer, and higher-quality trials are needed.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01363791.
Canadian Journal of Diabetes 01/2014; 36(5):S19. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006.
Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively.
Change in body weight.
23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to -6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and -5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) -1.1 kg (-2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) -0.49 mmol/L (-0.70 to -0.28), p<0.001 and -0.34 mmol/L (-0.57 to -0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (-0.57 (-0.83, -0.32), p<0.001 and -0.05 (-0.09, -0.02), p=0.003, respectively).
A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors.
clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516.
BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(2):e003505. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aims
Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes.
Methods and Results
117 subjects with type 2 diabetes consumed one of three iso-energetic (mean 475 kcal/d) supplements for 12 weeks: 1. full-dose nuts (50-100g/d); 2. half-dose nuts with half-dose muffins; and 3. full-dose muffins. In this secondary analysis, fatty acid concentrations in the phospholipid, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester fractions from fasting blood samples obtained at baseline and week 12 were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatography. Full-dose nut supplementation significantly increased serum oleic acid (OA) and MUFAs compared to the control in the phospholipid fraction (OA: P=0.036; MUFAs: P=0.024). Inverse associations were found with changes in CHD risk versus changes in OA and MUFAs in the triacylglycerol (r=-0.256, P=0.011; r=-0.228, P=0.024, respectively) and phospholipid (r=-0.278, P=0.006; r=-0.260, P=0.010, respectively) fractions. In the cholesteryl ester fraction, change in MUFAs was inversely associated with markers of glycemic control (HbA1c: r=-0.250, P=0.013; fasting blood glucose: r=-0.395, P<0.0001).
Nut consumption increased OA and MUFA content of the serum phospholipid fraction, which was inversely associated with CHD risk factors and 10-year CHD risk.
Clinical Trial Reg. No.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of meta-analyses of cohort studies have assessed the impact of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular outcomes. The picture that emerges is that for women, a significant association appears to exist between the consumption of high GL/GI diets and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This association appears to be stronger in those with greater adiposity and possibly in those with diabetes, although these findings are not uniform. There is also an indication that raised CRP levels may be reduced, which has special implications for women whose CRP levels, as an emerging CVD risk factor, may be higher than men. For men, the situation is not as clear-cut. Although some studies show association, the meta-analyses have not demonstrated a significant direct association with CVD, despite current evidence that risk factors, including LDL-C, may be reduced on low-GI diets. Moreover, in a recent meta-analysis, increases in dietary GL have been associated with increased risk of diabetes, another CVD risk factor, in both men and women. Studies in men expressing relative risk of CVD in relation to GL and GI, with corresponding confidence intervals, are needed to provide the necessary power for future meta-analyses on this topic.
Current Atherosclerosis Reports 01/2014; 16(1):381. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend diet and lifestyle modifications for primary prevention and treatment of hypertension, but do not encourage dietary pulses specifically for lowering blood pressure (BP). To quantify the effect of dietary pulse interventions on BP and provide evidence for their inclusion in dietary guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials was conducted.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were each searched from inception through 5 May 2013. Human trials ≥3 weeks that reported data for systolic, diastolic, and/or mean arterial BPs were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias of included studies. Effect estimates were pooled using random effects models, and reported as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (χ(2) test) and quantified (I(2)).
Eight isocaloric trials (n = 554 participants with and without hypertension) were included in the analysis. Dietary pulses, exchanged isocalorically for other foods, significantly lowered systolic (MD = -2.25 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.22 to -0.28), P = 0.03) and mean arterial BP (MD = -0.75 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.44 to -0.06), P = 0.03), and diastolic BP non-significantly (MD = -0.71 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.74 to 0.31), P=0.17). Heterogeneity was significant for all outcomes.
Dietary pulses significantly lowered BP in people with and without hypertension. Higher-quality large-scale trials are needed to support these findings.
Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT01594567.
American Journal of Hypertension 09/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present randomised parallel study assessed the impact of adding MUFA to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on the intravascular kinetics of apoAI- and apoB-containing lipoproteins in subjects with dyslipidaemia. A sample of sixteen men and postmenopausal women consumed a run-in stabilisation diet for 4 weeks. Subjects were then randomly assigned to an experimental dietary portfolio either high or low in MUFA for another 4 weeks. MUFA substituted 13·0 % of total energy from carbohydrate (CHO) in the high-MUFA dietary portfolio. Lipoprotein kinetics were assessed after the run-in and portfolio diets using a primed, constant infusion of [2H3]leucine and multicompartmental modelling. The high-MUFA dietary portfolio resulted in higher apoAI pool size (PS) compared with the low-MUFA dietary portfolio (15·9 % between-diet difference, P= 0·03). This difference appeared to be mainly attributable to a reduction in apoAI fractional catabolic rate (FCR) after the high-MUFA diet ( - 5·6 %, P= 0·02 v. pre-diet values), with no significant change in production rate. The high-MUFA dietary portfolio tended to reduce LDL apoB100 PS compared with the low-MUFA dietary portfolio ( - 28·5 % between-diet difference, P= 0·09), predominantly through an increase in LDL apoB100 FCR (23·2 % between-diet difference, P= 0·04). These data suggest that adding MUFA to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods provides the added advantage of raising HDL primarily through a reduction in HDL clearance rate. Replacing CHO with MUFA in a dietary portfolio may also lead to reductions in LDL apoB100 concentrations primarily by increasing LDL clearance rate, thus potentiating further the well-known cholesterol-lowering effect of this diet.
The British journal of nutrition 01/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Legumes, including beans, chickpeas, and lentils, are among the lowest glycemic index (GI) foods and have been recommended in national diabetes mellitus (DM) guidelines. Yet, to our knowledge, they have never been used specifically to lower the GI of the diet. We have therefore undertaken a study of low-GI foods in type 2 DM with a focus on legumes in the intervention. METHODS A total of 121 participants with type 2 DM were randomized to either a low-GI legume diet that encouraged participants to increase legume intake by at least 1 cup per day, or to increase insoluble fiber by consumption of whole wheat products, for 3 months. The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values with calculated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score as a secondary outcome. RESULTS The low-GI legume diet reduced HbA1c values by -0.5% (95% CI, -0.6% to -0.4%) and the high wheat fiber diet reduced HbA1c values by -0.3% (95% CI, -0.4% to -0.2%). The relative reduction in HbA1c values after the low-GI legume diet was greater than after the high wheat fiber diet by -0.2% (95% CI, -0.3% to -0.1%; P < .001). The respective CHD risk reduction on the low-GI legume diet was -0.8% (95% CI, -1.4% to -0.3%; P = .003), largely owing to a greater relative reduction in systolic blood pressure on the low-GI legume diet compared with the high wheat fiber diet (-4.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, -7.0 to -2.1 mm Hg; P < .001). CONCLUSION Incorporation of legumes as part of a low-GI diet improved both glycemic control and reduced calculated CHD risk score in type 2 DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01063361.
Archives of internal medicine 10/2012; · 11.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in some but not all cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association of GI and GL with CHD risk in prospective cohorts.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (through April 5, 2012) and identified all prospective cohorts assessing associations of GI and GL with incidence of CHD. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) methodologies were used. Relative measures of risk, comparing the group with the highest exposure (mean GI of cohorts=84.4 GI units, range 79.9 to 91; mean GL of cohorts=224.8, range 166 to 270) to the reference group (mean GI=72.3 GI units, range 68.1 to 77; mean GL=135.4, range 83 to 176), were pooled using random-effects models, expressed as relative risk (RR) with heterogeneity assessed by χ(2) and quantified by I(2). Subgroups included sex and duration of follow-up. Ten studies (n=240 936) were eligible. Pooled analyses showed an increase in CHD risk for the highest GI quantile compared with the lowest, with RR=1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 to 1.24) and for GL, RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.49), both with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)>42%, P<0.07). Subgroup analyses revealed only a significant modification by sex, with the female cohorts showing significance for GI RR=1.26 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.41) and for GL RR=1.55 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.03).
High GI and GL diets were significantly associated with CHD events in women but not in men. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between GI and GL with CHD in men.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 10/2012; 1(5):e000752.