[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secreted membrane-enclosed vesicles, collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes, ectosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, apoptotic bodies and other EV subsets, encompass a very rapidly growing scientific field in biology and medicine. Importantly, it is currently technically challenging to obtain a totally pure EV fraction free from non-vesicular components for functional studies, and therefore there is a need to establish guidelines for analyses of these vesicles and reporting of scientific studies on EV biology. Here, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) provides researchers with a minimal set of biochemical, biophysical and functional standards that should be used to attribute any specific biological cargo or functions to EVs.
Journal of extracellular vesicles. 12/2014; 3:26913.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting specific molecular alterations in glioblastoma (GBM) might more effectively kill tumor cells and increase survival. Vandetanib inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. Sirolimus inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a member the phosphoinositide 3-Kinase signaling pathway. We sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of vandetanib combined with sirolimus. Twenty-two patients (14 men; 8 women) with recurrent GBM enrolled. Median age and KPS were 52.5 years and 90 %, respectively. Patients were naive to anti-VEGF and anti-EGF therapy and mTOR inhibitors, and not on CYP3A4-inducing drugs. Vandetanib and sirolimus were orally administered on a continuous daily dosing schedule in escalating dose cohorts. Ten patients enrolled in the dose escalation phase. Twelve more enrolled at the MTD to explore progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS6) in a single arm, single stage phase II-type design. In total, 19 patients received at least one dose at the MTD, and 15 completed at least 1 cycle at MTD. MTD was 200 mg vandetanib plus 2 mg sirolimus. The DLT was elevated AST/SGOT. The most common toxicities were lymphopenia, fatigue, rash, and hypophosphatemia. For 19 patients who received at least one dose at the MTD, including seven from the phase I group, two had a partial response [10.5 %; 95 % CI (1, 33 %)] and PFS6 was 15.8 % [95 % CI (3.9, 34.9 %)]. Vandetanib and sirolimus can be safely co-administered on a continuous, daily dosing schedule.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 12/2014; 121(3). · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Central nervous system infiltration of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is referred to as Bing-Neel Syndrome. We describe 2 patients whose clinical presentation was due to isolated involvement of the anterior visual pathways. The mechanism of visual failure in Bing-Neel Syndrome may involve both infiltrative and autoimmune processes.
Journal of neuro-ophthalmology: the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society 12/2014; 34(4):340-5. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour-specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory-driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioma is the most common brain tumor. For the more aggressive form, glioblastoma, standard treatment includes surgical resection, irradiation with adjuvant temozolomide and, on recurrence, experimental chemotherapy. However, the survival of patients remains poor. There is a critical need for minimally invasive biomarkers for diagnosis and as measures of response to therapeutic interventions. Glioma shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), which invade the surrounding tissue and circulate within both the cerebrospinal fluid and the systemic circulation. These tumor-derived EVs and their content serve as an attractive source of biomarkers. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of biomarkers for glioma with emphasis on their EV derivation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in cancer, including by conveying tumor-promoting microRNAs between cells, but their regulation is poorly understood. In this study, we report the findings of a comparative microRNA profiling and functional analysis in human glioblastoma (GBM) that identifies miR-1 as an orchestrator of EV function and GBM growth and invasion. Ectopic expression of miR-1 in GBM cells blocked in vivo growth, neovascularization and invasiveness. These effects were associated with a role for miR-1 in intercellular communication in the microenvironment mediated by EVs released by cancer stem-like GBM cells. An EV-dependent phenotype defined by GBM invasion, neurosphere growth and endothelial tube formation was mitigated by loading miR-1 into GBM-derived EVs. Protein cargo in EVs was characterized to learn how miR-1 directed EV function. The mRNA encoding Annexin A2 (ANXA2), one of the most abundant proteins in GBM-derived EVs, was found to be a direct target of miR-1 control. In addition, EV-derived miR-1 along with other ANXA2 EV networking partners targeted multiple pro-oncogenic signals in cells within the GBM microenvironment. Together, our results showed how EV signalling promotes the malignant character of GBM and how ectopic expression of miR-1 can mitigate this character, with possible implications for how to develop a unique miRNA-based therapy for GBM management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiangiogenic therapy has shown clear activity and improved survival benefit for certain tumor types. However, an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action of antiangiogenic agents has hindered optimization and broader application of this new therapeutic modality. In particular, the impact of antiangiogenic therapy on tumor blood flow and oxygenation status (i.e., the role of vessel pruning versus normalization) remains controversial. This controversy has become critical as multiple phase III trials of anti-VEGF agents combined with cytotoxics failed to show overall survival benefit in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (nGBM) patients and several other cancers. Here, we shed light on mechanisms of nGBM response to cediranib, a pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, using MRI techniques and blood biomarkers in prospective phase II clinical trials of cediranib with chemoradiation vs. chemoradiation alone in nGBM patients. We demonstrate that improved perfusion occurs only in a subset of patients in cediranib-containing regimens, and is associated with improved overall survival in these nGBM patients. Moreover, an increase in perfusion is associated with improved tumor oxygenation status as well as with pharmacodynamic biomarkers, such as changes in plasma placenta growth factor and sVEGFR2. Finally, treatment resistance was associated with elevated plasma IL-8 and sVEGFR1 posttherapy. In conclusion, tumor perfusion changes after antiangiogenic therapy may distinguish responders vs. nonresponders early in the course of this expensive and potentially toxic form of therapy, and these results may provide new insight into the selection of glioblastoma patients most likely to benefit from anti-VEGF treatments.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma cells secrete extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs (miRNAs). Analysis of these EV miRNAs in the bio-fluids of afflicted patients represents a potential platform for biomarker development. However, the analytic algorithm for quantitative assessment of EV miRNA remains under-developed. Here, we demonstrate that the reference transcripts commonly used for quantitative PCR (including GAPDH, 18S rRNA, and hsa-miR-103) were unreliable for assessing EV miRNA. In this context, we quantitated EV miRNA in absolute terms and normalized this value to the input EV number. Using this method, we examined the abundance of miR-21, a highly over-expressed miRNA in glioblastomas, in EVs. In a panel of glioblastoma cell lines, the cellular levels of miR-21 correlated with EV miR-21 levels (p<0.05), suggesting that glioblastoma cells actively secrete EVs containing miR-21. Consistent with this hypothesis, the CSF EV miR-21 levels of glioblastoma patients (n=13) were, on average, ten-fold higher than levels in EVs isolated from the CSF of non-oncologic patients (n=13, p<0.001). Notably, none of the glioblastoma CSF harbored EV miR-21 level below 0.25 copies per EV in this cohort. Using this cut-off value, we were able to prospectively distinguish CSF derived from glioblastoma and non-oncologic patients in an independent cohort of twenty-nine patients (Sensitivity=87%; Specificity=93%; AUC=0.91, p<0.01). Our results suggest that CSF EV miRNA analysis of miR-21 may serve as a platform for glioblastoma biomarker development.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78115. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of biofluid-based molecular diagnostic tests for cancer is an important step towards tumor characterization and real-time monitoring in a minimally invasive fashion. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from tumor cells into body fluids and can provide a powerful platform for tumor biomarkers because they carry tumor proteins and nucleic acids. Detecting rare point mutations in the background of wild-type sequences in biofluids such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains a major challenge. Techniques such as BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, magnetics) PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) are substantially more sensitive than many other assays for mutant sequence detection. Here, we describe a novel approach that combines biofluid EV RNA and BEAMing RT-PCR (EV-BEAMing), as well droplet digital PCR to interrogate mutations from glioma tumors. EVs from CSF of patients with glioma were shown to contain mutant IDH1 transcripts, and we were able to reliably detect and quantify mutant and wild-type IDH1 RNA transcripts in CSF of patients with gliomas. EV-BEAMing and EV-ddPCR represent a valuable new strategy for cancer diagnostics, which can be applied to a variety of biofluids and neoplasms.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e109; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.28; published online 23 July 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of metastatic brain lesions remains a central challenge in oncology. Because most chemotherapeutic agents do not effectively cross the blood-brain barrier, it is widely accepted that radiation remains the primary modality of treatment. The mode by which radiation should be delivered has, however, become a source of intense controversy in recent years. The controversy involves whether patients with a limited number of brain metastases should undergo whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivered only to the radiographically visible tumours. Survival is comparable for patients treated with either modality. Instead, the controversy involves the neurocognitive function (NCF) of radiating cerebrum that appeared radiographically normal relative to effects of the growth from micro-metastatic foci. A fundamental question in this debate involves quantifying the effect of WBRT in patients with cerebral metastasis. To disentangle the effects of WBRT on neurocognition from the effects inherent to the underlying disease, we analysed the results from randomised controlled studies of prophylactic cranial irradiation in oncology patients as well as studies where patients with limited cerebral metastasis were randomised to SRS versus SRS+WBRT. In aggregate, these results suggest deleterious effects of WBRT in select neurocognitive domains. However, there are insufficient data to resolve the controversy of upfront WBRT versus SRS in the management of patients with limited cerebral metastases.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 05/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Object The authors' goal was to review the current understanding of the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in low-grade glioma development and how these mechanisms can be targets for detection and treatment of the disease and its recurrence. Methods On October 4, 2012, the authors convened a meeting of researchers and clinicians across a variety of pertinent medical specialties to review the state of current knowledge on molecular genetic mechanisms of low-grade gliomas and to identify areas for further research and drug development. Results The meeting consisted of 3 scientific sessions ranging from neuropathology of IDH1 mutations; CIC, ATRX, and FUBP1 mutations in oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas; and IDH1 mutations as therapeutic targets. Sessions consisted of a total of 10 talks by international leaders in low-grade glioma research, mutant IDH1 biology and its application in glioma research, and treatment. Conclusions The recent discovery of recurrent gene mutations in low-grade glioma has increased the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in a host of biological activities related to low-grade gliomas. Understanding the role these genetic alterations play in brain cancer initiation and progression will help lead to the development of novel treatment modalities than can be personalized to each patient, thereby helping transform this now often-fatal malignancy into a chronic or even curable disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA) and extracellular vesicles (EV) has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) in New York City in October 2012. As part of the "ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA)", 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery that tumor-derived proteins and nucleic acids can be detected in nano-sized vesicles in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients afflicted with brain tumors has expanded opportunities for biomarker and therapeutic discovery. Through delivery of their contents to surrounding cells, exosomes, microvesicles and other nano-sized extra-cellular vesicles secreted by tumors modulate their environment as to promote tumor growth and survival. In this review, we discuss the biologic processes mediated by these extra-cellular vesicles as well as their applications in terms of brain tumor diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy. We review the normal physiology of these extra-cellular vesicles, their pertinence to tumor biology, and directions for research in this field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gimatecan is a lipophilic oral camptothecin analogue with preclinical activity in glioma models. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy of gimatecan in adults with recurrent glioblastoma. Eligibility criteria included ≤1 prior treatment for recurrent disease, age ≥18, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, and normal organ function. Patients taking enzyme-inducing anti-seizure medications were excluded. Gimatecan 1.22 mg/m(2) was given orally once daily for 5 consecutive days during each 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 6 months. A Simon 2-stage optimal design was used in which 19 patients were evaluated in the 1st stage, with an additional 36 patients accrued if >4 patients in stage 1 achieved PFS at 6 months. 29 patients were enrolled in the study, with median age of 58 years (range, 25-77 years); 58.6 % female. All patients received prior surgery, radiation therapy, and at least one chemotherapy regimen. The daily dose was reduced to 1.0 mg/m(2) after four of the first 10 patients experienced grade 4 hematologic toxicity. Treatment-related grade 3/4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (17.2 %), leukopenia (17.2 %) and neutropenia (10.3 %). None of the 19 patients treated at 1.0 mg/m(2)/day experienced grade 4 hematologic toxicity. One patient had a partial radiographic response by modified Macdonald criteria. Only 3 patients (12 %) were progression-free at 6 months. Median time to progression was 12.0 weeks (7.0, 17.0).Treatment with gimatecan 1.0 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days, repeated every 28-days showed minimal efficacy.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 12/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas shed large quantities of small, membrane-bound microvesicles into the circulation. Although these hold promise as potential biomarkers of therapeutic response, their identification and quantification remain challenging. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and rapid analytical technique for profiling circulating microvesicles directly from blood samples of patients with glioblastoma. Microvesicles, introduced onto a dedicated microfluidic chip, are labeled with target-specific magnetic nanoparticles and detected by a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance system. Compared with current methods, this integrated system has a much higher detection sensitivity and can differentiate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) microvesicles from nontumor host cell-derived microvesicles. We also show that circulating GBM microvesicles can be used to analyze primary tumor mutations and as a predictive metric of treatment-induced changes. This platform could provide both an early indicator of drug efficacy and a potential molecular stratifier for human clinical trials.