D M Parenti

George Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (41)190.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context .- Use of reference laboratories for selected laboratory testing (send-out tests) represents a significant source of laboratory costs. As the use of more complex molecular analyses becomes common in the United States, strategies to reduce costs in the clinical laboratory must evolve in order to provide high-value, cost-effective medicine. Objective .- To report a strategy that employs clinical pathology house staff and key hospital clinicians in the effective use of microbiologic send-out testing. Design .- The George Washington University Hospital is a 370-bed academic hospital in Washington, DC. In 2012 all requisitions for microbiologic send-out tests were screened by the clinical pathology house staff prior to final dispensation. Tests with questionable utility were brought to the attention of ordering clinicians through the use of interdisciplinary rounds and direct face-to-face consultation. Results .- Screening resulted in a cancellation rate of 38% of send-out tests, with proportional cost savings. Nucleic acid tests represented most of the tests screened and the largest percentage of cost saved through screening. Following consultation, requested send-out tests were most often canceled because of a lack of clinical indication. Conclusions .- Direct face-to-face consultation with ordering physicians is an effective, interdisciplinary approach to managing the use of send-out testing in the microbiology laboratory.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 04/2014; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. They are associated with an increased risk for infections. We report a case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in a patient receiving etanercept and review the literature on TNF-α and TNF-α inhibitors, and their importance in the pathophysiology of herpes simplex encephalitis.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    AIDS (London, England) 06/2012; 26(9):1181-2. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    Marc O Siegel, David M Parenti, Gary L Simon
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial-esophageal fistula is a rare but often fatal complication of catheter radiofrequency ablation. Patients occasionally have bacteremia and have been misdiagnosed with endocarditis. Infectious diseases specialists are often consulted and need to be aware of this complication. We report a case of atrial-esophageal fistula after radiofrequency ablation that illustrates the salient features of this illness.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2010; 51(1):73-6. · 9.37 Impact Factor
  • Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - INFECT DIS CLIN PRAC. 01/2009; 17(4):253-257.
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, the protein product of the obese gene (ob), is secreted by adipocytes. Circulating leptin levels correlate with fat mass in humans, including individuals infected with HIV. Leptin serves as an adipostatic hormone, a permissive factor for reproduction and a modulator of immune function. Leptin is a cytokine, and has been demonstrated to enhance CD4 cell proliferation and IL-2 secretion from CD4 cells in vitro. The role of leptin in HIV-positive patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been well defined. We haveevaluated leptin levels in HIV-infected individualsduringthe early phase of HAART. We measured plasma leptin levels in 15 antiretroviral-naive HIV positive patients at baseline and after 1 and 4 weeks of HAART. After the first week of therapy, mean leptin level and CD4 count were increased compared to baseline, 6.0 vs 7.2 ng/ml (p = 0.004) and 377 vs 432 cells/ul (p = 0.014), respectively. In contrast, mean body mass index (BMI) remained unchanged 27.0 vs 26.8 kg/m2 (p < 0.08). After four weeks of therapy, leptin and BMI values were unchanged compared to baseline, 6.0 vs 5.9 (p < 0.4) and 27.0 vs 26.9 (p < 0.5), respectively, whereas CD4 count continued to increase to 491 cells/ul (p < 0.012 compared to baseline). These data demonstrate an early transient increase in plasma leptin levels in HIV positive patients initiated on HAART, despite a lack of change in BMI. It is unclear if the transient increase in leptin is related to its role as a cytokine, a metabolic regulator, or reproductive factor.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 03/2005; 28(3):RC1-3. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent resurgence of primary and secondary syphilis has been observed in certain population groups, particularly among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Liver involvement is an infrequently recognized complication of early syphilis, with no previous reports among HIV-infected patients. We describe 7 cases of syphilitic hepatitis in HIV-positive individuals and review the literature. At our institutions, all patients presented with a rash consistent with secondary syphilis. Each case was characterized by a conspicuous increase in serum alkaline phosphatase level (mean level +/- standard deviation, 905 +/- 523.6 IU/L) and milder elevations in serum transaminase levels. The mean CD4+ absolute T cell count was 317 cells/mm3, and the median rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was 1 : 128. There was a significant correlation between higher CD4+ cell counts and the RPR titers (R=0.93; P=.002). Symptomatic resolution and biochemical improvement, particularly a significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P=.02), occurred following antibiotic therapy. Hepatic dysfunction is not uncommon in HIV-infected persons and is attributable to multiple causes. In the appropriate clinical setting, syphilitic hepatitis is an easily diagnosed and reversible etiology of liver dysfunction. The recognition of this entity will prevent unnecessary evaluation of abnormal liver enzyme levels in HIV-positive patients.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 12/2004; 39(10):e100-5. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of highly active antiretroviral therapy among patients receiving delavirdine with or without a protease inhibitor (PI). In patients receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) plus delavirdine, there was a statistically significant increase in cholesterol and HDL levels, whereas those receiving NRTI plus a PI had no significant change in their HDL levels. When delavirdine was combined with a PI, there was a more dramatic increase in both cholesterol and HDL concentrations.
    AIDS 10/2002; 16(13):1829-30. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • AIDS 09/2002; 16(13):1829-1830. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • Infectious Disease in Clinical Practice 02/2000; 9(3):131-133.
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in lipid metabolism have been associated with the use of protease inhibitors. Sequential lipid analyses were performed on serum samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected antiretroviral-naive patients who received indinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) were measured at baseline and at periodic intervals. After 48 weeks of indinavir therapy, mean serum levels +/- SD rose as follows: cholesterol, from 167.2 +/- 36.0 to 206.3 +/- 32.4 mg/dL (P < .0005); triglycerides, from 110.4 +/- 47.5 to 158.4 +/- 72.5 mg/dL (P < .0101); and LDLs, from 106.6 +/- 35.1 to 136.1 +/- 31.6 mg/dL (P = .0029). There was no significant change in the serum HDL fraction. Mean serum lipoprotein (a) levels +/- SD rose from 6.5 +/- 1.4 to 9.6 +/- 2.0 mg/dL after 30 weeks (P = .0695). Potential mechanisms for the noted increases include alterations in serum lipoprotein lipase activity or changes in hepatic lipid metabolism. The clinical significance of these changes remains to be determined.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 08/1999; 29(2):441-3. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the clinical and microbiologic benefit of adding amikacin to a four-drug oral regimen for treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in HIV-infected patients. A randomized, open-labeled, comparative trial. Outpatient clinics. Seventy-four patients with HIV and symptomatic bacteremic M. avium infection. Rifampin 10 mg/kg daily, ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily, clofazimine 100 mg every day, and ethambutol 15 mg/kg orally daily for 24 weeks, with or without amikacin 10 mg/kg intravenously or intramuscularly 5 days weekly for the first 4 weeks. Clinical and microbiologic response at 4 weeks; quantitative level of bacteremia with M. avium. No difference in clinical response was noted with the addition of amikacin to the four-drug oral regimen, and only 25% in either group had a complete or partial response at 4 weeks. A comparable quantitative decrease in bacteremia was noted in both treatment groups, with 16% of patients being culture-negative at 4 weeks and 38% at 12 weeks. Toxicities were mainly gastrointestinal. Amikacin was well tolerated. Median survival was 30 weeks in both groups. The addition of amikacin to a four-drug oral regimen of rifampin, ciprofloxacin, clofazimine, and ethambutol did not provide clinical or microbiologic benefit.
    AIDS 01/1999; 12(18):2439-46. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - INFECT DIS CLIN PRAC. 01/1999; 8(8):399-400.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the clinical and microbiologic benefit of adding amikacin to a four-drug oral regimen for treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in HIV-infected patients. Design: A randomized, open-labeled, comparative trial. Setting: Outpatient clinics. Patients: Seventy-four patients with HIV and symptomatic bacteremic M. avium infection. Interventions: Rifampin 10 mg/kg daily, ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily, clofazimine 100 mg every day, and ethambutol 15 mg/kg orally daily for 24 weeks, with or without amikacin 10 mg/kg intravenously or interamuscularly 5 days weekly for the first 4 weeks. Main outcome measure: Clinical and microbiologic response at 4 weeks; quantitative level of bacteremia with M. avium. Results: No difference in clinical response was noted with the addition of amikacin to the four-drug oral regimen, and only 25% in either group had a complete or partial response at 4 weeks. A comparable quantitative decrease in bacteremia was noted in both treatment groups, with 16% of patients being culture-negative at 4 weeks and 38% at 12 weeks. Toxicities were mainly gastrointestinal. Amikacin was well tolerated. Median survival was 30 weeks in both groups. Conclusions: The addition of amikacin to a four-drug oral regimen of rifampin, ciprofloxacin, clofazimine, and ethambutol did not provide clinical or microbiologic benefit.
    AIDS 12/1998; 12(18):2439-2446. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • Z Hammoud, D M Parenti, G L Simon
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/1998; 26(5):1233. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a retrospective review of microbiology records at the George Washington University Hospital from 1980 through 1990, Mycobacterium kansasii bacteremia was identified in 10 patients; this finding represented 4.5% of nontuberculous mycobacterial blood cultures. M. kansasii was isolated from respiratory specimens from all 10 patients, and pulmonary parenchymal changes were noted in five patients. The median survival time was 14 weeks; however, only five patients received therapy with two or more drugs active against M. kansasii.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/1995; 21(4):1001-3. · 9.37 Impact Factor
  • S E Weinroth, D M Parenti, G L Simon
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    ABSTRACT: Wasting syndrome is a common complication of HIV infection and is marked by progressive weight loss and weakness, often associated with fever and diarrhea. The pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for this syndrome are not well defined, but it is clear that this is a multifactorial process in which the relative contribution of individual etiologic factors vary among patients. Considerations include inadequate diet, malabsorptive phenomena, metabolic derangements, and cytokine activity. The onset of opportunistic infections is often accompanied by a hypermetabolic state characterized by progressive weight loss. Potential cytokines that may promote weight loss in AIDS patients include tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and alpha-interferon. At present there is no effective treatment. Multiple therapeutic methods, including enteral and parenteral alimentation, appetite stimulants, recombinant growth hormone, and cytokine modulators, are currently being explored.
    Infectious agents and disease 07/1995; 4(2):76-94.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of didanosine (ddl) monotherapy and three different combinations of zidovudine (ZDV) and ddl in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, we conducted an open-label, phase I/II study in 126 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected hemophilic and nonhemophilic subjects with a CD4 count of 200 to 500/mm3 stratified for prior zidovudine treatment and baseline CD4 count. Study arms included arm A, low-dose combination (ZDV 150 mg and ddl 134 mg, daily); arm B, moderate-dose combination (ZDV 300 mg and ddI 334 mg, daily); arm C, high-dose combination (ZDV 600 mg and ddl 500 mg, daily), and arm D, ddl monotherapy (ddl 500 mg, daily). Earlier, more frequent hepatotoxicity was experienced by hemophilic subjects (P = .008), but there were no differences in toxicity between treatment arms (P = .51), nor were there any differences in the rate of development of clinical endpoints by treatment (P = .41). Smaller median CD4 increases occurred over the first 12 weeks for arms A and D, 44/mm3 and 42/mm3, than arms B and C, 105/mm3 and 114/mm3, respectively, (P = .015). Hemophilia status (P = .0004) and prior ZDV experience (P = .044) independently predicted weaker CD4 responses during the first 12 weeks of treatment. Using a regression model and adjusting for hemophilia status, prior ZDV treatment, and baseline CD4, there was a significant reduction in quantitative viral load from baseline by week 12 for all treatment arms combined (P = .0001), with significantly lower median percent reduction for arm A (56.3%) than arms B, C, and D (94.6%, 98.5%, and 91.9%, respectively, P = .015). Although greater hepatoxicity and weaker CD4 responses occur in hemophilic subjects, didanosine monotherapy and combination therapy with zidovudine are safe and effective in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients.
    Blood 06/1995; 85(9):2337-46. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CNS is an unusual site of ectopic infection in schistosomiasis. Cerebral lesions are caused primarily by Schistosoma japonicum, and spinal cord lesions are due primarily to Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. S. haematobium is an unusual cause of cerebral mass lesions although schistosomal eggs can be frequently found in the brains of individuals in countries where S. haematobium is endemic. We describe a patient with a space-occupying cerebral lesion and schistosomal granulomas on pathological examination. S. haematobium was identified in urine and serologically. The cerebral lesion responded to therapy with praziquantel and corticosteroids. It has been postulated that granulomatous lesions develop following egg laying by errant worms migrating in the vicinity of the cerebral circulation or in response to eggs deposited from more distant sites by embolization. A species-specific serological diagnosis can be made by FAST (Falcon assay screening test)-ELISA with western blot confirmation.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/1994; 18(3):354-7. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis recently has been reported in a number of tissues. Most cases occurred in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine prophylaxis. We report a case of disseminated pneumocystosis presenting as a large pleural effusion without apparent lung involvement where Pneumocystis carinii was the only pathogen identified. The absence of parenchymal lesions on chest x-ray film, the lack of hypoxemia and the minimal uptake of gallium all argue against significant lung involvement. The patient was successfully treated with chest tube drainage, intravenous and inhaled pentamidine and orally administered dapsone and trimethoprim. The addition of inhaled pentamidine to intravenously administered pentamidine may have increased pleural fluid levels substantially and its use coincided with the patient's improvement.
    Chest 02/1993; 103(1):306-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

324 Citations
190.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2013
    • George Washington University
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1991
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States