[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beauvericin, a cyclohexadepsipeptide-possessing natural product with synergistic antifungal, insecticidal, and cytotoxic activities. We isolated and characterized the fpBeas gene cluster, devoted to beauvericin biosynthesis, from the filamentous fungus Fusarium proliferatum LF061. Targeted inactivation of the F. proliferatum genomic copy of fpBeas abolished the production of beauvericin. Comparative sequence analysis of the FpBEAS showed 74% similarity with the BbBEAS that synthesizes the cyclic trimeric ester beauvericin in Beauveria bassiana, which assembles N-methyl-dipeptidol monomer intermediates by the programmed iterative use of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules. Differences between the organization of the beauvericin loci in F. proliferaturm and B. bassiana revealed the mechanism for high production of beauvericin in F. proliferatum. Our work provides new insights into beauvericin biosynthesis, and may lead to beauvericin overproduction and creation of new analogs via synthetic biology approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ketoisovalerate reductase (EC 22.214.171.124 ) is required for the formation of beauvericin via the nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic pathway. It catalyzes the NADPH-specific reduction of ketoisovaleric acid to hydroxyisovalerate. However, little is known about the bioinformatics' data about the 2-Kiv reductase in Fusarium. To date, heterologous production of the gene KivRFp from Fusarium has not been achieved.
The KivRFp gene was subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pET expression system. The gene KivRFp contained a 1,359 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that it showed 61% and 52% amino acid identities to ketoisovalerate reductase from Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 (ACI30654) and Metarhizium acridum CQMa 102 (EFY89891), respectively; and several conserved regions were identified, including the putative nucleotide-binding signature site, GXGXXG, a catalytic triad (Glu405, Asn184, and Lys285). The KivRFp exhibited the highest activity at 35°C and pH 7.5 respectively, by reduction of ketoisovalerate. It also exhibited the high level of stability over wide temperature and pH spectra and in the presence of metal ions or detergents.
A new ketoisovalerate reductase KivRFp was identified and characterized from the depsipeptide-producing fungus F. proliferatum. KivRFp has been shown to have useful properties, such as moderate thermal stability and broad pH optima, and may serve as the starting points for future protein engineering and directed evolution, towards the goal of developing efficient enzyme for downstream biotechnological applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are potent against a broad spectrum of nematode and arthropod parasites with low-level side effects on the host organisms. This study was designed to investigate a high-throughput screening strategy for the efficient identification of avermectin high-yield strains. The production protocol was miniaturized in 96 deep-well microplates. UV absorbance at 245 nm was used to monitor avermectin production. A good correlation between fermentation results in both 96 deep-well microplates and conventional Erlenmeyer flasks was observed. With this protocol, the production of avermectins was determined in less than 10 min for a full plate without compromising accuracy. The high-yield strain selected through this protocol was also tested in 360 m(3) batch fermentation with 1.6-fold improved outcome. Thus, the development of this protocol is expected to accelerate the selection of superior avermectin-producing strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the composition of medium for the production of avermectin B1a by Streptomyces avermitilis 14-12A in shaker flask cultivation. Corn starch and yeast extract were found to have significant effects on avermectin B1a production by the Plackett-Burman design. The steepest ascent method was used to access the optimal region of the medium composition, followed by an application of response surface. The analysis revealed that the optimum values of the tested variables were 149.57 g/l corn starch and 8.92 g/l yeast extract. A production of 5128 mg/l, which was in agreement with the prediction, was observed in verification experiment. In comparison to the production of original level (3528 mg/l), 1.45-fold increase had been obtained.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high mortality rate of immunocompromised patients with fungal infections and the limited availability of highly efficacious and safe agents demand the development of new antifungal therapeutics. To rapidly discover such agents, we developed a high-throughput synergy screening (HTSS) strategy for novel microbial natural products. Specifically, a microbial natural product library was screened for hits that synergize the effect of a low dosage of ketoconazole (KTC) that alone shows little detectable fungicidal activity. Through screening of approximately 20,000 microbial extracts, 12 hits were identified with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Seven of them showed little cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells. Fractionation of the active extracts revealed beauvericin (BEA) as the most potent component, because it dramatically synergized KTC activity against diverse fungal pathogens by a checkerboard assay. Significantly, in our immunocompromised mouse model, combinations of BEA (0.5 mg/kg) and KTC (0.5 mg/kg) prolonged survival of the host infected with Candida parapsilosis and reduced fungal colony counts in animal organs including kidneys, lungs, and brains. Such an effect was not achieved even with the high dose of 50 mg/kg KTC. These data support synergism between BEA and KTC and thereby a prospective strategy for antifungal therapy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(11):4606-11. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0609370104 · 9.67 Impact Factor