Walter C Willett

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

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Publications (291)2929.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Benign breast disease (BBD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, but little work has considered a girl's early life and her risk for BBD in adulthood. We investigated factors, from pre-conception through infant feeding practices, in relation to subsequent BBD risk in young women. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9032 females, born 1980-1987, who completed questionnaires annually from 1996 through 2001, then 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2013. In 1996, their mothers provided each participant's birth weight and length, gestational age, biological father's height, and infant feeding factors (e.g., breast-fed, type of formula). In 1999, their mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during index pregnancy. Beginning in 2005, daughters (18 years+) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 142 cases, through 2013). Logistic regression estimated associations between early life factors and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Girls whose mother's BMI prior to pregnancy was 20-25 kg/m(2) were at lower risk of BBD as young women (OR = 0.66, p = 0.04, vs. maternal pre-pregnancy BMI < 20). Girls whose mothers gained 20 + pounds (vs. <20 pounds) during pregnancy were at lower risk (among full-term singleton births: OR = 0.48, p = 0.007, if mother gained 20-35 pounds). However, neither birth weight nor BMI at birth were associated with subsequent BBD risk. We found no evidence that infant feeding practices were linked to BBD. A healthy maternal BMI before pregnancy and sufficient weight gain during pregnancy may produce daughters at lower risk for BBD as young women. Further examination of these findings is needed.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3637-3 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Flavonoids inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro. In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Polyp Prevention Trial, a higher intake of one subclass, flavonols, was statistically significantly associated with a reduced risk of recurrent advanced adenoma. Most previous prospective studies on colorectal cancer evaluated only a limited number of flavonoid subclasses and intake ranges, yielding inconsistent results. Objective: In this study, we examined whether higher habitual dietary intakes of flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Design: Using data from validated food-frequency questionnaires administered every 4 y and an updated flavonoid food composition database, we calculated flavonoid intakes for 42,478 male participants from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and for 76,364 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study. Results: During up to 26 y of follow-up, 2519 colorectal cancer cases (1061 in men, 1458 in women) were documented. Intakes of flavonoid subclasses were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer in either cohort. Pooled multivariable adjusted RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.04 (0.91, 1.18) for flavonols, 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) for flavones, 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) for flavanones, 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) for flavan-3-ols, and 0.98 (0.81, 1.19) for anthocyanins (all P values for heterogeneity by sex >0.19). In subsite analyses, flavonoid intake was also not associated with colon or rectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a higher habitual intake of any flavonoid subclass decreases the risk of colorectal cancer.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.117507 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Carbohydrate quality may be an important determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, relations between various carbohydrate quality metrics and T2D risk have not been systematically investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the association between carbohydrates, starch, fibers, and different combinations of these nutrients and risk of T2D in women. Design: We prospectively followed 70,025 women free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2008). Diet information was collected with the use of a validated questionnaire every 4 y. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations with incident T2D. Results: During 1,484,213 person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 6934 incident T2D cases. In multivariable analyses, when extreme quintiles were compared, higher carbohydrate intake was not associated with T2D (RR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.08; P-trend = 0.84), whereas starch was associated with a higher risk (RR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.35; P-trend <0.0001). Total fiber (RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.89; P-trend < 0.0001), cereal fiber (RR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.78; P-trend < 0.0001), and fruit fiber (RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.85; P-trend < 0.0001) were associated with a lower T2D risk. The ratio of carbohydrate to total fiber intake was marginally associated with a higher risk of T2D (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20; P-trend = 0.04). On the other hand, we found positive associations between the ratios of carbohydrate to cereal fiber (RR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.39; P-trend < 0.0001), starch to total fiber (RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23; P-trend = 0.03), and starch to cereal fiber (RR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.53; P-trend < 0.0001) and T2D. Conclusions: Diets with high starch, low fiber, and a high starch-to-cereal fiber ratio were associated with a higher risk of T2D. The starch-to-cereal fiber ratio of the diet may be a novel metric for assessing carbohydrate quality in relation to T2D.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.116558 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: According to most prospective studies, being underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) is associated with significantly higher mortality than being of normal weight, especially among smokers. We aimed to explore in a generally lean population whether being underweight is significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation study with 14 years of follow-up. Subjects: After excluding deaths within the first 5 years of follow-up (1993-1997) to minimize reverse causation and excluding participants without information about smoking and health status, 94 133 men and 48 496 women aged 35-59 years in 1990 were included. Results: We documented 5411 (5·7 %) deaths in men and 762 (1·6 %) in women. Among never smokers, hazard ratios (HR) for underweight individuals were not significantly higher than those for normal-weight individuals (BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2): HR=0·87 (95 % CI 0·41, 1·84, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=1·12 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·65, P=0·58) for underweight women. Among ex-smokers, HR=0·86 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·93, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=3·77 (95 % CI 0·42, 32·29, P=0·24) for underweight women. Among current smokers, HR=1·60 (95 % CI 1·28, 2·01, P<0·001) for underweight men and HR=2·07 (95 % CI 0·43, 9·94, P=0·36) for underweight women. Conclusions: The present study does not support that being underweight per se is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Korean men and women.
    Public Health Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S136898001500302X · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Juan Wu · Eunyoung Cho · Walter C Willett · Srinivas M Sastry · Debra A Schaumberg ·
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    ABSTRACT: Importance: Despite strong biological plausibility, evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials on the relations between intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been inconsistent. The roles of other carotenoids are less thoroughly investigated. Objective: To investigate the associations between intakes of carotenoids and AMD. Design, setting, and participants: Prospective cohort study, with cohorts from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States. A total of 63 443 women and 38 603 men were followed up, from 1984 until May 31, 2010, in the Nurses' Health Study and from 1986 until January 31, 2010, in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. All participants were aged 50 years or older and were free of diagnosed AMD, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Main outcomes and measures: Predicted plasma carotenoid scores were computed directly from food intake, assessed by repeated food frequency questionnaires at baseline and follow-up, using validated regression models to account for bioavailability and reporting validity of different foods, and associations between predicted plasma carotenoid scores and AMD were determined. Results: We confirmed 1361 incident intermediate and 1118 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse by medical record review. Comparing extreme quintiles of predicted plasma lutein/zeaxanthin score, we found a risk reduction for advanced AMD of about 40% in both women and men (pooled relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73; P for trend < .001). Predicted plasma carotenoid scores for other carotenoids, including β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, were associated with a 25% to 35% lower risk of advanced AMD when comparing extreme quintiles. The relative risk comparing extreme quintiles for the predicted plasma total carotenoid index was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P for trend < .001). We did not identify any associations of carotenoids, either as predicted plasma score or calculated intake, with intermediate AMD. Conclusions and relevance: Higher intake of bioavailable lutein/zeaxanthin is associated with a long-term reduced risk of advanced AMD. Given that some other carotenoids are also associated with a lower risk, a public health strategy aimed at increasing dietary consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids may reduce the incidence of advanced AMD.
    Jama Ophthalmology 10/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3590 · 3.32 Impact Factor

  • Circulation 10/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.017158 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2015; 66(14):1590-1614. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.050 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The associations between dietary saturated fats and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Objectives This study sought to investigate associations of saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and different sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Methods We followed 84,628 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1980 to 2010), and 42,908 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Results During 24 to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 7,667 incident cases of CHD. Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carbohydrates from whole grains were significantly associated with a lower risk of CHD comparing the highest with lowest quintile for PUFAs (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 0.88; p trend <0.0001) and for carbohydrates from whole grains (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.98; p trend = 0.003). In contrast, carbohydrates from refined starches/added sugars were positively associated with a risk of CHD (HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.21; p trend = 0.04). Replacing 5% of energy intake from saturated fats with equivalent energy intake from PUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids, or carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with a 25%, 15%, and 9% lower risk of CHD, respectively (PUFAs, HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.84; p < 0.0001; monounsaturated fatty acids, HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.97; p = 0.02; carbohydrates from whole grains, HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98; p = 0.01). Replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates from refined starches/added sugars was not significantly associated with CHD risk (p > 0.10). Conclusions Our findings indicate that unsaturated fats, especially PUFAs, and/or high-quality carbohydrates can be used to replace saturated fats to reduce CHD risk.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2015; 66(14):1538-1548. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.055 · 16.50 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Prevention Research 10/2015; 8(10 Supplement):A43-A43. DOI:10.1158/1940-6215.PREV-14-A43 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although obesity has been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the risk associated with long-term status or change of body fat distribution has not been fully elucidated. Methods: Using repeated anthropometric assessments in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we prospectively investigated cumulative average waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as their 10-year changes over adulthood, in relation to CRC risk over 23-24 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: High waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were all associated with a higher CRC risk in men, even after adjusting for body mass index. The association was attenuated to null in women after adjusting for body mass index. Ten-year gain of waist circumference was positively associated with CRC risk in men (P for trend = 0.03), but not in women (P for trend = 0.34).Compared with men maintaining their waist circumference, those gaining waist circumference by ≥ 10 cm were at a higher risk of CRC, with a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.59 (95% CI, 1.01-2.49). This association appeared to be independent of weight change. Conclusions: Abdominal adiposity, independent of overall obesity, is associated with an increased CRC risk in men but not in women. Our findings also provide the first prospective evidence that waist circumference gain during adulthood may be associated with higher CRC risk in men, thus highlighting the importance of maintaining a healthy waist for CRC prevention.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv177 · 9.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current dietary guidelines recommend eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. However, based on nutrient composition, some particular fruits and vegetables may be more or less beneficial for maintaining or achieving a healthy weight. We hypothesized that greater consumption of fruits and vegetables with a higher fiber content or lower glycemic load would be more strongly associated with a healthy weight. Methods and findings: We examined the association between change in intake of specific fruits and vegetables and change in weight in three large, prospective cohorts of 133,468 United States men and women. From 1986 to 2010, these associations were examined within multiple 4-y time intervals, adjusting for simultaneous changes in other lifestyle factors, including other aspects of diet, smoking status, and physical activity. Results were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with 4-y weight change: total fruits -0.53 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.61, -0.44), berries -1.11 lb (95% CI -1.45, -0.78), and apples/pears -1.24 lb (95% CI -1.62, -0.86). Increased intake of several vegetables was also inversely associated with weight change: total vegetables -0.25 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.35, -0.14), tofu/soy -2.47 lb (95% CI, -3.09 to -1.85 lb) and cauliflower -1.37 lb (95% CI -2.27, -0.47). On the other hand, increased intake of starchy vegetables, including corn, peas, and potatoes, was associated with weight gain. Vegetables having both higher fiber and lower glycemic load were more strongly inversely associated with weight change compared with lower-fiber, higher-glycemic-load vegetables (p < 0.0001). Despite the measurement of key confounders in our analyses, the potential for residual confounding cannot be ruled out, and although our food frequency questionnaire specified portion size, the assessment of diet using any method will have measurement error. Conclusions: Increased consumption of fruits and non-starchy vegetables is inversely associated with weight change, with important differences by type suggesting that other characteristics of these foods influence the magnitude of their association with weight change.
