Sandro Bittencourt

Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Bahia, Estado de Bahía, Brazil

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Publications (17)29.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method of microbial reduction which can benefit periodontal treatment in areas of difficult access, such as deep pockets and furcations. The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of PDT as an adjunct to full-mouth ultrasonic debridement in the treatment of severe chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients with at least one pocket with a probing depth (PD) of ≥7 mm and one pocket with a PD of ≥5 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) on each side of the mouth were included, characterizing a split mouth design. The control group underwent full-mouth ultrasonic debridement and the test group received the same treatment associated with PDT. The PDT was performed on only one side of the mouth and the initial step consisted of subgingival irrigation with 0.005% methylene blue dye. Two minutes after applying the photosensitizer, the low power laser - AsGaAl (Photon Lase III - PL7336, DMC, São Carlos -São Paulo, Brazil) was applied (660 nm, 100 mW, 9 J, 90 seconds per site, 320 J/cm 2 , diameter tip 600 µm). The following clinical parameters were evaluated: plaque index, gingival index, BOP, gingival recession (GR), PD, and clinical attachment level (CAL). All parameters were collected before, 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Results: An improvement in BOP, PD and CAL was observed after treatment, in both groups, but without any difference between them. After 6 months, the PD decreased from 5.11±0.56 mm to 2.83±0.47 mm in the test group (p<0.05) and from 5.15±0.46 mm to 2.83±0.40 mm in the control group (p<0.05). The CAL changed, after 6 months, from 5.49±0.76 mm to 3.41±0.84 mm in the test group (p<0.05) and from 5.53±0.54 to 3.39±0.51 mm in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Both approaches resulted in significant clinical improvements in the treatment of severe chronic periodontits, however, the PDT did not provide any additional benefit to those obtained with full-mouth ultrasonic debridement used alone.
    Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 01/2013; 21(2). · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive techniques have broadened the horizons of periodontal plastic surgery to improve treatment outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this clinical trial was to compare root coverage, postoperative morbidity, and esthetic outcomes of subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) technique with or without the use of a surgical microscope in the treatment of gingival recessions. In this split-mouth study, twenty-four patients with bilateral Miller's Class I or II buccal gingival recessions ≥2.0 mm in canines or premolars were selected. Gingival recessions were randomly designated to receive treatment with SCTG with or without the assistance of the surgical microscope (test and control groups, respectively). Clinical parameters evaluated included the following: depth (RH) and width (RW) of the gingival defect, width (WKT) and thickness (TKT) of keratinized tissue, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Postoperative morbidity was evaluated by means of an analog visual scale and questionnaire. Patient satisfaction was also evaluated with a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were expressed as mean ± SD. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for examination of differences regarding PD, CAL, and TKT. The Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences between groups and the Friedman test to detect differences within group regarding WKT, RH, and RW. The average percentages of root coverage for test and control treatments, after 12 months, were 98.0% and 88.3%, respectively (P <0.05). Complete root coverage was achieved in 87.5% and 58.3% of teeth treated in test and control groups, respectively. For all parameters except recession height, there was an improvement in the final examination but without difference between treatments. For the RH, a lower value was found in the test group compared to the control group (P <0.05). In the test group, all patients were satisfied with the esthetics obtained, and 19 patients (79.1%) were satisfied in the control group. For postoperative morbidity, 14 patients in each of the two treatment groups did not use analgesics for pain control. Both approaches were capable of producing root coverage; however, use of the surgical microscope was associated with additional clinical benefits in the treatment of teeth with gingival recessions.
    Journal of Periodontology 08/2011; 83(6):721-30. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of topically applied povidone-iodine (PVP-I) used as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements. Thirty-two patients presenting at least one interproximal class II furcation involvement that bled on probing with probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 5 mm were recruited. Patients were randomly chosen to receive either subgingival instrumentation with an ultrasonic device using PVP-I (10%) as the cooling liquid (test group) or identical treatment using distilled water as the cooling liquid (control group). The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visible plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), PPD and relative horizontal attachment level (RHAL). BAPNA (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide) testing was used to analyze trypsin-like activity in dental biofilm. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after non-surgical subgingival instrumentation. Six months after treatment, both groups had similar means of PPD reduction, RAL and RHAL gain (p>0.05). These variables were, respectively, 2.20 ± 1.10 mm, 1.27 ± 1.02 mm and 1.33 ± 0.85 mm in the control group and 2.67 ± 1.21 mm, 1.50 ± 1.09 mm and 1.56 ± 0.93 mm in the test group. No difference was observed between groups at none of the posttreatment periods, regarding the number of sites showing clinical attachment gain ≥ 2 mm. However, at 6 months posttreatment, the test group presented fewer sites with PPD ≥ 5 mm than the control group. Also at 6 months the test group had lower BAPNA values than control group. The use of PVP-I as an adjunct in the non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements provided limited additional clinical benefits.
    Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 12/2010; 18(6):599-606. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical instrumentation is fundamental to periodontal treatment. However, independent of the instrument used in scaling, an immediate attachment loss occurs at the bottom of the periodontal pocket. This study aimed to determine the influence of tip diameter on attachment loss and the influence of attachment loss on the periodontal response to nonsurgical treatment. Fifteen patients presenting periodontal pockets with a probing depth of 3.5 mm or more in bilateral teeth were divided into two groups: test group-instrumented with a thin tip, and control group-instrumented with a traditional tip. Probing depth, relative gingival position, and relative attachment level were evaluated immediately before and after and at 1 and 3 months after treatment using an electronic computerized probe. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (P = .05). Both groups presented attachment loss immediately after instrumentation; however, the thin tip resulted in statistically higher immediate clinical attachment loss than the traditional tip (0.85 and 0.15 mm, respectively; P < .0001). However, both groups showed a similar healing after the ultrasonic therapy, at all parameters evaluated (P > .05). In spite of the higher immediate clinical attachment loss inflicted by thin ultrasonic tips during instrumentation, this did not affect the clinical response to the nonsurgical treatment.
    Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985) 03/2010; 41(3):249-56. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the crown shape on the outcomes of root coverage procedures. Eighty patients with Miller class I gingival recessions in maxillary canines or premolars were selected. The recession areas were treated using the subepithelial connective tissue grafting. The following clinical parameters were analyzed: crown length (CL) and width (CW), recession height and width, probing depth, clinical attachment level, width and thickness of the keratinized tissue and percentage of root coverage achieved. These measurements were recorded at baseline and 6 months after the surgical procedure. The CW/CL ratio was calculated for each tooth and the median obtained (0.83). Patients were then ranked into two groups, according to the shape of the tooth with gingival recession: Group A - square crown shape (CW/CL values above 0.83) and Group B - long and narrow crown shape (CW/CL values below 0.83). No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between groups in any of the clinical parameters at baseline. After 6 months, both groups presented improved clinical outcomes for all parameters analyzed compared to baseline (p>0.05). The mean percentages and standard deviations of root coverage achieved in Group A and Group B was 91.37 (16.75) and 85.49 (23.55), respectively (p>0.05). Crown shape did not influence the root coverage obtained with the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique.
    Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 09/2009; 17(4):330-4. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this prospective, controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) or semilunar coronally positioned flap (SCPF) for the treatment of Miller Class I gingival recession defects. Seventeen patients with bilateral Miller Class I gingival recessions (< or =4.0 mm) in maxillary canines or premolars were selected. The recessions were randomly assigned to receive SCPF or SCTG. Recession height (RH), recession width (RW), width of keratinized tissue (WKT), thickness of keratinized tissue (TKT), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 30 months post-surgery. Patient satisfaction with esthetics and root sensitivity was also evaluated. The root-coverage outcomes obtained at 6 months were maintained throughout the study. At the 30-month examination, the average percentage of root coverage was 89.25% for SCPF and 96.83% for SCTG (P >0.05); complete root coverage was observed in 58.82% and 88.24% of patients, respectively. SCTG maintained a statistically significant increase in TKT (P <0.05) at 30 months. At this time, there were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to RH, RW, WKT, PD, and CAL. The evaluation of the esthetic outcome by the patient showed a preference for the SCTG treatment. Furthermore, in this group, no patient complained of residual or additional root hypersensitivity. In the SCPF group, three patients had this complaint at 30 months. SCPF and SCTG can be successfully used to treat Class I gingival recession, presenting outcomes with long-term stability. However, patient-oriented outcomes, such as esthetics and root sensitivity, favor SCTG therapy.
    Journal of Periodontology 08/2009; 80(7):1076-82. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adjunctive clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic effects of the systemic administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole in the full-mouth ultrasonic debridement of patients with severe chronic periodontitis. Twenty-five patients presenting at least eight teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) were selected and randomly assigned to full-mouth ultrasonic debridement + placebo (control group) or full-mouth ultrasonic debridement + amoxicillin and metronidazole (test group). The clinical outcomes evaluated were visible plaque index, BOP, position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), and PD. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for quantitative analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique permitted the detection of prostaglandin E(2,) interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels in gingival crevicular fluid. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. At 6 months, the test treatment resulted in lower BOP and an additional reduction (0.83 mm) in PD (P <0.05). Data also showed RAL gain > or =2 mm at 43.52% of sites in control patients compared to 58.03% of sites in test patients (P <0.05). However, both groups had similar mean RAL gain (1.68 and 1.88 mm for the control and test groups, respectively). Real-time PCR and ELISA failed to identify significant differences between the groups. Both treatments resulted in significant clinical improvements; however, there was a slight, but significantly greater, improvement in BOP and the percentage of sites with PD > or =5 mm exhibiting RAL gain > or =2 mm in the test group. Nevertheless, no improvement in the microbiologic or immunologic outcome was observed with the adjunctive use of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole.
    Journal of Periodontology 08/2009; 80(8):1254-64. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors conducted a study to evaluate the radiographic characteristics of Class II mandibular furcation involvements as prognostic indicators of healing after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Twenty-three patients with chronic periodontitis (Class II furcation involvements in mandibular molars, probing pocket depth [PPD] of 5 millimeters or greater and bleeding on probing [BOP]) were selected to receive nonsurgical periodontal treatment. The authors evaluated visible plaque index, BOP, position of the gingival margin, PPD, relative attachment level (RAL) and relative horizontal attachment level. On radiographs, the authors measured root trunk, bone attachment level in the furcation region, lesion height (Lh), furcation width at alveolar crest level inside furcation (Fw) and 2 mm apical to the fornix (Fw2), and the perpendicular distance from the horizontal line connecting mesial and distal radiographic alveolar crest to furcation fornix. They analyzed all data using linear multiple regression. Six months after treatment, the furcations showed a mean RAL gain of 1.08 mm (+/- 1.25 mm) and a PPD decrease of 2.74 mm (+/- 1.58 mm). The authors found a statistically significant influence between Fw and PPD (P = .0044), Fw2 and PPD (P = .0014), Lh and PPD (P = .0241), and Fw2 and RAL (P = .0037). Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that Fw, Fw2 and Lh may influence the response of Class II mandibular furcations to nonsurgical periodontal therapy and may serve as prognostic indicators for this therapy. Thus, narrower and shorter root furcations would be expected to have better outcomes.
    Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 05/2009; 140(4):434-40. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot study assessed the effect of short-duration treatment with etoricoxib as adjuvant therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP) on the clinical and radiographic parameters and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in aggressive periodontitis. Subjects were randomly allocated to test or control treatment (n = 10 in each group) and submitted to SRP and treatment with etoricoxib, 120 mg/day, or placebo for 7 days. Probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession, visible plaque index, bleeding on probing, linear distance (LD) from the cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest, and analysis of the gray levels were recorded before and 1 month after the therapies. The prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) level in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was measured by radioimmunoassay at the beginning of the study and 7 and 30 days after treatment. No significant difference in the clinical parameters was observed between the groups at the end of the experimental period, although both groups presented significant improvement in all variables examined. There was a decrease in CAL from 5.54 +/- 0.47 mm to 3.59 +/- 0.53 mm in the test group and from 5.92 +/- 1.10 mm to 3.69 +/- 0.80 mm in the control group. A significant reduction in PGE(2) was found after 7 days of treatment. LD differed between the groups. Etoricoxib did not promote additional improvement in the clinical parameters; however, it produced an initial reduction in the PGE(2) levels in the GCF, which could be related to the discrete improvement in the bone condition.
    Journal of Periodontology 10/2008; 79(9):1719-25. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clinically, microbiologically and immunologically characterize periodontal debridement as a therapeutic approach for severe chronic periodontitis. Twenty-five patients presenting at least eight teeth with a probing pocket depth (PPD) of >or=5 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) were selected and randomly assigned to quadrant-wise scaling and root planing or one session of full-mouth periodontal debridement. The following clinical outcomes were assessed: plaque index, BOP, position of gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL) and PPD. Real-time PCR was used for quantitative analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay permitted the detection of IL-1beta, prostaglandin E(2), INF-gamma and IL-10 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). All the parameters were evaluated at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after treatment. Both the groups had similar means of PPD reduction and attachment gain over time. Besides a significant reduction in the bacterial level after treatment in both groups, microbiological analysis failed to demonstrate significant differences between them. Finally, no difference was observed between groups with respect to the levels of inflammatory mediators in GCF. Periodontal debridement resulted in a similar clinical, microbiological and immunological outcome when compared with standard scaling and root planing and therefore may be a viable approach to deal with severe chronic periodontitis.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 09/2008; 35(9):789-98. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the outcome of gingival recession therapy using the semilunar coronally repositioned flap (SCRF) with or without EDTA application for root surface biomodification. Fifteen patients with bilateral Miller Class I buccal gingival recessions (< or =4.0 mm) were selected. Thirty teeth with recessions were assigned randomly to receive the semilunar coronally repositioned flap with (SCRF-E group) or without (SCRF group) the application of an EDTA gel. Recession height (RH), recession width (RW), width (WKT) and thickness of keratinized tissue, probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at baseline and 6 months post-surgery. Patient perception of root sensitivity and postoperative pain also was evaluated. Both treatments yielded significant improvements in terms of RH and RW decrease and CAL gain compared to baseline values. For SCRF-E and SCRF, the average root coverage was 70.2% and 90.1%, respectively (P = 0.01), and the complete root coverage was 40.0% and 66.7%, respectively. Only the SCRF group had a significant (P <0.05) increase in WKT. The SCRF group showed a greater reduction (P <0.05) in RW and RH compared to the SCRF-E group. No patient in either group reported any pain during the postoperative course; however, 6 months later, patients in the SCRF-E group complained more of residual or new root sensitivity compared to patients in the SCRF group. The use of EDTA gel as a root surface biomodifier agent negatively affected the outcome of root coverage with the SCRF.
    Journal of Periodontology 10/2007; 78(9):1695-701. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the outcome of non-surgical treatment of interproximal and non-interproximal Class II furcation involvements. Thirty-eight patients presenting at least one Class II furcation involvement that bled on probing with a probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm were recruited. Furcation involvements were grouped as either buccal and lingual furcation involvements (BLFI) or interproximal furcation involvements (IFI). The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visible plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), PD, and relative horizontal attachment level (RHAL). N-benzoyl-l-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) testing was used to analyze trypsin-like activity in dental biofilm. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after non-surgical subgingival instrumentation. Results: Six months after treatment, both groups had similar means of RAL and RHAL gain (P >0.05). These variables were 1.22 and 1.07 mm in the IFI group and 1.38 and 1.20 mm in the BLFI group, respectively. The PD reduction was significantly greater in the BLFI group than in the IFI group (2.59 and 2.11 mm, respectively; P <0.05). The BLFI group presented fewer sites with PD > or = 5 mm than the IFI group at all post-treatment periods. At 6 months, the BAPNA test showed that only the BLFI group had values significantly different from baseline. This means that the BLFI group had significantly lower BAPNA values compared to the IFI group at 6 months. Buccal and lingual Class II furcation involvements respond better to non-surgical therapy compared to interproximal Class II furcation involvements.
    Journal of Periodontology 02/2007; 78(2):224-30. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The continuous search for improved surgical procedures to address gingival deformities is a consequence of an increasing demand for aesthetics in the periodontal clinical practice. Innovative techniques have been reported to help clinicians achieve predictability in root coverage. Significant progress can be attributed to the inclusion of the operative microscope in periodontal therapy, particularly in regards to obtaining primary closure. This article describes a microsurgical technique used to treat gingival recessions, showing its potential for obtaining optimal aesthetic results.
    Practical procedures & aesthetic dentistry: PPAD 09/2006; 18(7):449-54; quiz 456.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of one-stage periodontal debridement with an ultrasonic instrument, associated with 0.5% povidone (pvp)-iodine irrigation in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty-five patients were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (CG) received quadrant root planing at 1-week intervals over four consecutive sessions; the periodontal debridement plus pvp-iodine group (PD-PIG) received a 45-minute full-mouth debridement with an ultrasonic instrument, associated with 0.5% pvp-iodine irrigation; and the periodontal debridement group (PDG) received a 45-minute full-mouth periodontal debridement with an ultrasonic instrument, associated with NaCl irrigation. At the 3-month evaluation, the mean probing depth (PD) reduction in CG was 2.51+/-0.52 mm, 2.53+/-0.50 mm in PD-PIG, and 2.58+/-0.60 mm in PDG (P<0.05). The clinical attachment level (CAL) analysis showed a statistically significant gain in all groups compared to baseline (1.87+/-0.56 mm [CG], 1.94+/-0.70 mm [PD-PIG], and 1.99+/-0.92 mm [PDG]). Intergroup analysis of PD and CAL at 1 and 3 months showed no differences (P>0.05). The N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) test showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity only during the first month (P<0.05); at 3 months there were no differences compared to baseline (P=0.80). This study provides no evidence that pvp-iodine is effective as an adjunct for one-stage periodontal debridement.
    Journal of Periodontology 04/2006; 77(3):498-505. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the outcome of gingival recession therapy using the semilunar coronally positioned flap (SCPF) or the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Seventeen patients with bilateral Miller Class I buccal gingival recessions (<or=4 mm) in maxillary canines or premolars were selected. The recessions were randomly assigned to receive either the SCPF or the SCTG. Recession height (RH), recession width (RW), width of keratinized tissue (WKT), thickness of keratinized tissue (TKT), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at baseline and 6 months post-surgery. Patient satisfaction with esthetics, root sensitivity, and postoperative pain was also evaluated. The average percentages of root coverage for SCPF and SCTG were 90.95% and 96.10% (P<0.05), respectively, and the complete root coverage observed was 52.94% and 76.47%, respectively. The SCTG showed a statistically significant increase in TKT (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to RH, RW, WKT, PD, and CAL. The esthetic condition after both treatments was considered satisfactory by the patients. The findings from this study indicate that SCPF and SCTG can be successfully used to treat Class I gingival recession.
    Journal of Periodontology 02/2006; 77(2):174-81. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of topically applied povidone-iodine (polyvinylpyrrolidone and iodine [PVP-I]) used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy of furcation involvements. Forty-four patients presenting at least one Class II furcation involvement that bled on probing with probing depth (PD)>or=5 mm were recruited. Patients were stratified into two treatment groups: 1) subgingival instrumentation by an ultrasonic device using PVP-I (10%) as the cooling liquid (test); and 2) identical treatment using distilled water as the cooling liquid (control). The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), PD, and relative horizontal attachment level (RHAL). The N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) test was used to analyze the trypsin-like activity in dental biofilm. The clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after therapy. Both groups had similar means of PD reduction and RAL and RHAL gain. At 6 months, these variables were, respectively, 2.31, 1.17, and 1.00 mm in the control group and 2.31, 1.23, and 1.02 mm in the test group. There was also no difference between groups regarding the number of furcation sites presenting RAL gain>or=2 mm. The results of the BAPNA test failed to demonstrate significant differences between groups. Non-surgical therapy can effectively treat Class II furcation involvements, and the use of topically applied PVP-I as an adjunct to subgingival instrumentation does not provide additional benefits.
    Journal of Periodontology 02/2006; 77(2):211-7. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Supragingival plaque control is a requisite for the success of any periodontal procedure. However, little is know about the effect of this procedure alone on periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supragingival plaque control on clinical and biochemical parameters of chronic periodontitis. Twenty-five subjects exhibiting at least 4 pockets > 5mm, non-smokers and with no relevant systemic diseases, were selected for the study. The clinical and biochemical assessments were done before and 21 days after removal of plaque retentive factors, extraction of affected teeth and instruction in oral hygiene. The statistical analysis was done with the Student paired t-test (p<0,05) and demonstrated a reduction on the percentage of sites with bleeding on probing from 42.72 ± 15.83 to 35.87 ± 13.30 (p=0.002). Reduction in probing depth was detected on anterior teeth (initial/final mean: 2.88 mm/2.78 mm; p=0.01) and interproximal sites (initial/final mean: 3.80 mm/3.65 mm; p=0.001). There was an increase from 66.81% to 68.65% in the number of sites with probing depth of 1 to 3mm and a decrease from 26.21% to 24.17% in those with probing depth of 4 to 6mm. The BAPNA results showed a decrease from 51.44 ± 20.78 to 38.64 ± 12.34 (p=0.04). This study demonstrated that supragingival plaque control provides a reduction in gingival inflammation and alterations in the subgingival microflora detected by the BAPNA test.
    Journal of Applied Oral Science 09/2005; 13(3):275-9. · 0.80 Impact Factor