[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intake of aspirin is associated with reduction in risk of colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. Some plants contain salicylates, and individuals not taking aspirin may have measurable salicylate levels. However, the association between serum salicylate level and recurrence of adenoma in nonusers of aspirin has not been studied.
We measured serum salicylate levels in participants in a randomized controlled trial with calcium supplementation for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between serum levels and adenoma risk during the follow-up period of the trial.
We did not find an association with recurrence of adenomas or advanced adenomas with serum salicylate levels at year 1 among nonusers of aspirin. There was no effect modification of the chemopreventive effect of calcium supplementation in reducing risk of recurrent adenomas or advanced adenomas.
Among nonusers of ASA, serum salicylate levels are not associated with risk of recurrence of adenomas.
Serum salicylate levels can be detected in individuals not taking aspirin, but the levels may be too low to confer protection from risk of recurrent adenomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene-specific promoter methylation of several genes occurs in aging normal tissues and may predispose to tumorigenesis. In the present study, we investigate the association of blood folate levels and dietary and lifestyle factors with CpG island (CGI) methylation in normal colorectal mucosa. Subjects were enrolled in a multicenter chemoprevention trial of aspirin or folic acid for the prevention of large bowel adenomas. We collected 1,000 biopsy specimens from 389 patients, 501 samples from the right colon and 499 from the rectum at the follow-up colonoscopy. We measured DNA methylation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and secreted frizzled related protein-1 (SFRP1), using bisulfite pyrosequencing. We used generalized estimating equations regression analysis to examine the association between methylation and selected variables. For both ERα and SFRP1, percentage methylation was significantly higher in the rectum than in the right colon (P = 0.001). For each 10 years of age, we observed a 1.7% increase in methylation level for ERα and a 2.9% increase for SFRP1 (P < 0.0001). African Americans had a significantly lower level of ERα and SFRP1 methylation than Caucasians and Hispanics. Higher RBC folate levels were associated with higher levels of both ERα (P = 0.03) and SFRP1 methylation (P = 0.01). Our results suggest that CGI methylation in normal colorectal mucosa is related to advancing age, race, rectal location, and RBC folate levels. These data have important implications regarding the safety of supplementary folate administration in healthy adults, given the hypothesis that methylation in normal mucosa may predispose to colorectal neoplasia.
Cancer Prevention Research 12/2010; 3(12):1552-64. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is an accepted marker of functional folate deficiency but may have independent effects on colorectal neoplasia risk. It is uncertain whether plasma tHcy is associated with risk at the low levels common in a folate-fortified population.
Study subjects, about half of whom were recruited after fortification of grain products with folic acid in the United States and Canada, consisted of 871 individuals with a recent history of one or more colorectal adenomas who were randomized to receive either a 1 mg/day folic acid supplement or a placebo within one of three randomly assigned aspirin treatment groups (placebo, 81, or 325 mg/day). Nonfasting plasma tHcy was determined by a gas chromatograph mass chromatography method. We estimated adjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for one or more adenoma recurrences for each quartile of baseline plasma tHcy using generalized linear regression with an overdispersed Poisson approximation to the binomial.
The Q4/Q1 adjusted risk ratio for any adenoma was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.70-1.38; P trend = 0.17) in the placebo group, and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.58-1.12; P-trend = 0.17) in the folic acid group. Results were similar for adenomas with advanced features. There was no modification by sex, aspirin treatment group or MTHFR 677C>T genotype.
Plasma tHcy is not an independent marker for an increase in colorectal adenoma recurrence risk in postfortification populations in which plasma tHcy levels are in the lower range of values.
Controlling plasma tHcy levels is unlikely to favorably modify adenoma recurrence risk in folate-fortified populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbed folate metabolism is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. Our objective was to determine whether blood levels of folate, vitamin B(12), and related metabolites were associated with prostate cancer risk.
Matched case-control study nested within the U.K. population-based Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer in men ages 50 to 69 years. Plasma concentrations of folate, B(12) (cobalamin), holo-haptocorrin, holo-transcobalamin total transcobalamin, and total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured in 1,461 cases and 1,507 controls. ProtecT study estimates for associations of folate, B(12), and tHcy with prostate cancer risk were included in a meta-analysis, based on a systematic review.
In the ProtecT study, increased B(12) and holo-haptocorrin concentrations showed positive associations with prostate cancer risk [highest versus lowest quartile of B(12) odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.43); P(trend) = 0.06; highest versus lowest quartile of holo-haptocorrin OR = 1.27 (1.04-1.56); P(trend) = 0.01]; folate, holo-transcobalamin, and tHcy were not associated with prostate cancer risk. In the meta-analysis, circulating B(12) levels were associated with an increased prostate cancer risk [pooled OR = 1.10 (1.01-1.19) per 100 pmol/L increase in B(12); P = 0.002]; the pooled OR for the association of folate with prostate cancer was positive [OR = 1.11 (0.96-1.28) per 10 nmol/L; P = 0.2) and conventionally statistically significant if ProtecT (the only case-control study) was excluded [OR = 1.18 (1.00-1.40) per 10 nmol/L; P = 0.02].
Vitamin B(12) and (in cohort studies) folate were associated with increased prostate cancer risk.
Given current controversies over mandatory fortification, further research is needed to determine whether these are causal associations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the production of prostaglandins, potent mediators of inflammation. Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Aspirin inhibits COX-2 activity and lowers the risk for colorectal adenomas and cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX-2 influenced risk for colorectal adenoma recurrence among 979 participants in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study who were randomly assigned to placebo or aspirin and followed for 3 years for the occurrence of new adenomas. Of these participants, 44.2% developed at least one new adenoma during follow-up. Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to test the association between genetic variation at six COX-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and adenoma occurrence and interaction with aspirin treatment. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased adenoma recurrence: for rs5277, homozygous carriers of the minor C allele had a 51% increased risk compared with GG homozygotes (relative risk, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25), and for rs4648310, heterozygous carriers of the minor G allele had a 37% increased risk compared with AA homozygotes (relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.79). (There were no minor allele homozygotes.) In stratified analyses, there was suggestive evidence that rs4648319 modified the effect of aspirin. These results support the hypothesis that COX-2 plays a role in the etiology of colon cancer and may be a target for aspirin chemoprevention and warrant further investigation in other colorectal adenoma and cancer populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some serrated polyps of the colorectum are likely preinvasive lesions, evolving through a newly recognized serrated pathway to colorectal cancer. To assess possible risk and protective factors for serrated polyps and particularly to explore differences in risk factors between polyps in the right and left colorectum, we pooled data from three large multicenter chemoprevention trials. A serrated polyp was defined broadly as any serrated lesion (hyperplastic, sessile serrated adenoma, "traditional" serrated adenoma, mixed adenoma) diagnosed during each trial's main treatment period of approximately 3 to 4 years. Using generalized linear regression, we computed risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of the association between risk for serrated polyps and demographic, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Of the 2,830 subjects that completed at least one follow-up exam after randomization, 675 (23.9%) had at least one left-sided serrated polyp and 261 (9.2%) had at least one right-sided lesion. In the left colorectum, obesity, cigarette smoking, dietary fat, total energy intake, and red meat intake were associated with an increased risk for serrated polyps. In the right colon, aspirin treatment was associated with a reduced risk and family history of polyps and folate treatment were associated with an increased risk for serrated polyps. Our results suggest that several common lifestyle and dietary variables are associated with risk for serrated polyps, and some of these may differ for the right and left colorectum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global loss of methylated cytosines in DNA, thought to predispose to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. Little is known about the relationships between global hypomethylation and lifestyle, demographics, dietary measures, and genetic factors.
Our data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of aspirin and folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. At a surveillance colonoscopy approximately 3 years after the qualifying exam, we obtained two biopsies of the normal-appearing mucosa from the right colon and two biopsies from the left colon. Specimens were assayed for global hypomethylation using a pyrosequencing assay for LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide elements) repeats.
The analysis included data from 388 subjects. There was relatively little variability in LINE methylation overall. Mean LINE-1 methylation levels in normal mucosa from the right bowel were significantly lower than those on the left side (P < 0.0001). No significant associations were found between LINE-1 methylation and folate treatment, age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, dietary intake, or circulating levels of B vitamins, homocysteine, or selected genotypes. Race, dietary folic acid, and plasma B(6) showed associations with global methylation that differed between the right and the left bowel. The effect of folic acid on risk of adenomas did not differ according to extent of LINE-1 methylation, and we found no association between LINE-1 methylation and risk of adenomas.
LINE-1 methylation is not influenced by folic acid supplementation but differs by colon subsite.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data regarding the association between folate status and risk of prostate cancer are sparse and conflicting. We studied prostate cancer occurrence in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, a placebo-controlled randomized trial of aspirin and folic acid supplementation for the chemoprevention of colorectal adenomas conducted between July 6, 1994, and December 31, 2006. Participants were followed for up to 10.8 (median = 7.0, interquartile range = 6.0-7.8) years and asked periodically to report all illnesses and hospitalizations. Aspirin alone had no statistically significant effect on prostate cancer incidence, but there were marked differences according to folic acid treatment. Among the 643 men who were randomly assigned to placebo or supplementation with folic acid, the estimated probability of being diagnosed with prostate cancer over a 10-year period was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.5% to 14.5%) in the folic acid group and 3.3% (95% CI = 1.7% to 6.4%) in the placebo group (age-adjusted hazard ratio = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.23 to 5.65, Wald test P = .01). In contrast, baseline dietary folate intake and plasma folate in nonmultivitamin users were inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer, although these associations did not attain statistical significance in adjusted analyses. These findings highlight the potential complex role of folate in prostate cancer and the possibly different effects of folic acid-containing supplements vs natural sources of folate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas in randomized trials. We examined the persistence of the protective effect after the cessation of randomized aspirin treatment and whether it is affected by the duration and frequency of subsequent NSAID use.
We used data from the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study (AFPPS), in which 1121 subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo or aspirin (81 or 325 mg/d) for 3 years. After the end of treatment and a follow-up colonoscopy, AFPPS participants were invited to remain under follow-up until their next surveillance colonoscopies, scheduled 3-5 years later. Information regarding use of NSAIDs during posttreatment follow-up was gathered periodically via questionnaires. Average weekly NSAID use was classified as sporadic (<2 days per week), moderate (2 to <4 days per week), or frequent (>or=4 days per week). The analysis was stratified according to randomized aspirin groups and posttreatment NSAID use; placebo subjects who later were sporadic NSAID users formed the reference group. The primary outcomes were all adenomas and advanced lesions. Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed with generalized linear models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
A total of 850 subjects underwent a posttreatment colonoscopy, on average 4 years after the end of study treatment. The protective effect of 81 mg of aspirin for colorectal adenomas persisted with continued posttreatment NSAID use. The risk of any adenoma among frequent NSAID users was 26.8% vs 39.9% among placebo subjects who later used NSAIDs sporadically (adjusted relative risk = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98; P(trend) with NSAID use frequency = .03). The unadjusted absolute risk reduction was 13.1 percentage points (95% CI = -0.3 to 26.5 percentage points) (P = .07). Results for 325 mg of aspirin were similar, although not statistically significant. For advanced lesions, small numbers of endpoints limited the analysis, but findings among subjects randomly assigned to 81 mg of aspirin suggested a protective association regardless of posttreatment NSAID use.
Long-term and frequent use of NSAIDs may enhance the chemopreventive effect of aspirin against colorectal neoplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin use and folic acid supplementation and incidence of colorectal adenomas in individuals with a history of these lesions. The trial showed that folic acid supplementation does not prevent the occurrence of new adenomas and may increase risk. We extend these results by investigating whether the effect of folic acid treatment differed by baseline dietary and circulating folate levels. Diet and supplement use were ascertained at baseline through a food-frequency questionnaire; a blood sample was used to determine plasma and RBC folate levels. Individuals were followed for 3 years (first follow-up) and subsequently for an additional 3 to 5 years (second follow up). We used generalized linear regression to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence limits as measures of association. There was little evidence that baseline dietary and total folate intake, and plasma and RBC folate modified the association between folic acid treatment and risk of any adenomas or advanced lesions. However, there was a protective association of the highest tertile of dietary and total intake as well as circulating folate with risk of any adenomas among those in the placebo group but no association among individuals in the folic acid group. Our findings support the idea that although moderate doses of folate may be protective compared with deficiency, at some point of sufficiency, supplementation provides no additional benefit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folate, other vitamin B cofactors, and genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism all may play important roles in colorectal neoplasia. In this study, we examined the associations between dietary and circulating plasma levels of vitamins B(2), B(6), and B(12) and risk colorectal adenomas.
The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study is a randomized clinical trial of folic acid supplementation and incidence of new colorectal adenomas in individuals with a history of adenomas (n = 1,084). Diet and supplement use were ascertained through a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Blood collected at baseline was used to determine plasma B-vitamin levels. We used generalized linear regression to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as measures of association.
We found a borderline significant inverse association with plasma B(6) [pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)] and adenoma risk (adjusted RR Q4 versus Q1, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61-1.00; P(trend) = 0.08). This association was not modified by folic acid supplementation or plasma folate. However, the protective association of PLP with adenoma risk was observed only among subjects who did not drink alcohol (P(interaction) = 0.03). Plasma B(2) (riboflavin) was inversely associated with risk of advanced lesions (adjusted RR Q4 versus Q1, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-0.99; P(trend) = 0.12). No significant associations were observed between adenoma risk and plasma vitamin B(12) or dietary intake of vitamin B(2) and B(6). When we examined specific gene-B-vitamin interactions, we observed a possible interaction between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase -C677T and plasma B(2) on risk of all adenomas.
Our results suggest that high levels of PLP and B(2) may protect against colorectal adenomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of supplementation with calcium alone on risk fractures in a healthy population is not clear.
The objective was to determine whether 4 y of calcium supplementation would reduce the fracture risk during treatment and subsequent follow-up in a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
The participants were aged <80 y at study entry (mean age: 61 y), were generally healthy, and had a recent diagnosis of colorectal adenoma. A total of 930 participants (72% men; mean age: 61 y) were randomly assigned to receive 4 y of treatment with 3 g CaCO(3) (1200 mg elemental Ca) daily or placebo and were followed for a mean of 10.8 y. The primary outcomes of this analysis were all fractures and minimal trauma fractures (caused by a fall from standing height or lower while sitting, standing, or walking).
There were 46 fractures (15 from minimal trauma) in 464 participants in the calcium group and 54 (29 from minimal trauma) in 466 participants in the placebo group. The overall risk of fracture differed significantly between groups during the treatment phase [hazard ratio (HR): 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.85], but not during the subsequent posttreatment follow-up (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.69). Minimal trauma fractures were also less frequent in the calcium group during treatment (HR: 0; 95% CI: 0, 0.50).
Calcium supplementation reduced the risk of all fractures and of minimal trauma fractures among healthy individuals. The benefit appeared to dissipate after treatment was stopped. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00153816.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2008; 87(6):1945-51. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that reduces patients' quality-of-life. Although highly prevalent, little is known about patients' understanding of this disorder.
To evaluate the knowledge, fears and concerns of IBS patients.
Seven hundred thirty-six IBS patients (Rome II criteria) were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Each patient received a validated questionnaire to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and fears regarding IBS.
A total of 261 of 664 potential respondents completed the questionnaire (39.3%). 83% of respondents were women, with a mean age of 53.7 years, and mean duration of symptoms of 14.2 years. Patients frequently believed that IBS develops because of anxiety (80.5%), dietary factors (75.1%) and depression (63.2%). Few respondents (28.7%) recognized that abdominal pain is the cardinal symptom of IBS, and 40.6% stated that colonoscopy can diagnose IBS. One in seven patients stated that IBS turns into cancer, and 29.9% noted that IBS increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease.
Many IBS patients have significant misconceptions regarding the nature of their disease and its prognosis. An overwhelming majority of IBS patients believe that anxiety, dietary factors and depression cause IBS. These findings are discordant with physicians' views and practices and highlight the need for patient-oriented educational programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk of recurrence of colorectal adenomas in randomized trials. However, the duration of this protective effect after cessation of active supplementation is not known.
In the Calcium Polyp Prevention Study, 930 subjects with a previous colorectal adenoma were randomly assigned from November 1988 through April 1992 to receive placebo or 1200 mg of elemental calcium daily for 4 years. The Calcium Follow-up Study was an observational phase of the trial that tracked adenoma occurrence for an average of 7 years after the end of randomized treatment and gathered information regarding the use of medications, vitamins, and supplements during that time. We obtained follow-up information for 822 subjects, 597 of whom underwent at least one colonoscopy after the end of study treatment and are included in this analysis. Generalized linear models were used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of randomized calcium treatment on risk of adenoma recurrence during the first 5 years after study treatment ended and during the subsequent 5 years. Statistical tests were two-sided.
During the first 5 years after randomized treatment ended, subjects in the calcium group still had a substantially and statistically significantly lower risk of any adenoma than those in the placebo group (31.5% versus 43.2%; adjusted RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.87, P = .005) and a smaller and not statistically significant reduction in risk of advanced adenomas (adjusted RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.43 to 1.69, P = .65). However, the randomized treatment was not associated with the risk of any type of polyp during the next 5 years. The findings were broadly similar when the analysis was restricted to subjects who did not report use of any calcium supplements after the treatment phase of the trial ended.
The protective effect of calcium supplementation on risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence extends up to 5 years after cessation of active treatment, even in the absence of continued supplementation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research suggests that the G315A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene may be a genetic marker for risk of colorectal neoplasia and may also modify the association of aspirin use with risk.
We tested these hypotheses among participants in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study who were randomly assigned to placebo or to aspirin treatment (81 or 325 mg daily) and followed for 3 years for the occurrence of new adenomas. Genomic DNA from 973 subjects was analyzed for ODC genotype. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to test the association between ODC genotype and adenoma occurrence and interactions with aspirin treatment. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Of the 973 subjects, 54% were homozygous wild-type (GG), 7% were homozygous variant (AA), and 39% were heterozygous individuals; the allele frequencies varied statistically significantly by race and ethnicity. Among these subjects, the absolute risk of any adenoma was 45% and the risk of an advanced lesion was 10%. Overall, no association was found between ODC genotype and the occurrence of new adenomas, but genotype did modify the effect of aspirin on adenoma risk. Although aspirin treatment had no protective effect among subjects with a GG genotype, among subjects with at least one A allele, it was associated with statistically significant reduced risks of any adenoma (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.95; P = .02, P(interaction) = .04) and of advanced lesions (RR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.90; P = .02, P(interaction) = .02). Among subjects with at least one A allele, 40.8% who took aspirin versus 52.9% who took placebo developed adenomas; 7.1% versus 14.0% developed advanced lesions.
ODC genotype may modify the response to aspirin treatment for colorectal adenoma prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort and disordered bowel habits. Despite the high prevalence of IBS, little is known about how physicians perceive this condition. The aims of our study were to measure physicians' understanding of IBS, to assess their attitudes towards patients with IBS, and to determine whether there are differences in the way Internal Medicine physicians (IM), Family Practice physicians (FP), and Gastroenterology physicians (GI) evaluate and treat IBS patients.
A survey was sent to 3000 physicians nationwide, 1000 each to IM, FP, and GI. The survey contained 35 questions assessing demographics, the etiology and pathophysiology of IBS, the use of diagnostic tests, and practice patterns and attitudes.
Of the deliverable questionnaires, 501 were returned completed; 472 of the respondents interviewed only adult patients, representing the cohort for this analysis. The mean age of all respondents was 47; most were men (80%). IM and FP made a new diagnosis of IBS 1.3-1.6 times each week, while GI made a new diagnosis 5.4 times each week (p<0.0001). Compared with the perceptions of FP and IM, GI felt that IBS patients were less sick than other patients (p<0.001), although they required more time per visit. More GI compared with FP and IM stated that prior infection and a history of abuse were the causes of IBS (p<0.01), while FP were more likely to believe that diet was a cause of IBS (p<0.01). GI felt a new diagnosis of IBS could be made without further testing 42% of the time. FP and IM felt that one-third of IBS patients needed referral to a GI.
The attitudes and practice patterns of physicians towards patients with IBS differ depending on practice specialty. This may be due to differences in training, the ability to perform specialized tests, and/or differences in referral patterns. Further training may improve the ability of physicians in all specialties confidently to diagnose and treat patients with IBS.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2006; 41(8):892-902. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have consistently shown a protective effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). However, little human epidemiological research has been done in this regard. We used data from the Skin Cancer Chemoprevention Study to explore the association of NSAID use and with the risk of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). 1,805 subjects with a recent history of NMSC were randomized to placebo or 50 mg of daily beta-carotene. Participants were asked about their use of over-the-counter and prescription medications at baseline and every 4 months during the trial. Skin follow-up examinations were scheduled annually with a study dermatologist; confirmed lesions were the endpoints in the study. We used a risk set approach to the analysis of grouped times survival data and unconditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios [ORs] for various exposures to NSAIDs. The use of NSAIDs was reported in over 50% of questionnaires. For BCC, NSAIDs exhibited a weak protective effect in crude analyses, which attenuated markedly after adjustment. For SCC, the use of NSAIDs in the year previous to diagnosis reduced the odds by almost 30% (adjusted OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.48-1.04). When we accounted for frequency of use, results for BCC were not striking, and there were inconsistent suggestions of an inverse association with SCC. There were some indications of a modest, nonsignificant reduction on the number of BCCs and SCCs with NSAID use. Our data suggest a weak and inconsistent chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs on BCC and SCC.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2006; 119(3):682-6. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemoprevention, pharmacological intervention for disease prevention, aims to intervene in pathways that lead to clinical disease before the disease occurs. Cancer chemoprevention is a relatively new field, but for gastrointestinal cancers, clinical trials have highlighted the chemopreventive potential of several agents. For colorectal neoplasia, trials with aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and calcium have demonstrated the most significant reductions of risk. In observational studies, NSAIDs also consistently appear to protect against oesophageal and gastric cancer. Calcium, and perhaps vitamin D, are also promising and have the advantage of being inexpensive, safe interventions. For the prevention of oesophageal cancer, antitumour-B and retinamide have provided hopeful results, although it is not clear that these findings can be extrapolated from the study populations in Asia to western countries. Evidence from China suggests that a combination of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and selenium may protect against oesophageal cancer, but the relative importance of each agent is unclear, and, again, their effects in other populations has not yet been assessed. Mass immunization against hepatitis B seems to be the most effective means of reducing the incidence of hepatocellular cancer worldwide. In addition, treatment with interferon alpha in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus shows considerable promise, given the increasing prevalence of hepatitis C virus carriage in recent years. TJ-9, polyprenoic acid and anti-aflatoxin compounds are also possible avenues that deserve future research.