    PLoS Medicine 09/2015; 12(9):e1001878. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001878 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The insidious pace of long-term weight gain (∼1 lb/y or 0.45 kg/y) makes it difficult to study in trials; long-term prospective cohorts provide crucial evidence on its key contributors. Most previous studies have evaluated how prevalent lifestyle habits relate to future weight gain rather than to lifestyle changes, which may be more temporally and physiologically relevant. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate and compare different methodological approaches for investigating diet, physical activity (PA), and long-term weight gain. Methods: In 3 prospective cohorts (total n = 117,992), we assessed how lifestyle relates to long-term weight change (up to 24 y of follow-up) in 4-y periods by comparing 3 analytic approaches: 1) prevalent diet and PA and 4-y weight change (prevalent analysis); 2) 4-y changes in diet and PA with a 4-y weight change (change analysis); and 3) 4-y change in diet and PA with weight change in the subsequent 4 y (lagged-change analysis). We compared these approaches and evaluated the consistency across cohorts, magnitudes of associations, and biological plausibility of findings. Results: Across the 3 methods, consistent, robust, and biologically plausible associations were seen only for the change analysis. Results for prevalent or lagged-change analyses were less consistent across cohorts, smaller in magnitude, and biologically implausible. For example, for each serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage, the observed weight gain was 0.01 lb (95% CI: -0.08, 0.10) [0.005 kg (95% CI: -0.04, 0.05)] based on prevalent analysis; 0.99 lb (95% CI: 0.83, 1.16) [0.45 kg (95% CI: 0.38, 0.53)] based on change analysis; and 0.05 lb (95% CI: -0.10, 0.21) [0.02 kg (95% CI: -0.05, 0.10)] based on lagged-change analysis. Findings were similar for other foods and PA. Conclusions: Robust, consistent, and biologically plausible relations between lifestyle and long-term weight gain are seen when evaluating lifestyle changes and weight changes in discrete periods rather than in prevalent lifestyle or lagged changes. These findings inform the optimal methods for evaluating lifestyle and long-term weight gain and the potential for bias when other methods are used.
    Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.3945/jn.115.214171 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Jaquelyn L. Jahn · Meir J. Stampfer · Walter C. Willett ·
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    ABSTRACT: The dual burden of obesity and undernutrition is a signi½cant public health challenge worldwide, especially in the context of a changing climate. This essay presents the most recent nutritional evidence for the optimal diet for long-term health, and offers some commentary on how production of these foods affects the environment. Current dietary research supports a diet rich in fruits and vegetables; nuts, legumes, ½sh, and some poultry as protein sources; unsaturated fats replacing saturated fats; whole grains replacing re½ned grain products; dairy foods in low to modest amounts; and minimal amounts of red meat and added sugar. This healthy dietary pattern also supports sustainable agriculture and environmental preservation.
    Daedalus 09/2015; 144(4):31-44. DOI:10.1162/DAED_a_00352 · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is a consistent risk factor for breast cancer, although it is unclear whether the association varies by breast cancer molecular subtype. We investigated associations between cumulative average alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype among 105,972 women in the prospective Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohort, followed from 1980 to 2006. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were defined according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and epidermal growth factor (EGFR) status from immunostained tumor microarrays in combination with histologic grade. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Competing risk analyses were used to assess heterogeneity by subtype. We observed suggestive heterogeneity in associations between alcohol and breast cancer by subtype (phet =0.06). Alcohol consumers had an increased risk of luminal A breast cancers (n=1,628 cases, per 10g/day increment HR (95%CI) =1.10(1.05-1.15)), and an increased risk that was suggestively stronger for HER2-type breast cancer (n=160 cases, HR (95%CI) =1.16(1.02-1.33)). We did not observe statistically significant associations between alcohol and risk of luminal B (n=631 cases, HR (95%CI) =1.08(0.99-1.16)), basal-like (n=254 cases, HR (95%CI) =0.90(0.77-1.04)), or unclassified (n=87 cases, HR (95%CI) =0.90(0.71-1.14)) breast cancer. Alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of luminal A and HER2-type breast cancer, but not significantly associated with other subtypes. Given that estrogen receptors are expressed in luminal A but not in HER2-type tumors, our findings suggest that other mechanisms may play a role in the association between alcohol and breast cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ijc.29861 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer aetiology may differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Associations of alcohol and folate intakes with risk of breast cancer defined by ER status were examined in pooled analyses of the primary data from 20 cohorts. During a maximum of 6-18 years of follow-up of 1 089 273 women, 21 624 ER+ and 5113 ER- breast cancers were identified. Study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and then combined using a random-effects model. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of ER+ and ER- breast cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing ≥ 30 g/d with 0 g/day of alcohol consumption were 1.35 (1.23-1.48) for ER+ and 1.28 (1.10-1.49) for ER- breast cancer (Ptrend ≤ 0.001; Pcommon-effects by ER status: 0.57). Associations were similar for alcohol intake from beer, wine and liquor. The associations with alcohol intake did not vary significantly by total (from foods and supplements) folate intake (Pinteraction ≥ 0.26). Dietary (from foods only) and total folate intakes were not associated with risk of overall, ER+ and ER- breast cancer; pooled multivariable RRs ranged from 0.98 to 1.02 comparing extreme quintiles. Following-up US studies through only the period before mandatory folic acid fortification did not change the results. The alcohol and folate associations did not vary by tumour subtypes defined by progesterone receptor status. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of both ER+ and ER- breast cancer, even among women with high folate intake. Folate intake was not associated with breast cancer risk. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv156 · 9.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association across subsites of the colon and rectum remains uncertain, as does time of consumption in relation to cancer development. As these relationships are key for understanding the pathogenesis of CRC, they were examined in two large cohorts with repeated dietary measures over time, the Nurses' Health Study (n = 87,108 women, 1980-2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 47,389 men, 1986-2010). Cox proportional hazards regression models generated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. In combined cohorts, there were 2,731 CRC cases (1,151 proximal colon, 816 distal colon, and 589 rectum). In pooled analyses, processed red meat was positively associated with CRC risk (per 1 serving/day increase: HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32; P for trend 0.03) and particularly with distal colon cancer (per 1 serving/day increase; HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.69; P for trend 0.006). Recent consumption of processed meat (within the past 4 years) was not associated with distal cancer. Unprocessed red meat was inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer and a weak non-significant positive association between unprocessed red meat and proximal cancer was observed (per 1 serving/day increase: distal HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68-0.82; P for trend <0.001; proximal HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.92-1.40; P for trend 0.22). Thus, in these two large cohorts of US health professionals, processed meat intake was positively associated with risk of CRC, particularly distal cancer, with little evidence that higher intake of unprocessed red meat substantially increased risk of CRC. Future studies, particularly those with sufficient sample size to assess associations by subsites across the colon are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate potentially distinct mechanisms underlying the relationship between processed meat and subtypes of unprocessed red meat with CRC.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0135959. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135959 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Yin Cao · Walter C Willett · Eric B Rimm · Meir J Stampfer · Edward L Giovannucci ·
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify risk of overall cancer across all levels of alcohol consumption among women and men separately, with a focus on light to moderate drinking and never smokers; and assess the influence of drinking patterns on overall cancer risk. Two prospective cohort studies. Health professionals in the United States. 88 084 women and 47 881 men participating in the Nurses' Health Study (from 1980) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (from 1986), followed until 2010. Relative risks of cancer. 19 269 and 7571 (excluding non-advanced prostate cancers) incident cancers were documented among women and men, respectively, over 3 144 853 person years. Compared with non-drinkers, light to moderate drinkers had relative risks of total cancer of 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.06) and 1.04 (1.00 to 1.09; Ptrend=0.12) for alcohol intake of 0.1-4.9 and 5-14.9 g/day among women, respectively. Corresponding values for men were 1.03 (0.96 to 1.11), 1.05 (0.97 to 1.12), and 1.06 (0.98 to 1.15; Ptrend=0.31) for alcohol intake of 0.1-4.9, 5-14.9, and 15-29.9 g/day, respectively. Associations for light to moderate drinking and total cancer were similar among ever or never smokers, although alcohol consumption above moderate levels (in particular ≥30 g/day) was more strongly associated with risk of total cancer among ever smokers than never smokers. For a priori defined alcohol related cancers in men, risk was not appreciably increased for light and moderate drinkers who never smoked (Ptrend=0.18). However, for women, even an alcohol consumption of 5-14.9 g/day was associated with increased risk of alcohol related cancer (relative risk 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.20)), driven by breast cancer. More frequent and heavy episodic drinking was not further associated with risk of total cancer after adjusting for total alcohol intake. Light to moderate drinking is associated with minimally increased risk of overall cancer. For men who have never smoked, risk of alcohol related cancers is not appreciably increased for light and moderate drinking (up to two drinks per day). However, for women who have never smoked, risk of alcohol related cancers (mainly breast cancer) increases even within the range of up to one alcoholic drink a day. © Cao et al 2015.
    BMJ (online) 08/2015; 351. DOI:10.1136/bmj.h4238 · 17.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies have demonstrated increased colon cancer recurrence in states of relative hyperinsulinemia, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and increased dietary glycemic load. Greater coffee consumption has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased insulin sensitivity. The effect of coffee on colon cancer recurrence and survival is unknown. During and 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy, 953 patients with stage III colon cancer prospectively reported dietary intake of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and nonherbal tea, as well as 128 other items. We examined the influence of coffee, nonherbal tea, and caffeine on cancer recurrence and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. Patients consuming 4 cups/d or more of total coffee experienced an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for colon cancer recurrence or mortality of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.99), compared with never drinkers (Ptrend = .002). Patients consuming 4 cups/d or more of caffeinated coffee experienced significantly reduced cancer recurrence or mortality risk compared with abstainers (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.91; Ptrend = .002), and increasing caffeine intake also conferred a significant reduction in cancer recurrence or mortality (HR, 0.66 across extreme quintiles; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.93; Ptrend = .006). Nonherbal tea and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with patient outcome. The association of total coffee intake with improved outcomes seemed consistent across other predictors of cancer recurrence and mortality. Higher coffee intake may be associated with significantly reduced cancer recurrence and death in patients with stage III colon cancer. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2015; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2015.61.5062 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Citrus products are widely consumed foods that are rich in psoralens/ furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals with potential photocarcinogenic properties. We prospectively evaluated the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma associated with citrus consumption. Methods A total of 63,810 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 41,622 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) were included. Dietary information was repeated assessed every 2-4 years during the follow-up. Incident melanoma cases were identified through self-report and confirmed by pathological records. Results Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 1,840 incident melanomas. After adjustment for other risk factors, the pooled multivariable hazard ratios for melanoma were 1.00 for overall citrus consumption of less than twice per week (reference), 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.30)] for two to four times per week, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08-1.47) for five to six times per week, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.09-1.49) for once to 1.5 times per day, and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14-1.63) for 1.6 or more times per day (Ptrend<0.001). Among the individual citrus products, grapefruit showed the most apparent association with risk of melanoma, which was independent of other lifestyle and dietary factors. The pooled multivariable hazard ratios for melanoma comparing the extreme consumption categories of grapefruit (three times or more per week vs. never) was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.10-1.82) (Ptrend<0.001). Conclusion Citrus consumption was associated with an increased risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in two cohorts of women and men. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and explore related health implications.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2015; 33(23):2500-2508. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.4111 · 18.43 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):1885-1885. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-1885 · 9.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
2,929.38 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Division of Nephrology
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2014-2015
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Tufts University
      Бостон, Georgia, United States
  • 2001-2015
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Channing Division of Network Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994-2015
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1984-2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Nutrition
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Epidemiology & Population Health
      New York City, NY, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of General Internal Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Carolina Population Center
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1998
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
  • 1986
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1983
    • University of Missouri
      Columbia, Missouri, United States

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