Amanda Mocroft

McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

Are you Amanda Mocroft?

Claim your profile

Publications (279)1795.59 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The long-term side effects of stavudine (d4T) led to recommendations in 2009 to phase out use of this drug. We aimed to describe temporal patterns of d4T use across Europe.Methods Patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in EuroSIDA with follow-up after 1 January 2006 were included in the study. cART was defined as d4T-containing [d4T plus at least two other antiretrovirals (ARVs) from any class] or non-d4T-containing (at least three ARVs from any class, excluding d4T). Poisson regression was used to describe temporal changes in the prevalence of d4T use and factors associated with initiating d4T.ResultsA total of 5850 patients receiving cART on 1 January 2006 were included in the current analysis, rising to 7768 patients on January 1 2013. During this time, the prevalence of d4T use fell from 11.2% to 0.7%, with an overall decline of 19% per 6 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 19–20%]. d4T use declined fastest in Northern Europe [26% (95% CI 23–29%) per 6 months], and slowest in Eastern Europe [17% (95% CI 16–19%) per 6 months]. In multivariable Poisson regression models, new d4T initiations decreased by 14% per 6 months [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 0.86; 95% CI 0.80–0.91]. Factors associated with initiating d4T were residence in Eastern Europe (aIRR 4.31; 95% CI 2.17–9.98) versus other European regions and HIV RNA > 400 copies/mL (aIRR 3.11; 95% CI 1.60–6.02) versus HIV RNA < 400 copies/mL.Conclusionsd4T use has declined sharply since 2006 to low levels in most regions; however, a low but persistent level of d4T use remains in Eastern Europe, where new d4T initiations post 2006 are also more common. The reasons for the regional differences may be multifactorial, but it is important to ensure that all clinicians treating HIV-positive patients are aware of the potential harmful effects associated with d4T.
    HIV Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/hiv.12254 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the organization and delivery of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) health care and to analyse potential differences between treatment centres in Eastern (EE) and Western Europe (WE). Thirty-eight European HIV and TB treatment centres participating in the TB:HIV study within EuroCoord completed a survey on health care management for coinfected patients in 2013 (EE: 17 respondents; WE:21; 76% of all TB:HIV centres). Descriptive statistics were obtained for regional comparisons. The reported data on health care strategies were compared with actual clinical practice at patient level via data derived from the TB:HIV study. Respondent centres in EE comprised: Belarus (n = 3), Estonia (1), Georgia (1), Latvia (1), Lithuania (1), Poland (4), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (4) and Ukraine (1); those in WE comprised: Belgium (1), Denmark (1), France (1), Italy (7), Spain (2), Switzerland (1) and UK (8). Compared with WE, treatment of HIV and TB in EE are less often located at the same site (47% in EE versus 100% in WE; P < 0.001) and less often provided by the same doctors (41% versus 90%, respectively; P = 0.002), whereas regular screening of HIV-infected patients for TB (80% versus 40%, respectively; P = 0.037) and directly observed treatment (88% versus 20%, respectively; P < 0.001) were more common in EE. The reported availability of rifabutin and second- and third-line anti-TB drugs was lower, and opioid substitution therapy (OST) was available at fewer centres in EE compared with WE (53% versus 100%, respectively; P < 0.001). Major differences exist between EE and WE in relation to the organization and delivery of health care for HIV/TB-coinfected patients and the availability of anti-TB drugs and OST. Significant discrepancies between reported and actual clinical practices were found in EE. © 2015 British HIV Association.
    HIV Medicine 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/hiv.12256 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection have been described in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The aims of this study were to determine whether there has been an increase in the number of acute HCV infections in different parts of Europe. HCV seroconversion was defined as an HCV-antibody test change from negative to positive within the observation period in EuroSIDA. Binomial regression was performed to determine factors associated with being tested for HCV and HCV seroconversion. A total of 223 HCV seroconversions were observed from 16,188 tests [1.38% (95%CI 1.20-1.56)] among 5,736 patients between 2002 and 2013. Overall the odds of acquiring HCV infection increased by 4% per year (OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.99-1.09]; p=0.10). Overall 63.2% (141/223) of all seroconversions were seen among MSM. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.69, test for interaction) and HIV transmission risks groups (p=0.69, test for interaction). In multivariate analysis, North, South and East Europe had higher odds of HCV seroconversion compared with Western Europe (OR 1.90 [1.28-2.81], 1.55 [0.99-2.45], and 1.86 [1.21-2.84]; p=0.0014, p=0.058, and p=0.0044, respectively). Within EuroSIDA a significant increase in HCV seroconversions can be observed after accounting for increased levels of testing for HCV in recent years. This highlights the need for increased HCV prevention efforts among HIV-positive persons in Europe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/liv.12848 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related death (LRD) for therapy. This study aims to provide guidance on who should be prioritized for DAA treatment. Three thousand nine hundred and forty-one HCV antibody-positive EuroSIDA patients with follow-up after 1 January 2000 were included, with causes of death classified using CoDe methodology. Crude death rates, competing-risks Cox proportional-hazards models and cumulative incidence functions were used to describe factors associated with LRD. LRD accounted for 145/670 (21.6%) deaths in the study population. LRD rates peaked in those aged 35-45 years, and occurred almost exclusively in those with at least F2 fibrosis at baseline. In adjusted Cox models, risk factors for LRD included F4 or F2/F3 fibrosis [sub-distribution hazard ratio (sHR) 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-9.6; and sHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.2 vs. F0/F1, respectively), CD4 cell count (sHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95 per doubling) and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive (sHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.5 vs. hepatitis B surface antigen-negative). The 5-year probability of LRD was low in those with F0/F1 fibrosis (sHR 2.2%, 95% CI 1.7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered essential to decrease the risk of LRD and the need for HCV treatment.
    AIDS (London, England) 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000674 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Little is known about the prevalence of CKD in individuals with high CD4 cell counts prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to address this knowledge gap. We describe the prevalence of CKD among 4637 ART-naïve adults (mean age 36.8 years) with CD4 cell counts > 500 cells/μL at enrolment in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and/or dipstick urine protein ≥ 1+. Logistic regression was used to identify baseline characteristics associated with CKD. Among 286 [6.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5%, 6.9%] participants with CKD, the majority had isolated proteinuria. A total of 268 participants had urine protein ≥ 1+, including 41 with urine protein ≥ 2+. Only 22 participants (0.5%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , including four who also had proteinuria. Baseline characteristics independently associated with CKD included diabetes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.73; 95% CI 1.05, 2.85], hypertension (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.38, 2.38), and race/ethnicity (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.37, 0.93 for Hispanic vs. white). We observed a low prevalence of CKD associated with traditional CKD risk factors among ART-naïve clinical trial participants with CD4 cell counts > 500 cells/μL. © 2015 British HIV Association.
    HIV Medicine 04/2015; 16 Suppl 1(S1):55-63. DOI:10.1111/hiv.12234 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. A total of 17,954 HIV-positive individuals from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with ≥3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values after 1 January 2004 were included. Baseline was defined as the first eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1 January 2004; individuals with exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, other boosted protease inhibitors before baseline were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 mo apart) eGFR ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poisson regression was used to develop a risk score, externally validated on two independent cohorts. In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7-6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3-9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 count nadir, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted CKD. The adjusted incidence rate ratios of these nine categorical variables were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The median risk score at baseline was -2 (interquartile range -4 to 2). There was a 1:393 chance of developing CKD in the next 5 y in the low risk group (risk score < 0, 33 events), rising to 1:47 and 1:6 in the medium (risk score 0-4, 103 events) and high risk groups (risk score ≥ 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166-3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159-278) and 21 (95% CI 19-23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506-1462), 88 (95% CI 69-121), and 9 (95% CI 8-10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3-12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6-8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD.
    PLoS Medicine 03/2015; 12(3):e1001809. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001809 · 14.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens in heavy compared to normal-weight HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Observational European cohort collaboration study. METHODS: Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naïve with documented weight prior to EFV start and follow-up viral loads after treatment initiation. Cox regression analyses evaluated the association between weight and time to first undetectable viral load (<50 copies/ml) after treatment initiation, and time to viral load rebound (two consecutive viral load >50 copies/ml) after initial suppression over 5 years of follow-up. Recovery of CD4 cell count was evaluated 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation. Analyses were stratified by weight (kg) group (I - <55; II - >55, <80 (reference); III - >80, <85; IV - >85, <90; V - >90, <95; VI - >95). RESULTS: The study included 19 968 patients, of whom 9.1, 68.3, 9.1, 5.8, 3.5, and 4.3% were in weight groups I-VI, respectively. Overall, 81.1% patients attained virological suppression, of whom 34.1% subsequently experienced viral load rebound. After multiple adjustments, no statistical difference was observed in time to undetectable viral load and virological rebound for heavier individuals compared to their normal-weight counterparts. Although heaviest individuals had significantly higher CD4 cell count at baseline, CD4 cell recovery at 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation was comparable to normal-weight individuals. CONCLUSION: Virological and immunological responses to initial EFV-containing regimens were not impaired in heavy individuals, suggesting that the standard 600 mg EFV dosage is appropriate across a wide weight range.
    AIDS 11/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000530 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the relationship between platelet counts and risk of AIDS and non-AIDS-defining events. Design: Prospective cohort. Methods: EuroSIDA patients with at least one platelet count were followed from baseline (first platelet ≥ 1 January 2005) until last visit or death. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between current platelet counts and the incidence of non-AIDS-defining (pancreatitis, end-stage liver/renal disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease) and AIDS-defining events. Results: There were 62 898 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) among 12 279 patients, including 1168 non-AIDS-defining events [crude incidence 18.6/1000 PYFU, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5–19.6] and 735 AIDS-defining events (crude incidence 11.7/1000 PYFU, 95% CI 10.8–12.5). Patients with thrombocytopenia (platelet count ≤100 × 109/l) had a slightly increased incidence of AIDS-defining events [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.07–1.86], when compared to those with platelet counts 101–200 × 109/l, whereas the incidence of non-AIDS-defining events was more than two-fold higher (aIRR 2.66, 95% CI 2.17–3.26). Among non-AIDS-defining events, the adjusted incidence of cancer (aIRR 2.20, 95% CI 1.61–3.01), but not cardiovascular disease (aIRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.32–1.34), was significantly higher in patients with thrombocytopenia. The association between thrombocytopenia and cancer remained unaltered in sensitivity analyses requiring repeated platelet counts to confirm thrombocytopenia and lagging platelets by 1 year prior to clinical events. Conclusion: Patients with thrombocytopenia had increased incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining events, but the association with the latter, in particular cancer, was stronger. Future studies should investigate whether the pathophysiological processes underlying thrombocytopenia are associated with the development of cancer during treated HIV disease.
    AIDS 11/2014; 28(17):2565-2571. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000433 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. Methods A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared with clinics in all other EuroSIDA regions combined (non-EE). Characteristics were compared between regions using Fishers exact test. Results A total of 80/97 clinics responded (82.5%, 12/15 in EE, 68/82 in non-EE). Participating clinics reported seeing a total of 133,532 patients [a median of 1300 per clinic (IQR 700–2399)]. The majority of clinics requested viral load and CD4 measurements at least every six months for patients on as well as off ART (EE 66.7%, non-EE 75%, p=0,72). Significantly fewer EE clinics performed resistance tests before ART as well as upon treatment failure (Figure 1). Half of the EE clinics indicated following WHO guidelines (EE 50%, non-EE 7.4%, p<0.0001), whereas most non-EE clinics followed EACS guidelines (non-EE 76.5%, EE 41.7%, p=0.017). The majority of EE clinics and ¼ non-EE clinics indicated deferral of ART initiation in asymptomatic individuals until CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3 (Figure 1). There were no significant regional differences in screening haematology, liver or renal function, which the majority of clinics reported to do routinely. However, EE clinics reported screening significantly less for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and only about half screened for tobacco use, alcohol consumption and drug use (Figure 1). Screening for cervical cancer and for anorectal cancer was low in both regions (Figure 1). Conclusions We found significant regional variability in self-reported HIV management across Europe, with less resistance testing, screening for CVD and substance use in EE. EE clinics indicated deferral of ART initiation for longer than non-EE clinics. Adherence to international guidelines for cervical cancer screening was poor in both regions. Whether differences in HIV management are reflected in clinical outcomes deserves further investigation.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19504. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19504 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteinuria (PTU) is an important marker for the development and progression of renal disease, cardiovascular disease and death, but there is limited information about the prevalence and factors associated with confirmed PTU in predominantly white European HIV+ persons, especially in those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2).
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19561. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19561 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA) at TB diagnosis, identify factors associated with MDR-TB and assess the activity of initial TB treatment regimens given the results of drug-susceptibility tests (DST). Material and Methods We enrolled 1413 TB/HIV patients from 62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, Western Europe (WE), Southern Europe (SE) and LA from January 2011 to December 2013. Among patients who completed DST within the first month of TB therapy, we linked initial TB treatment regimens to the DST results and calculated the distribution of patients receiving 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 active drugs in each region. Risk factors for MDR-TB were identified in logistic regression models. Results Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844), WE (n=152), SE (n=164) and LA (n=253) for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001), a definite TB diagnosis (culture and/or PCR positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001) and MDR-TB prevalence (34%, 3%, 3% and 11%, p <0.0001 among those with DST results). The history of injecting drug use [adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03, (95% CI 1.00–4.09)], prior TB treatment (aOR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.88–6.22) and living in EE (aOR = 7.19, 95% CI 3.28–15.78) were associated with MDR-TB. For 569 patients with available DST, the initial TB treatment contained ≥3 active drugs in 64% of patients in EE compared with 90–94% of patients in other regions (Figure 1a). Had the patients received initial therapy with standard therapy [Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol (RHZE)], the corresponding proportions would have been 64% vs. 86–97%, respectively (Figure 1b). Conclusions In EE, TB/HIV patients had poorer exposure to cART, less often a definitive TB diagnosis and more often MDR-TB compared to other parts of Europe and LA. Initial TB therapy in EE was sub-optimal, with less than two-thirds of patients receiving at least three active drugs, and improved compliance with standard RHZE treatment does not seem to be the solution. Improved management of TB/HIV patients requires routine use of DST, initial TB therapy according to prevailing resistance patterns and more widespread use of cART.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19505. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19505 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV− men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV− men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. Methods Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed models were used to describe kinetics. Results Sixty-one men were included with a median six (IQR 2–9) years follow-up. Time between last sample and PCa was seven (4–11) months. Cases and controls were well matched at first sample, with a median age of 51 (IQR 48–57) and CD4 of 437 (243–610) cells/mm3. Median tPSA [2.8 (IQR: 1.6–4.6) and 0.8 (0.5–1.2) µg/L] and fPSA [0.4 (0.2–0.8) and 0.3 (0.2–0.4) µg/L] levels were higher in cases than controls at first sample. Both tPSA and fPSA increased significantly over time in cases (Figure 1), to a median at last sample of 6.1 (4.7–9.5) and 0.9 (0.6–1.3) µg/L, respectively, but were stable in controls, with a median at last sample of 0.8 (0.5–1.4) and 0.2 (0.2–0.4) µg/L (Figure). Higher levels of tPSA and fPSA were associated with higher odds of PCa at first sample [OR for 2-fold higher 4.7 (CI: 1.7–12.9) and 5.4 (1.7–17.4)]. Elevated tPSA values in cases were detectable ≥5 years before PCa (p<0.01). Testosterone [overall median 19.4 (IQR 15.3–23.9) nmol/L at first sample) and SHBG [50.0 (34.0–66.0) nmol/L] levels were similar in cases and controls at first and last sample (all p>0.7). The most informative predictor of PCa was tPSA (AUC=0.9), followed by fPSA (0.8). Testosterone (AUC = 0.5) and SHBG (0.5) were poor predictors of PCa. Overall, tPSA level >4 µg/L had 99% specificity and 37% sensitivity. Performance was best in the year prior to PCa (specificity: 99%, sensitivity: 88%). Conclusions PSA was highly predictive of PCa in HIV+ men. Our results indicate that PSA screening in HIV+ men may be useful, and further work is needed to identify potentially age-related cut-offs to maximize sensitivity and specificity to identify those for further evaluation at early stages of PCa.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19510. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19510 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Use of unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) is approved in the US but not in Europe (1). Due to pharmacokinetic interactions it should not be used with tenofovir but can be used with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) (1, 2) (3). Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinical routine however are scant. Methods: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c/mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. Results: We included 258 subjects: 176 (68%) male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53) y, 225 (87.2%) white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700), time with VL≤ 50 c/mL 45 (24, 69) months. The median calendar year of switching was 2008 (2006, 2010). The 3rd drug in previous regimen was ATV/r in 70 (27.1%), other PI/r in 25 (9.7%), and other 163 (63.2%); 85 (32.9%) had previously failed with a PI. The virological response at 48/96/144 weeks was, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason) and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0.8/1.9/3.5% discontinued due to adverse events. There was a high rate of discontinuations due to other reasons or with VL missing in window. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we observed an association between VF and nadir CD4 count (RH 0.60 [0.39, 0.93] per 100 cells higher), time with VL≤50 c/mL (RH 0.89 [0.81, 0.98] per 6 months longer) and previous failure with a PI (3.04 [1.36, 6.80]). There was no association with gender, age, hepatitis virus co-infection, CD4 count at time of switching or third drug used in the previous regimen. Conclusions: A switch to ATV400+ABC/3TC in selected subjects with HIV-RNA below 50 c/mL is associated with relatively low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events. Use might be considered in those with long-term suppression and without prior PI failure. Larger cohorts are required to further define the appropriate selection criteria.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4(Suppl 3)):19810. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19810 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Development of a simple, widely applicable risk score for chronic kidney disease (CKD) allows comparisons of risks or benefits of starting potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals (ARVs) as part of a treatment regimen. Materials and Methods A total of 18,055 HIV-positive persons from the Data on Adverse Drugs (D:A:D) study with >3 estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) >1/1/2004 were included. Persons with use of tenofovir (TDF), atazanavir (ritonavir boosted (ATV/r) and unboosted (ATV)), lopinavir (LPV/r) and other boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) before baseline (first eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1/1/2004) were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR <60. Poisson regression was used to develop a score predicting low (<0 points), medium (1–4 points) and high (>5 points) risk of developing CKD. Increased incidence of CKD associated with starting ARVs was modelled by including ARVs as time-updated variables. The risk score was externally validated on two independent cohorts. Results A total of 641 persons developed CKD during 103,278.5 PYFU (incidence 6.2/1000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7–6.7). Older age, intravenous drug use, HCV+ antibody status, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 nadir, hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted CKD and were included in the risk score (Figure 1). The incidence of CKD in those at low, medium and high risk was 0.8/1000 PYFU (95% CI 0.6–1.0), 5.6 (95% CI 4.5–6.7) and 37.4 (95% CI 34.0–40.7) (Figure 1). The risk score showed good discrimination (Harrell's c statistic 0.92, 95% CI 0.90–0.93). The number needed to harm (NNTH) in patients starting ATV or LPV/r was 1395, 142 or 20, respectively, among those with low, medium or high risk. NNTH were 603, 61 and 9 for those with a low, medium or high risk starting TDF, ATV/r or bPIs. The risk score was externally validated on 2603 persons from the Royal Free Hospital clinic cohort (94 events, incidence 5.1/1000 PYFU; 95% CI 4.1–6.1) and 2013 persons from the control arms of SMART/ESPRIT (32 events, incidence 3.8/1000 PYFU; 95% CI 2.5–5.1). External validation showed consistent CKD rates across risk groups (Figure 2). Interpretation Traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD; all are routinely available, making the risk score easy to incorporate into clinical practise and of direct relevance for clinical decision making. NNTH in persons starting potentially nephrotoxic ARVs at high risk of CKD were low, and alternative ARVs may be more appropriate.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19514. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19514 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction There is a lack of data on potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the D:A:D study. Materials and Methods Follow-up was from 01/02/99 until the earliest of death, 6 months after last visit or 01/02/13. Rates of initiation of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives and receipt of invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs; bypass, angioplasty, endarterectomy) were calculated in those without a myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at baseline, overall and in groups known to be at higher CVD risk: (i) age >50, (ii) total cholesterol >6.2 mmol/l, (iii) triglyceride >2.3 mmol/l, (iv) hypertension, (v) previous MI, (vi) diabetes, or (vii) predicted 10-year CVD risk >10%. Poisson regression was used to assess whether rates of initiation were higher in men than women, after adjustment for these factors. Results At enrolment, women (n=13,039; median (interquartile range) 34 (29–40) years) were younger than men (n=36,664, 39 (33–46) years, p=0.001), and were less likely to be current smokers (29% vs. 39%, p=0.0001), to have diabetes (2% vs. 3%, p=0.0001) or to have hypertension (7% vs. 11%, p=0.0001). Of 49,071 individuals without a MI/stroke at enrolment, 0.6% women vs. 2.1% men experienced a MI while 0.8% vs. 1.3% experienced a stroke. Overall, women received ICPs at a rate of 0.07/100 person-years (PYRS) compared to 0.29/100 PYRS in men. Similarly, the rates of initiation of LLDs (1.28 vs. 2.46), anti-hypertensives (1.11 vs. 1.38) and ACEIs (0.82 vs. 1.37) were all significantly lower in women than men (Table 1). As expected, initiation rates of each intervention were higher in the groups determined to be at moderate/high CVD risk; however, within each high-risk group, initiation rates of most interventions (with the exception of anti-hypertensives) were generally lower in women than men. These gender differences persisted after adjustment for potential confounders (Table 1). Conclusion Use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men in the D:A:D study. Our findings suggest that actions should be taken to ensure that both men and women are monitored for CVD and, if eligible, receive appropriate CVD interventions.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19516. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19516 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction A recent meta-analysis of 4 RCTs showed an increased rate of suicidality events (suicidal ideation or attempted/completed suicide) associated with efavirenz (EFV) compared to other regimens, but only a trend towards a higher rate of completed/attempted suicides, as only 17 events occurred. We investigated the association between EFV use and completed suicide. Materials and Methods All D:A:D participants were followed from study entry to the first of death, last study visit or 1 February 2013. Deaths are centrally validated using cause of death methodology, which assigns underlying, immediate and up to four contributing causes of death. Two endpoints were considered: 1) suicide or psychiatric disease as the underlying cause, and 2) suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned as an underlying, immediate or contributing cause of death (anywhere). Adjusted rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. Results A total of 4420 deaths occurred in 49,717 people over 371,333 person-years (PY) (rate 11.9 per 1000 PY; 95% CI 11.6–12.3). A total of 193 deaths (rate 0.52; 0.45–0.59) had an underlying cause of suicide or psychiatric disease, and 482 deaths (1.30; 1.18–1.41) had suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned anywhere. A strong association with current CD4 count was seen: for suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned anywhere, rates were: 3.18 (2.55–3.80) for <200 cells/uL, 1.60 (1.29–1.90) for 201–350 cells/uL, 1.07 (0.86–1.29) for 351–500 cells/uL, 0.95 (0.80–1.09) for >500 cells/uL and 1.30 (1.18–1.41) for unknown. Highest rate of suicide or psychiatric deaths were seen in ART-experienced people currently off ART, but no differences were seen according to current ART regimen, which remained after adjustment (Table 1). Consistent results were obtained when considering additional endpoints of suicide alone as the underlying cause and death from suicide or any possibly related cause (psychiatric disease, drug overdose, alcohol related, accidental or violent), as well as considering recent EFV use in the previous 3 and 6 months. Conclusions The finding of no higher death rates from suicide amongst those receiving EFV is reassuring. However, there is likely confounding by indication in our observational study. In light of conflicting results from RCTs, this potentially could suggest that in clinical practice EFV may be less frequently prescribed in those with underlying psychiatric conditions.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19512. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19512 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: ALT-flares are frequently observed in TX recipients, but the underlying reason is only known for a fraction. At our hospital, performing a large number of solid organ (SOT) and human stem cell TX's (HSCT), we initiated a program aimed at improving our understanding of the clinical implication from liver injury during post-TX follow-up (FU). Here we report on the incidence and risk factors for ALT flares, and the short- and long-term association with mortality. Methods: Analysis included 1002 SOT (kidney (n=328), liver (170), lung (120), and heart (47)) and HSCT (337) recipients at our hospital, consecutive transplanted between Sept/09-July/13, and with prospective FU ≤ Oct/13. ALT-flares (>1.25xULN) were classified according to grade (NIH) and recognized cause (patient notes review). Poisson regression was used to determine incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of flares and death; generalized estimated equations allowed for repeated flares within individuals. Number and type of flare was included in models as time-updated variables. Results: 501 of 1002 (50%) patients experienced a total of 1197 ALT-flares (46% had 1, 23% 2, and 31% >2 flares) during 1937 person years of FU (incidence 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.65)/PYFU). The reasons for the ALT flare was often unknown (50%), due to infections (12%), drug-induced (DILI-11%) or other reasons, and most were grade 2-3 (16% grade 4). Incidence of flares was elevated for all types of TX compared with kidney TX, was high in first 4-12 weeks postTX and plateaued thereafter for all except liver SOT (fig). During FU, 152 recipients died, and the adjusted IRR of death associated with experiencing 1, 2, or >2 (versus 0) ALT-flares were 1.1 (0.6-2.0), 2.1 (1.1-3.7), and 5.1 (3.2-8.1); the excess risk with >2 ALT flares persisted when lagging time between ALT flare and death by up to 6 months, for all types of ALT flares (p<0.05)(except DILI-associated), accounting for competing risk or excluding liver TX patients. Conclusion: ALT flares occur frequently in the first 3 months after all types of TX, often remains unexplained, but if occurring several times is associated with excess risk of death 6 months thereafter. A better understanding of currently unrecognized factor contributing to ALT flares in this setting (e.g. HEV) is warranted.
    IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
  • Source
    HepHIV2014, Barcelona; 10/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethnic differences have the potential to confound associations between HIV-1 subtype and immunologic progression. We compared declines in CD4 cell counts during untreated infection for the most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes, focusing on distinguishing between the effects of viral subtype and ethnicity. We combined data from 4 European and 6 Canadian cohorts, selecting adults in the stable chronic phase of untreated HIV infection. We estimated the change in square root CD4 cell count over time for subtypes and ethnicities using mixed models, adjusting for covariates selected for their potential effect on initial CD4 cell count or its decline. Data from 9772 patients were analyzed, contributing 79 175 measurements of CD4 cell count and 24 157 person-years of follow-up. Overall, there were no appreciable differences in CD4 cell count decline for viral subtypes A, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, C and G compared with viral subtype B; whereas the decline in CD4 cell count in patients of African ancestry was considerably slower than in patients of other ethnicity. When ethnic groups were studied separately, there was evidence for slower declines in CD4 cell count in viral subtypes C, and possibly A and G, compared with viral subtype B in patients of African ancestry but not among patients of other ethnicities, suggesting an interaction between subtype and ethnicity. Ethnicity is a major determinant of CD4 cell count decline; viral subtype differences may have existed but were small compared with the effect of ethnicity and were most apparent in patients of African ancestry. In developing countries, slower CD4 cell count declines among individuals of African descent may translate to a longer asymptomatic phase and increase the opportunity for HIV transmission.
    10/2014; 2(4):E318-E329. DOI:10.9778/cmajo.20140017

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,795.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • McGill University Health Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1998–2014
    • University College London
      • • Department of Infection and Population Health
      • • Division of Medicine
      • • Department of Primary Care and Population Health (PCPH)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Royal Free Academy of PMC
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2011
    • Universität Bern
      • Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • University of New South Wales
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Hospital Carlos III - Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2008
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2008
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Social and Community Medicine
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Medical University of Silesia in Katowice
      Catowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2002–2006
    • Hospital de Santa Maria
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1998–2006
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1996–2005
    • Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Haematology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2000
    • Odense University Hospital
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 1999
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany