[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive), we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97–74.9), followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05–9.39) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11–3.34). Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515–18.28), but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082–0.317). HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%), 3 (12.8%), and 2 (5.6%). In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and .90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs., et al. (2014) Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Injection Drug Users with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection. PLoS ONE 9(4): e94791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094791 Copyright: ß 2014 Hsieh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding:english/index.aspx). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The co-author Ming-Lung Yu is a PLOS ONE Editorial Board member. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE editorial policies and criteria. The co-authors Ming-Lung Yu and Wan-Long Chuang are members of the advisory board of Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD), Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Abbott. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue is becoming recognized as one of the most important vector-borne human diseases. It is predominant in tropical and subtropical zones but its geographical distribution is progressively expanding, making it an escalating global health problem of today. Dengue presents with spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, undifferentiated mild fever, dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with or without shock (DSS), a life-threatening illness characterized by plasma leakage due to increased vascular permeability. Currently, there are no antiviral modalities or vaccines available to treat and prevent dengue. Supportive care with close monitoring is the standard clinical practice. The mechanisms leading to DHF/DSS remains poorly understood. Multiple factors have been attributed to the pathological mechanism, but only a couple of these hypotheses are popular in scientific circles. The current discussion focuses on underappreciated factors, temperature, natural IgM, and endotoxin, which may be critical components playing roles in dengue pathogenesis.
Journal of Biomedical Science 12/2013; 20(1):88. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infects all age groups and causes bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with a significant mortality rate. To date, only ribavirin has been used to manage HRSV infection. However, ribavirin is expensive with an only modest effect. Furthermore, ribavirin has several side effects, which means it has limited clinical benefit. Pueraria lobata Ohwi (P. lobata) is a common ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to) and Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (Shoma-kakkon-to), which are prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine proven to have antiviral activity against HRSV. Therefore, it was hypothesized that P. lobata might be effective against HRSV. To find a cost-effective therapeutic modality, both human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines were used to test the hypothesis that P. lobata could inhibit HRSV-induced plaque formation. Results showed that the water extract of P. lobata was effective (p < 0.0001) against HRSV-induced plaque formation. P. lobata was more effective when given prior to viral inoculation (p < 0.0001) by inhibiting viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and penetration (p < 0.0001). However, supplementation with P. lobata could not stimulate interferon secretion after HRSV infection. In conclusion, P. lobata has antiviral activity against HRSV-induced plaque formation in airway mucosa mainly by inhibiting viral attachment and internalization. Further identification of effective constituents could contribute to the prevention of HRSV infection.
The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 12/2013; 29(12):651-7. · 0.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important issue for individuals who live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, the prevalence rate of CKD varies between countries.
The present study screened HIV-infected patients in a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan from January 2008 to December 2012. CKD was defined as a urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, and/or a protein ≥1 + on urine dipstick examination, and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months. The prevalence rate and the analyzed associated factors of CKD were determined.
Among 1639 HIV-infected patients, only 512 had adequate data to be enrolled in the study. Thirty-six (7.03%) of these patients had CKD, and 476 did not. In a univariate analysis, CKD was associated with an older age, a higher peak HIV RNA load, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, exposure to antiretroviral therapy, and cholesterol levels ≥240 mg/dL. Multivariate analysis revealed that DM, hypertension, and cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL were statistically significant factors.
In Taiwan, the prevalence of CKD in HIV-infected patients was low (7.03%). The classical risk factors for CKD, such as DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, were demonstrated to be associated with CKD in Taiwanese HIV-infected patients.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 10/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue infection can be associated with secondary infections which may be challenging to recognize due to the overlap with the symptoms of dengue infection. We report here the case of a 48 year old Chinese female with dengue fever with a fatal secondary bacterial infection due to Enterococcus faecium.
The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 07/2013; 44(4):623-9. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The continuing threat of dengue fever necessitates a comprehensive characterisation of its epidemiological trends. Phylogenetic and recombination events were reconstructed based on 100 worldwide dengue virus (DENV) type 1 genome sequences with an outgroup (prototypes of DENV2-4). The phylodynamic characteristics and site-specific variation were then analysed using data without the outgroup. Five genotypes (GI-GV) and a ladder-like structure with short terminal branch topology were observed in this study. Apparently, the transmission of DENV1 was geographically random before gradual localising with human activity as GI-GIII in South Asia, GIV in the South Pacific, and GV in the Americas. Genotypes IV and V have recently shown higher population densities compared to older genotypes. All codon regions and all tree branches were skewed toward a negative selection, which indicated that their variation was restricted by protein function. Notably, multi-epistatic interaction sites were found in both PrM 221 and NS3 1730. Recombination events accumulated in regions E, NS3-NS4A, and particularly in region NS5. The estimated coevolution pattern also highlights the need for further study of the biological role of protein PrM 221 and NS3 1730. The recent transmission of emergent GV sublineages into Central America and Europe mandates closely monitoring of genotype interaction and succession.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74165. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical information regarding murine typhus in Taiwan is limited. In this study, 81 cases of serologically documented murine typhus during 1992-2009 at four referral hospitals in southern Taiwan were analyzed. There was a significant correlation between average environmental temperature and case numbers of murine typhus (r = 0.747, P = 0.005). Acute hepatitis was found in 67% of cases, and hyperbilirubinemia (serum total bilirubin ≥ 23.9 μmol/L) was found in 38%. The intervals between the initiation of appropriate therapy to defervescence were longer in patients with hyperbilirubinemia than those without hyperbilirubinemia (6.1 versus 4.1 days; P = 0.015). Nine (11.1%) showed development of severe illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (2 patients), aseptic meningitis (3), and acute renal failure (4). Only one died of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cases of murine typhus were often found during the summer and had acute febrile hepatitis. Those patients with hyperbilirubinemia tended to have a delayed recovery even with appropriate therapy.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2012; 87(1):141-7. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DV) is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world. It causes a disease that manifests as a spectrum of clinical symptoms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. DV is proficient at diverting the immune system to facilitate transmission through its vector host, Aedes spp. mosquito. Similar to other vector-borne parasites, dengue may also require a second structural form, a virus of alternative morphology (VAM), to complete its life cycle. DV can replicate to high copy numbers in patient plasma, but no classical viral particles can be detected by ultra-structural microscopy analysis. A VAM appearing as a microparticle has been recapitulated with in vitro cell lines Meg01 and K562, close relatives to the cells harboring dengue virus in vivo. VAMs are likely to contribute to the high viremia levels observed in dengue patients. This review discusses the possible existence of a VAM in the DV life cycle.
The Yale journal of biology and medicine 03/2012; 85(1):3-18.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scientific investigations designed to better understand and assess the distinguishing clinical characteristics pave the way to a successful treatment for a disease. Since the peripheral blood is obtained easily, the most frequent type of investigation performed on infectious agents focuses on the hematological components of blood drawn from patients. Bone marrow aspirates, although somewhat more difficult to obtain, should be evaluated more frequently because they provide additional information, giving us a glimpse into the development of the disease. Understanding the distinct and unique changes in hematological components of the bone marrow induced by a particular pathogen or corresponding to a specific illness may be a valuable asset for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. A good example of a pathogen that could be better evaluated with greater knowledge of the bone marrow is dengue, one of the most important public vector-borne human diseases. Owing to the multitude of clinical manifestations and the dynamic alterations of various blood components over time, this disease is one of the most difficult to prevent and treat in humans. Although large amounts of data have been generated in the literature, there remains a large gap between this information and its relevance for the purpose of patient care. While evaluating the cellular components in the circulated blood from ill patients provides us with valuable information about the pathogenesis of various pathogens, there are other players participating in the progression to disease. The goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells in disease and to inspire other researchers to incorporate them into their investigations on dengue pathogenesis. It is anticipated that the knowledge derived from these investigations not only elicit original concepts on the pathogenesis of dengue but also foster a new way of thinking in terms of vaccine or therapeutic development to prevent and treat dengue.
Therapeutic advances in hematology. 02/2012; 3(1):59-71.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue is a timing disease, and frequently dengue patients do not seek help until 2-3 days after prodrome. Thus, the innate immune parameters in dengue patients remain largely unexplored. A comprehensive FACS profiling of key innate immune cells in the peripheral blood of dengue patients was performed. Twenty-seven dengue patients varying in days of fever onset were enrolled and the majority of them had primary infection based on serological results. FACS panels were used to evaluate NK cells, platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA), inflammatory monocytes, and plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid dendritic cells (mDC). FACS results showed the following findings: (i) NK cells significantly dropped on day 5 after the onset of fever and gradually returned to normal within 2 weeks of illness; (ii) biphasic PLA were observed, maximum levels were reached on days 6-8 and 11-16, and platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA) were the most frequent event; (iii) inflammatory monocytes were consistently lower on days 5-8 and gradually returned to the normal level in the second week of illness, and (iv) pDC reached the maximum level on day 5 and gradually declined to the baseline level after 1 week of illness. In contrast, mDC fluctuated somewhat during the first week of illness and returned to the baseline level in the second week of illness. The most interesting finding was the biphasic PLA, in particular the PMA. These innate immunological parameters could be a crucial factor dictating the complicated pathogenesis of dengue disease.
Journal of Innate Immunity 02/2011; 3(5):530-40. · 4.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to examine unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and associated factors among inmates using intravenous heroin in Taiwan. A total of 315 inmates using intravenous heroin were recruited. Their unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT after discharge from prison were evaluated using the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale. The associations of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT with sociodemographic and drug-using characteristics, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression were examined using multiple regression analysis. The results of this study showed that the mean score of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT, determined on the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale, was 9.918 (standard deviation=2.277, range=5-20). Heroin-using inmates who were young, started using heroin earlier, perceived many advantages and few disadvantages of heroin use, had never received MMT, and had severe depression, had unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that inmates who have the factors associated with unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT should receive intervention and motivational interviewing to improve their attitudes toward MMT and to increase their opportunity to receive MMT after discharge from prison.
The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 01/2011; 27(1):25-31. · 0.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia.
The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 05/2010; 26(5):256-60. · 0.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue fever is an important public health problem in Southern Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop a dengue scoring system using a three-stage process, which may be used as a guidance tool for the early diagnosis of dengue fever.
A retrospective study was conducted to identify factors useful for the early diagnosis of dengue fever. We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 89 adult patients with dengue from 2002 to 2004 at a community-based hospital. They were compared with 14 patients with scrub typhus, 104 with Q fever, and 35 with murine typhus, which might present similar symptoms and signs as dengue infection. A scoring system was designed after analysis of the retrospective study and with the assistance of 10 expert clinicians. For the second stage, we evaluated efficiency in differentiating dengue fever from Q fever, scrub typhus and murine typhus in three hospitals from 2002 to 2005. For the third stage, we prospectively used the dengue scoring system for 498 cases that clinically were suspected as having dengue infection in the city of Kaohsiung from January 2006 to September 2006.
The performance of the scoring system was 88.1% sensitivity, 94.9% specificity, 95.7% positive predictive value (PPV), and 86.1% negative predictive value (NPV). Evaluation of the scoring system at the third stage revealed 90.7% sensitivity, 86.9% specificity, 81.4% PPV, and 93.6% NPV.
The dengue scoring system had a high NPV that might be helpful in the early diagnosis of dengue fever in adults before laboratory data are available.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 11/2009; 108(11):879-85. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emphysematous urinary tract infection (EUTI) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt evaluation and management. This study was conducted to ascertain the clinical features and prognostic factors of EUTI.
Patients diagnosed with EUTI radiologically and treated at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, from March 2001 to February 2007 were evaluated. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.
Of 31 patients enrolled, 16 had emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) and 15 had emphysematous cystitis (EC) classified according to the imaging findings. The symptoms and signs of fever, chills, flank pain, and percussion tenderness at the costovertebral angle were significantly greater among patients in the EP group than in the EC group (p = 0.029, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the initial laboratory data except for C-reactive protein between the 2 groups (220.4 microg/mL vs 91.4 microg/mL; p = 0.001). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism. The overall mortality rate was similar in both groups. Significant differences in renal function and hematuria were seen between the patients who died and the survivors in the EP group (p = 0.004 and p = 0.027, respectively), but these were not noted in the EC group.
There was no significant clinical feature suggesting the presence of EC. The clinical features of EP were similar to uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Impaired renal function and hematuria were poor prognostic factors for patients with EP, but not for patients with EC.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 10/2009; 42(5):393-400. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the impact of nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program on the seroprevalence of HBV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons in a country where most HBV exposure occurs during the perinatal period or in early childhood.
Data on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBV surface (anti-HBs), anti-HBV core (anti-HBc), and anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) antibody were retrospectively collected from 3,164 HIV-positive and 2,594 HIV-negative persons between 2004 and 2007. Comparisons of serological markers of HBV and HCV were made between HIV-positive and -negative adults born before and after the implementation of the HBV vaccination program in Taiwan in July 1984.
Compared with HIV-negative persons, the adjusted odds ratio for HBsAg seropositivity was 1.100 (95% confidence interval, 0.921-1.315) among HIV-positive persons. Although the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody remained similar between HIV-positive persons born before and those born after 1984, the seroprevalence of HBsAg declined from 20.3 to 3.3% in HIV-positive persons (P<0.001) and from 15.5 to 8.5% in HIV-negative persons (P<0.001). Despite the high seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody (97.1%) in HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs), there was no statistically significant difference in the seroprevalence of HBsAg (5.6% vs. 8.5%, P=0.75) or anti-HBc antibody (40.7% vs. 27.9%, P=0.14) between HIV-positive IDUs and HIV-negative persons who were born after 1984.
Our study showed a significant decline of seroprevalence of HBV infection among both HIV-negative and -positive persons who were born in the era of the nationwide HBV vaccination in Taiwan.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2009; 104(4):877-84. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause brain encephalitis and mortality. However, effective vaccines or chemotherapeutic agents are not yet available. We tested the hypothesis that Pueraria lobata could inhibit the cytotoxic effect of EV71 in a human foreskin fibroblast cell line by the XTT method. Our results showed that the water extract of P. lobata could inhibit cytopathy induced by EV71 when given before (p < 0.0001), simultaneously with (p < 0.0001), or after viral infection (p < 0.0001). Water extract of P. lobata was effective and its minimal concentration that inhibited 50% of the cytopathic effect (IC50) was 0.028 microg/mL. P. lobata was also safe with a selectivity index greater than 107,000. Water extract of P. lobata appeared to inhibit viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and penetration (p < 0.0001). The anti-EV71 activity of the water extract of P. lobata was not mediated by interferons. In conclusion, the water extract of P. lobata was effective in the management of the disease induced by EV71 infection.
The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 10/2008; 24(10):523-30. · 0.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the 2002 dengue outbreak in Taiwan, some fatal cases had the underlying disease of renal failure (RF). Physicians faced difficulty in diagnosis and treatment of these patients; however, the impacts of RF on the clinical presentations and outcomes of dengue infection have not been reported previously.
A retrospective review was conducted of medical records, clinical presentations, laboratory findings, and underlying diseases for all cases of dengue infection in a medical center. Characteristics and outcomes of dengue-infected patients with and without RF were compared.
From January 2002 through January 2003, 519 dengue-infected patients were enrolled, including 412 patients with classical dengue fever (DF) and 107 patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Twelve patients died in this outbreak, and all had DHF/DSS. Twenty-one (4.0%) patients were defined as being in the RF group. The RF group had a higher mortality rate than non-RF group (28.6 versus 1.2%; P < 0.001). The severity of GFR impairment was associated with higher percentages of DHF/DSS (P = 0.029) and mortality (P < 0.001). Differences in symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities between DF and DHF/DSS were significant in the non-RF group but not apparent in the RF group.
The diagnosis and management of dengue infection among patients with RF must be cautious, because complicated clinical courses with a higher mortality rate were well observed.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2008; 3(5):1350-6. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of an adult with dengue hemorrhagic fever who developed acute idiopathic scrotal edema and glove-and-stocking polyneuropathy. A 54-year-old man who had fever, chills, bone pain, and skin rash for 4 days was admitted. We diagnosed dengue hemorrhagic fever because of fever, gum bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration, and confirmed the diagnosis by serology. The patient had scrotal and penile edema and distal limb numbness with a glove-and-stocking distribution. After supportive care, the scrotal edema and other symptoms subsided. Patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever may develop scrotal edema caused by plasma leakage.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2008; 78(1):8-10. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genitourinary tuberculosis is the second most common disease form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. This study analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcome in 31 patients with genitourinary tuberculosis treated between 1994 and 2004 at a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan.
Data were collected by chart review. Diagnosis was based on microbiological or histological proof plus compatible radiographic findings and clinical presentation.
This study included 14 men (45%) and 17 women (55%). Their ages ranged from 31 to 81 years (mean, 58.1 years). Genitourinary symptoms (83.9%) were more frequent than constitutional symptoms (35.5%). Pyuria plus hematuria with sterile culture (51.6%) was the most common finding. Only 25.8% of patients had a known history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis was based on microbiological findings in 11 patients (35.5%), and by histological findings in 20 (64.5%) patients. Intravenous pyelography revealed abnormalities in 94% of patients and renal ultrasonography in 79.2%. Imaging studies were characteristic of advanced stage in most patients. Twenty-five percent of patients were classified as having treatment failure after at least 6 months of therapy. The treatment failure rate was higher in patients with positive microbiological findings (71.4%) than in those with histological findings alone (5.9%, p=0.003).
The high rate of treatment failure and advanced stage of disease at diagnosis are indicative of the challenge in the care of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis in Taiwan.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 11/2006; 39(5):408-13. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection using indirect hemagglutination antibody (IHA) assay among 667 HIV-infected persons (group A), 1,311 asymptomatic HIV-uninfected persons seeking anonymous HIV testing (group B), 616 HIV-uninfected controls with gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea and/or liver abscess) seeking medical care (group C), and 2,500 healthy controls undergoing health check-up (group D). An IHA titer >or= 128 was detected in 7.1% of group A, 2.5% of group B, 1.8% of group C, and 0.1% of group D (P < 0.0001). The highest seroprevalence (11.2%) was noted among HIV-infected persons who were men having sex with men (MSM) 30-39 years of age. Compared with persons with gastrointestinal symptoms, the adjusted odds ratio for having high IHA titers among HIV-infected persons was 3.206 (95% confidence interval, 1.433, 7.176; P = 0.005). These findings show that HIV-infected persons, especially MSM 30-39 years of age, are at significantly higher risk of E. histolytica infection.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2006; 74(6):1016-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor