Frank Grosveld

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (406)3928.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In response to DNA damage, tissue homoeostasis is ensured by protein networks promoting DNA repair, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. DNA damage response signalling pathways coordinate these processes, partly by propagating gene-expression-modulating signals. DNA damage influences not only the abundance of messenger RNAs, but also their coding information through alternative splicing. Here we show that transcription-blocking DNA lesions promote chromatin displacement of late-stage spliceosomes and initiate a positive feedback loop centred on the signalling kinase ATM. We propose that initial spliceosome displacement and subsequent R-loop formation is triggered by pausing of RNA polymerase at DNA lesions. In turn, R-loops activate ATM, which signals to impede spliceosome organization further and augment ultraviolet-irradiation-triggered alternative splicing at the genome-wide level. Our findings define R-loop-dependent ATM activation by transcription-blocking lesions as an important event in the DNA damage response of non-replicating cells, and highlight a key role for spliceosome displacement in this process.
    Nature 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/nature14512 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ordered assembly of a functional pre-initiation complex (PIC), composed of general transcription factors (GTFs), is a prerequisite for the transcription of protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II. TFIID, comprised of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), is the GTF that is thought to recognize the promoter sequences allowing site-specific PIC assembly. Transcriptional cofactors, such as SAGA, are also necessary for tightly regulated transcription initiation. The contribution of the two TAF10-containing complexes (TFIID, SAGA) to erythropoiesis remains elusive. By ablating TAF10 specifically in erythroid cells in vivo we observed a differentiation block accompanied by deregulated GATA1 target genes, including Gata1 itself, suggesting functional crosstalk between GATA1 and TAF10. Additionally, we analyzed the composition of TFIID and SAGA complexes by mass spectrometry in mouse and human cells and found that their global integrity is maintained, with minor changes, during erythroid differentiation and development. In agreement with our functional data, we show that TAF10 interacts directly with GATA1 and that TAF10 is enriched on the GATA1 locus in human fetal erythroid cells. Thus, our findings demonstrate a crosstalk between canonical TFIID and SAGA complexes and cell-specific transcription activators during development and differentiation.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/2015; 35(12):MCB.01370-14. DOI:10.1128/MCB.01370-14 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As some of the most widely utilised intercellular signalling molecules, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily members play critical roles in normal development and become disrupted in human disease. Establishing appropriate levels of TGFβ signalling involves positive and negative feedback, which are coupled and driven by the same signal transduction components (R-Smad transcription factor complexes), but whether and how the regulation of the two can be distinguished are unknown. Genome-wide comparison of published ChIP-seq datasets suggests that LIM domain binding proteins (Ldbs) co-localise with R-Smads at a substantial subset of R-Smad target genes including the locus of inhibitory Smad7 (I-Smad7), which mediates negative feedback for TGFβ signalling. We present evidence suggesting that zebrafish Ldb2a binds and directly activates the I-Smad7 gene, whereas it binds and represses the ligand gene, Squint (Sqt), which drives positive feedback. Thus, the fine tuning of TGFβ signalling derives from positive and negative control by Ldb2a. Expression of ldb2a is itself activated by TGFβ signals, suggesting potential feed-forward loops that might delay the negative input of Ldb2a to the positive feedback, as well as the positive input of Ldb2a to the negative feedback. In this way, precise gene expression control by Ldb2a enables an initial build-up of signalling via a fully active positive feedback in the absence of buffering by the negative feedback. In Ldb2a-deficient zebrafish embryos, homeostasis of TGFβ signalling is perturbed and signalling is stably enhanced, giving rise to excess mesoderm and endoderm, an effect that can be rescued by reducing signalling by the TGFβ family members, Nodal and BMP. Thus, Ldb2a is critical to the homeostatic control of TGFβ signalling and thereby embryonic patterning.
    PLoS Biology 02/2015; 13(2):e1002051. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002051 · 11.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An intimate relationship exists between nuclear architecture and gene activity. Unraveling the fine-scale three-dimensional structure of the genome and its impact on gene regulation is a major goal of current epigenetic research, one with direct implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying human phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. In this context, the novel revolutionary genome editing technologies and emerging new ways to manipulate genome folding offer new promises for the treatment of human disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 01/2015; 125(10). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-11-567925 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adult lung contains several distinct stem cells, although their properties and full potential are still being sorted out. We previously showed that ectopic Sox2 expression in the developing lung manipulated the fate of differentiating cells. Here, we addressed the question whether fully differentiated cells could be redirected towards another cell type. Therefore, we used transgenic mice to express an inducible Sox2 construct in type II pneumocytes, which are situated in the distal, respiratory areas of the lung. Within three days after the induction of the transgene, the type II cells start to proliferate and form clusters of cuboidal cells. Prolonged Sox2 expression resulted in the reversal of the type II cell towards a more embryonic, precursor-like cell, being positive for the stem cell markers Sca1 and Ssea1. Moreover, the cells started to co-express Spc and Cc10, characteristics of bronchioalveolar stem cells. We demonstrated that Sox2 directly regulates the expression of Sca1. Subsequently, these cells expressed Trp63, a marker for basal cells of the trachea. So, we show that the expression of one transcription factor in fully differentiated, distal lung cells changes their fate towards proximal cells through intermediate cell types. This may have implications for regenerative medicine, and repair of diseased and damaged lungs.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107248. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107248 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantations from umbilical cord blood or autologous HSCs for gene therapy purposes are hampered by limited number of stem cells. To test the ability to expand HSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, two growth factor cocktails containing stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (STF) or stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, insulin-like growth factor-2, fibroblast growth factor-1 (STIF) either with or without the addition of angiopoietin-like protein-3 (Angptl3) were used. Culturing HSCs in STF and STIF media for 7 days expanded long-term repopulating stem cells content in vivo by ∼6-fold and ∼10-fold compared to freshly isolated stem cells. Addition of Angptl3 resulted in increased expansion of these populations by ∼17-fold and ∼32-fold, respectively, and was further supported by enforced expression of Angptl3 in HSCs through lentiviral transduction that also promoted HSC expansion. As expansion of highly purified lineage-negative, Sca-1+, c-Kit+ HSCs was less efficient than less pure lineage-negative HSCs, Angptl3 may have a direct effect on HCS but also an indirect effect on accessory cells that support HSC expansion. No evidence for leukemia or toxicity was found during long-term follow up of mice transplanted with ex vivo expanded HSCs or manipulated HSC populations that expressed Angptl3. We conclude that the cytokine combinations used in this study to expand HSCs ex vivo enhances the engraftment in vivo. This has important implications for allogeneic umbilical cord-blood derived HSC transplantations and autologous HSC applications including gene therapy.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105642. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105642 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurite extension is regulated by multiple signaling cascades that ultimately converge on the actin and microtubule networks [1]. Rho GTPases, molecular switches that oscillate between an inactive, GDP-bound state and an active, GTP-bound state, play a pivotal role in controlling actin cytoskeleton dynamics in the growth cone [2], whereas the dynamic behavior and interactions of microtubules are largely regulated by proteins called plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), which associate with the ends of growing microtubules [3]. Here, we show that the +TIP Navigator 1 (NAV1) is important for neurite outgrowth and interacts and colocalizes with TRIO, a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor that enables neurite outgrowth by activating the Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoG [4, 5]. We find that binding of NAV1 enhances the affinity of TRIO for Rac1 and RhoG, and that NAV1 regulates TRIO-mediated Rac1 activation and neurite outgrowth. TRIO is also a +TIP, as it interacts with the core +TIP EB1 and tracks microtubule plus ends via EB1 and NAV1. Strikingly, the EB1-mediated recruitment of TRIO to microtubule ends is required for proper neurite outgrowth, and stabilization of the microtubule network by paclitaxel affects both the TRIO-NAV1 interaction and the accumulation of these proteins in neurite extensions. We propose that EB1-labeled ends of dynamic microtubules facilitate the formation and localization of functional NAV1-TRIO complexes, which in turn regulate neurite outgrowth by selectively activating Rac1. Our data reveal a novel link between dynamic microtubules, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and neurite extension.
    Current Biology 08/2014; 24(15):p1778–1785. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.037 · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Significant efforts have recently been put into the investigation of the spatial organization and the chromatin-interaction networks of genomes. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and its derivatives are important tools used in this effort. However, many of these have limitations, such as being limited to one viewpoint, expensive with moderate to low resolution, and/or requiring a large sequencing effort. Techniques like Hi-C provide a genome-wide analysis. However, it requires massive sequencing effort with considerable costs. Here we describe a new technique termed Targeted Chromatin Capture (T2C), to interrogate large selected regions of the genome. T2C provides an unbiased view of the spatial organization of selected loci at superior resolution (single restriction fragment resolution, from 2 to 6 kbp) at much lower costs than Hi-C due to the lower sequencing effort. Results We applied T2C on well-known model regions, the mouse β-globin locus and the human H19/IGF2 locus. In both cases we identified all known chromatin interactions. Furthermore, we compared the human H19/IGF2 locus data obtained from different chromatin conformation capturing methods with T2C data. We observed the same compartmentalization of the locus, but at a much higher resolution (single restriction fragments vs. the common 40 kbp bins) and higher coverage. Moreover, we compared the β-globin locus in two different biological samples (mouse primary erythroid cells and mouse fetal brain), where it is either actively transcribed or not, to identify possible transcriptional dependent interactions. We identified the known interactions in the β-globin locus and the same topological domains in both mouse primary erythroid cells and in mouse fetal brain with the latter having fewer interactions probably due to the inactivity of the locus. Furthermore, we show that interactions due to the important chromatin proteins, Ldb1 and Ctcf, in both tissues can be analyzed easily to reveal their role on transcriptional interactions and genome folding. Conclusions T2C is an efficient, easy, and affordable with high (restriction fragment) resolution tool to address both genome compartmentalization and chromatin-interaction networks for specific genomic regions at high resolution for both clinical and non-clinical research.
    Epigenetics & Chromatin 06/2014; 7(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1756-8935-7-10 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Eric Soler, Frank Grosveld
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    ABSTRACT: In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Palii et al. reveal that TAL1 is a master regulator of adhesion and migration networks in human endothelial progenitors and that ex vivo treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA enables their faster vascularization after ischemic injury.
    Cell stem cell 05/2014; 14(5):553-4. DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.018 · 22.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic studies have identified common variants within the intergenic region (HBS1L-MYB) between GTP-binding elongation factor HBS1L and myeloblastosis oncogene MYB on chromosome 6q that are associated with elevated fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels and alterations of other clinically important human erythroid traits. It is unclear how these noncoding sequence variants affect multiple erythrocyte characteristics. Here, we determined that several HBS1L-MYB intergenic variants affect regulatory elements that are occupied by key erythroid transcription factors within this region. These elements interact with MYB, a critical regulator of erythroid development and HbF levels. We found that several HBS1L-MYB intergenic variants reduce transcription factor binding, affecting long-range interactions with MYB and MYB expression levels. These data provide a functional explanation for the genetic association of HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphisms with human erythroid traits and HbF levels. Our results further designate MYB as a target for therapeutic induction of HbF to ameliorate sickle cell and β-thalassemia disease severity.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2014; 124(4). DOI:10.1172/JCI71520 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary B lymphocyte development involves the generation of a functional antigen receptor, comprising two heavy chains and two light chains arranged in a characteristic “Y” shape. To do this, the receptor genes must first be assembled by ordered genomic recombination events, starting with the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene segments. On successful rearrangement, the resulting IgH μ protein is presented on the cell surface as part of a preliminary version of the B cell receptor—the “pre-BCR.” Pre-BCR signaling then redirects recombination activity to the immunoglobulin κ light chain gene. The activity of two regulatory κ enhancer elements is known to be crucial for opening up the gene, but it remains largely unknown how the hundred or so Variable (V) segments in the κ locus gain access to the recombination system. Here, we studied a panel of pre-B cells from mice lacking specific signaling molecules, reflecting absent, partial, or complete pre-BCR signaling. We identify gene regulatory changes that are dependent on pre-BCR signaling and occur via long-range chromatin interactions between the κ enhancers and the V segments. Surprisingly the light chain gene initially contracts, but the interactions then become more functionally redistributed when pre-BCR signaling occurs. Interestingly, we find that the two enhancers play distinct roles in the process of coordinating chromatin interactions towards the V segments. Our study combines chromatin conformation techniques with data on transcription factor binding to gain unique insights into the functional role of chromatin dynamics.
    PLoS Biology 02/2014; 12(2):e1001791. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001791 · 11.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations within the OCA2 gene or the complete absence of the OCA2 protein leads to Oculocutaneous Albinism type 2. The OCA2 protein plays a central role in melanosome biogenesis, and it is a strong determinant of the eumelanin content in melanocytes. Transcript levels of the OCA2 gene are strongly correlated to pigmentation intensities. Recent studies demonstrated that the transcriptional level of OCA2 is to a large extent determined by the non-coding SNP rs12913832 located 21.5 kb upstream of the OCA2 gene promoter. In this review, we discuss current hypotheses and the available data on the mechanism of OCA2 transcriptional regulation and how this is influenced by genetic variation. Finally, we will explore how future epigenetic studies can be used to advance our insight into the functional biology that connects genetic variation to human pigmentation.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 01/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1111/pcmr.12210 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we show that transcription factors bound to regulatory sequences can be identified by purifying these unique sequences directly from mammalian cells in vivo. Using targeted chromatin purification (TChP), a double-pull-down strategy with a tetracycline-sensitive "hook" bound to a specific promoter, we identify transcription factors bound to the repressed γ-globin gene-associated regulatory regions. After validation of the binding, we show that, in human primary erythroid cells, knockdown of a number of these transcription factors induces γ-globin gene expression. Reactivation of γ-globin gene expression ameliorates the symptoms of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, and these factors provide potential targets for the development of therapeutics for treating these patients.
    Cell Reports 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.07.004 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-Thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive single-gene disorder worldwide, with a carrier frequency of 12% in Cyprus. Prenatal tests for at risk pregnancies use invasive methods and development of a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) method is of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary risks inherent to invasive methods. Here, we describe such a method by assessing a modified version of next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina platform, called 'targeted sequencing', based on the detection of paternally inherited fetal alleles in maternal plasma. We selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the β-globin locus with a high degree of heterozygosity in the Cypriot population. Spiked genomic samples were used to determine the specificity of the platform. We could detect the minor alleles in the expected ratio, showing the specificity of the platform. We then developed a multiplexed format for the selected SNPs and analysed ten maternal plasma samples from pregnancies at risk. The presence or absence of the paternal mutant allele was correctly determined in 27 out of 34 samples analysed. With haplotype analysis, NIPD was possible on eight out of ten families. This is the first study carried out for the NIPD of β-thalassaemia using targeted NGS and haplotype analysis. Preliminary results show that NGS is effective in detecting paternally inherited alleles in the maternal plasma.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.47.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2013; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2013.47 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway synergizes with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). However, in the absence of LIF, Wnt signaling is unable to maintain ES cells in the undifferentiated state. To investigate the role of canonical Wnt signaling in pluripotency and lineage specification, we expressed Wnt3a in mESCs and characterized them in growth and differentiation. We found that activated canonical Wnt signaling induced the formation of a reversible metastable primitive endoderm state in mESC. Upon subsequent differentiation, Wnt3a stimulated mESCs gave rise to large quantities of visceral endoderm. Furthermore, we determined that the ability of canonical Wnt signaling to induce a metastable primitive endoderm state was mediated by Tbx3. Our data demonstrates a specific role for canonical Wnt signaling in promoting pluripotency while at the same time priming cells for subsequent differentiation into the primitive endoderm lineage.
    Stem Cells 04/2013; 31(4). DOI:10.1002/stem.1321 · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional organization of eukaryotic genomes correlates with specific patterns of histone methylations. Regulatory regions in genomes such as enhancers and promoters differ in their extent of methylation of histone H3 at lysine-4 (H3K4), but it is largely unknown how the different methylation states are specified and controlled. Here, we show that the Kdm5c/Jarid1c/SMCX member of the Kdm5 family of H3K4 demethylases can be recruited to both enhancer and promoter elements in mouse embryonic stem cells and in neuronal progenitor cells. Knockdown of Kdm5c deregulates transcription via local increases in H3K4me3. