Jeong-Hyung Lee

Kangwon National University, Syunsen, Gangwon, South Korea

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Publications (41)136.86 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC), isolated from Caesalpinia sappan (Leguminosae), is a chalcone that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that 3-DSC exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression at the translational level. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 3-DSC induced HO-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting HO-1 mRNA expression. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor, did not block 3-DSC-mediated HO-1 induction. However, 3-DSC-mediated HO-1 induction was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Strikingly, 3-DSC increased the phosphorylation level of mTOR downstream target molecules such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that the 3-DSC induces HO-1 expression by activating the AKT/mTOR pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, 3-DSC inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of HO-1 activity by treatment with tin protoporphyrin IX, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, abrogated the inhibitory effects of 3-DSC on the production of NO and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, 3-DSC may be an effective HO-1 inducer at the translational level that has anti-inflammatory effects, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions.
    International immunopharmacology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IL-32 is known to play an important role in inflammatory and autoimmune disease responses. In addition to its role in these responses, IL-32 and its different isoforms have in recent years been implicated in the development of various cancers. As of yet, the role of IL-32 in breast cancer has remained largely unknown. By performing immunohistochemical assays on primary breast cancer samples, we found that the level of IL-32β expression was positively correlated with tumor size, number of lymph node metastases and tumor stage. In addition, we found that breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells exogenously expressing IL-32β exhibited increased migration and invasion capacities. These increased capacities were found to be associated with an increased expression of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers vimentin and Slug, the latter of which is responsible for the increase in vimentin transcription. To next investigate whether IL-32β enhances migration and invasion through a soluble factor, we determined the levels of several migration-stimulating ligands, and found that the production of VEGF was increased by IL-32β. In addition, we found that IL-32β-induced VEGF increased migration and invasion through STAT3 activation. The IL-32β-VEGF-STAT3 pathway represents an additional pathway that mediates the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells under the conditions of normoxia and hypoxia.
    Cellular oncology (Dordrecht). 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Syntenin is an adaptor molecule containing 2 PDZ domains which mediate molecular interactions with diverse integral or cytoplasmic proteins. Most of the results on the biological function of syntenin were obtained from studies with malignant cells, necessitating exploration into the role of syntenin in normal cells. To understand its role in normal cells, we investigated expression and function of syntenin in human lymphoid tissue and cells in situ and in vitro. Syntenin expression was denser in the germinal center than in the extrafollicular area. Inside the germinal center, syntenin expression was obvious in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Flow cytometric analysis with isolated cells confirmed a weak expression of syntenin in T and B cells and a strong expression in FDCs. In FDC-like cells, HK cells, most syntenin proteins were found in the cytoplasm compared to weak expression in the nucleus. To study the function of syntenin in FDC, we examined its role in the focal adhesion of HK cells by depleting syntenin by siRNA technology. Knockdown of syntenin markedly impaired focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation in HK cells. These results suggest that syntenin may play an important role in normal physiology as well as in cancer pathology.
    Immune Network 10/2013; 13(5):199-204.
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    European Journal of Pharmacology. 05/2013; 708(s 1–3):139.
  • Jung Won Kang, Byung-Sun Min, Jeong-Hyung Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Platelets play a critical role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders and strokes. The inhibition of platelet function is beneficial for the treatment and prevention of these diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3`,5`-tetramethoxy-8-O-4`-neolignan (EATN), a neolignan isolated from Myristica fragrans, using human platelets. EATN preferentially inhibited thrombin- and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation without affecting platelet damage in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. However, much higher concentrations of EATN were required to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. EATN also inhibited thrombin-induced serotonin and ATP release, and thromboxane B(2) formation in human platelets. Moreover, EATN caused an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in thrombin-activated human platelets. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory mechanism of EATN on platelet aggregation may increase cAMP levels and subsequently inhibit intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization by interfering with a common signaling pathway rather than by directly inhibiting the binding of thrombin or PAF to their receptors. This is the first report of the anti-platelet activity of EATN isolated from M. fragrans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 01/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    Namho Kim, Cheol Hwangbo, Suhyun Lee, Jeong-Hyung Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Here, we investigated the effects of eupatolide (EuTL), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the medicinal plant Inula britannica, on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), as well as its underlying mechanisms. EuTL remarkably inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with EuTL induced both protein and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) did not suppress EuTL-induced HO-1 expression; however, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) blocked EuTL-induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, treatment of RASMCs with EuTL increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); however, this translocation was also inhibited by NAC. NAC or inhibition of HO-1 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of EuTL on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that EuTL could suppress PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs through HO-1 induction via ROS-Nrf2 pathway and may be a potential HO-1 inducer for preventing or treating vascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 01/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malabaricone C (MLB-C), isolated from nutmeg, is a phenolic diarylnonanoid that is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular actions of MLB-C against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. MLB-C inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-γ (INF-γ) in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with NO and PGE(2) inhibition, MLB-C suppressed LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression as well as the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS. MLB-C pretreatment prevented LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK), phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In addition, MLB-C blocked LPS-induced serine 536 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB. Further study demonstrated that MLB-C inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation, which is an upstream activator of NF-κB, by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, without affecting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These findings indicate that MLB-C exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB activation by inhibiting interconnected ROS/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathways.
    International immunopharmacology 08/2012; 14(3):302-10. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malabaricone C (Mal-C), isolated from nutmeg, is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. However, the effect of Mal-C on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is unknown. This study examined the effect of Mal-C on proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) as well as its underlying mechanisms. Treatment of RASMCs with Mal-C induced both protein and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Mal-C-mediated HO-1 induction was inhibited by treatment with actinomycin D or by cycloheximide. SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), U0126 (a MEK inhibitor), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) did not suppress Mal-C-induced HO-1 expression. In contrast, LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) blocked Mal-C-induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, RASMCs treated with Mal-C exhibited activation of AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of RASMCs with Mal-C increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a key regulator of HO-1 expression, and this translocation was also inhibited by LY294002. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has protective effects against VSMCs, Mal-C remarkably inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. However, inhibition of HO-1 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Mal-C on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mal-C could suppress PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs through Nrf2 activation and subsequent HO-1 induction via the PI3K/AKT pathway, and may be a potential HO-1 inducer for preventing or treating vascular diseases.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2012; 113(9):2866-76. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tangeretin, a natural polymethoxylated flavone concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits, is known to have antiproliferative, antiinvasive, antimetastatic and antioxidant activities. However, the effect of tangeretin on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is unknown. This study examined the effect of tangeretin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) as well as its underlying mechanisms. Tangeretin significantly inhibited proliferation, DNA synthesis and migration of PDGF-BB-stimulated RASMCs without inducing cell death. Treatment with tangeretin-induced cell-cycle arrest in the G₀/G₁ phase was associated with down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E in addition to up-regulation of p27(kip1). We also showed that tangeretin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of AKT, while it had no effect on the phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), PDGF receptor β-chain (PDGF-Rβ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). An in vitro kinase assay revealed that tangeretin inhibited AKT activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, had similar effects than that of tangeretin on the expression of p27(kip1) and cyclin D1, as well as cell migration in PDFG-BB-stimulated RASMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that tangeretin could suppress PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs through the suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and may be a potential candidate for preventing or treating vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis.
    European journal of pharmacology 12/2011; 673(1-3):56-64. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    Yunjin Choi, Jeong-Hyung Lee
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog that acts as a glycolytic inhibitor, is currently under clinical evaluation for targeting tumor cells. Tephrosin (TSN), a plant rotenoid, is known as an anticancer agent. In this study, we describe that the addition of TSN to 2-DG enhanced the cytotoxic activity of 2-DG against various types of cancer cells by accelerating ATP depletion and blunting autophagy. TSN increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of 2-DG. The combination of TSN and 2-DG induced acceleration of intracellular ATP depletion and the drastic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which resulted in the inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Of particular interest, TSN suppressed 2-DG-induced autophagy, a cell survival process in response to nutrient deprivation. We also showed that TSN inhibited 2-DG-induced activation of elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K), which has been known to regulate 2-DG-induced autophagy. Inhibition of eEF-2K by RNA interference blunted 2-DG-induced autophagy and increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of 2-DG. The addition of TSN to 2-DG, however, did not enhance the cytotoxic activity of 2-DG by knockdown of eEF-2K, suggesting that inhibition of eEF-2K by tephrsoin could be a critical role in the potentiating effect of TSN on the cytotoxicity of 2-DG. Furthermore, we showed that the blunted autophagy and enhanced cytotoxicity of 2-DG was accompanied by the augmentation of apoptosis. These results show that TSN may be valuable for augmenting the therapeutic efficacy of 2-DG.
    Cancer biology & therapy 12/2011; 12(11):989-96. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    Cheol Hwangbo, Juhee Park, Jeong-Hyung Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-PINCH1-α-parvin (IPP) complex functions as a signaling platform for integrins that modulates various cellular processes. ILK functions as a central adaptor for the assembly of IPP complex. We report here that mda-9/syntenin, a positive regulator of cancer metastasis, regulates the activation of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) by facilitating ILK adaptor function during adhesion to type I collagen (COL-I) in human breast cancer cells. COL-I stimulation induced the phosphorylation and plasma membrane translocation of Akt. Inhibition of mda-9/syntenin or expression of mutant ILK (E359K) significantly blocked the translocation of both ILK and Akt to the plasma membrane. mda-9/syntenin associated with ILK, and this association was increased at the plasma membrane by COL-I stimulation. Knockdown of mda-9/syntenin impaired COL-I-induced association of ILK with Akt and plasma membrane targeting of ILK-Akt complex. These results demonstrated that mda-9/syntenin regulates the activation of Akt by controlling the plasma membrane targeting of Akt via a mechanism that facilitates the association of Akt with ILK at the plasma membrane during adhesion to COL-I. On a striking note, inhibition of mda-9/syntenin impaired COL-I-induced plasma membrane translocation of the IPP complex and assembly of integrin β1-IPP signaling complexes. Thus, our study defines the role of mda-9/syntenin in ILK adaptor function and describes a new mechanism of mda-9/syntenin for regulation of cell migration.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(38):33601-12. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of cell-cycle progression is a target for the treatment of cancer. 3-Oxoolean-12-en-27-oic acid (3-OOLA) has shown significant anticancer activity towards diverse cancer cells, but has not been investigated for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of 3-OOLA in NSCLC cell lines and its underlying mechanism. The MTT assay, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, and flow cytometry were used for cell proliferation studies, and annexin V staining for apoptotic effects. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). 3-OOLA caused G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest without inducing apoptosis in NSCLC cells, and Western blot analyses demonstrated down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and phosphorylated Rb. 3-OOLA inhibits cell proliferation of NSCLC cells by inducing cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E.
    Anticancer research 06/2011; 31(6):2179-85. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NF-κB transcription factors control many physiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and apoptosis. Its activity contributes to the development of various cell malignancies. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) plays a pivotal role in NF-κB activation. However, the molecular mechanism to stabilize and activate NIK remains elusive, although it is known that cIAP1/2 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2) ubiquitinate NIK for degradation. Here, we report a novel NF-κB-related zinc finger protein 91 (ZFP91) that stabilizes and activates NIK in a ubiquitination-dependent manner. We show that ZFP91 interacts with and promotes the Lys(63)-linked ubiquitination of NIK and subsequent processing of p100 to p52. The results of in vitro biochemical assays indicate that ZFP91 functions as an E3 ligase directly to NIK. Remarkably, the ubiquitination of NIK coincides with its Thr(559) phosphorylation. Furthermore, knockdown of ZFP91 expression by RNA interference inhibits the CD40 ligation-induced activation of NIK and p100 processing as well as the expression of noncanonical NF-κB target genes. These data clearly indicate that ZFP91 is an important regulator of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(40):30539-47. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members are prime targets for cancer therapy. Here, we show that tephrosin, a natural rotenoid which has potent antitumor activities, induced internalization of EGFR and ErbB2, and thereby induced degradation of the receptors. Treatment of HT-29 cells with tephrosin inhibited both the ligand-induced and constitutive phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3, and concomitantly suppressed the activation of the downstream signaling molecules such as Akt and Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Tephrosin caused internalization of EGFR and ErbB2 into vehicles, which resulted in degradation of the receptors. This degradation was blocked by the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine. We also showed that tephrosin induced apoptosis. Tephrosin did not induce the proteolytic processing of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), but did nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), suggesting that tephrosin may induce caspase-independent apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that tephrosin could exert antitumor effects by inducing internalization and degradation of inactivated EGFR and ErbB2 in human colon cancer cells.
    Cancer letters 07/2010; 293(1):23-30. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inula britannica is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat bronchitis, digestive disorders, and inflammation in Eastern Asia. Here, we identified eupatolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from I. britannica, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Eupatolide inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels and the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, eupatolide significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter genes. Pretreatment of eupatolide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha, and phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser-536 as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide induced proteasomal degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced TRAF6 polyubiquitination. These results suggest that eupatolide blocks LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level through inhibiting the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and MAPKs via proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, eupatolide may be a novel anti-inflammatory agent that induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions.
    European journal of pharmacology 03/2010; 636(1-3):173-80. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant adhesion signaling pathways in cancer cells underlie their deadly invasive capabilities. The adhesion-related PDZ adapter protein mda-9/syntenin is a positive regulator of cancer cell progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and other human cancers. In this study, we report that mda-9/syntenin mediates adhesion-mediated activation of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by fibronectin (FN) in human breast cancer and melanoma cells. FN rapidly stimulated the expression of mda-9/syntenin and the activation of PKCalpha prior to activation of FAK. Inhibiting PKCalpha suppressed basal or FN-induced expression of mda-9/syntenin, as well as cell migration and invasion toward FN stimulated by mda-9/syntenin. Several lines of evidence suggested that activation of PKCalpha and expression of mda-9/syntenin were interdependent. First, mda-9/syntenin inhibition suppressed basal or FN-induced phosphorylation of PKCalpha at Thr(638/641), whereas PKCalpha inhibition suppressed basal or FN-induced expression of mda-9/syntenin. Second, inhibiting either mda-9/syntenin or PKCalpha suppressed FN-induced formation of integrin-beta(1)/FAK/c-Src signaling complexes. Third, inhibiting either mda-9/syntenin or PKCalpha suppressed FN-induced phosphorylation of FAK Tyr(397) and c-Src Tyr(416) and the induction of downstream effector signals to p38 and mitogen-activated protein kinase, Cdc42, and NF-kappaB. In summary, our findings offer evidence that mda-9/syntenin acts as a molecular adaptor linking PKCalpha and FAK activation in a pathway of FN adhesion by human breast cancer and melanoma cells.
    Cancer Research 02/2010; 70(4):1645-55. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics due to its ability to induce apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. However, sensitivity of cancer cells for induction of apoptosis by TRAIL varies considerably. Therefore, it is important to develop agents that overcome this resistance. We show, for the first time, that eupatolide, the sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the medicinal plant Inula britannica, sensitizes human breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Treatment with TRAIL in combination with subtoxic concentrations of eupatolide enhanced the TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, whereas each reagent alone slightly induced cell death. The combination induced sub-G1 phase DNA content and annexin V-staining in MCF-7 cells, which are major features of apoptosis. Apoptotic characteristics induced by the combined treatment were significantly inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor. The sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of caspase-8 and was concomitant with Bid and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Treatment of eupatolide alone significantly down-regulated the expression of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, enforced expression of c-FLIP significantly attenuated the apoptosis induced by this combination in MCF-7 cells, suggesting a key role for c-FLIP down-regulation in these events. We also observed that euaptolide inhibited AKT phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, inhibition of Akt by LY294002, a specific PI3K inhibitor, down-regulated c-FLIP expression in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that eupatolide could augment TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by down-regulating c-FLIP expression through the inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and be a valuable compound to overcome TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells.
    Oncology Reports 01/2010; 23(1):229-37. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tussilagone (TSL), isolated from the flower of buds of Tussilago farfara (Compositae), is a sesquiterpenoid that is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that TSL exerts anti-inflammatory activities in murine macrophages by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with TSL-induced HO-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner without the induction of HO-1 mRNA expression. TSL-mediated HO-1 protein induction was not inhibited by treatment with actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor, but by cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors such as SB203580, SP600125, and U0126 did not block TSL-mediated HO-1 protein expression, suggesting that the TSL-mediated HO induction may be regulated at the translational level. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, TSL inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. Inhibition of HO-1 activity by treatment with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, abrogated the inhibitory effects of TSL on the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, TSL may be an effective HO-1 inducer that has anti-inflammatory effects, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions.
    International immunopharmacology 10/2009; 9(13-14):1578-84. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NF-κB is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of genes controlling the immune system, apoptosis, tumor cell growth, and tissue differentiation. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-hexane-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Amorpha fruticosa afforded four new compounds, 5, 7, 8, and 9, and eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. All compounds inhibited NF-κB activity, and tephrosin (1), 11-hydroxytephrosin (2), and deguelin (3) were the most active, with IC50 values of 0.11, 0.19, and 0.22 μM, respectively, in TNF-α-stimulated HeLa cell-based reporter gene assays. Further investigations showed that compounds 1, 5, and 6 blocked NF-κB/DNA binding activity and suppressed the expression of NF-κB target genes.
    Journal of Natural Products 10/2008; 71(10). · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the central mediator of cellular responses to low oxygen and vital to many aspects of cancer biology. In a search for HIF-1 inhibitors, we identified a quassinoid 6alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (TCN) as an inhibitor of HIF-1 activation from Ailantus altissima. We here demonstrated the effect of TCN on HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia or CoCl2. TCN showed the potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines. This compound markedly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein dose-dependently, whereas it did not affect the expressions of HIF-1beta and topoisomerase-I. Furthermore, TCN prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin. Further analysis revealed that TCN strongly inhibited HIF-1alpha protein synthesis, without affecting the expression level of HIF-1alpha mRNA or degradation of HIF-1alpha protein. Moreover, the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-interacting protein kinase-1 (MNK1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were significantly suppressed by the treatment of TCN, without changing the total levels of these proteins. Our data suggested that TCN may exhibit anticancer activity by inhibiting HIF-1alpha translation through the inhibition of eIF4E phosphorylation pathway and thus provide a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of quassinoids. TCN could be a new HIF-1-targeted anticancer agent and be effective on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-targeted cancer therapy, in which mTOR inhibition increases eIF4E phosphorylation.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 09/2008; 592(1-3):41-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

613 Citations
136.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Kangwon National University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Syunsen, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 1998–2010
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      • • Molecular Cancer Research Center
      • • Anticancer Research Laboratory
      Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2007–2008
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China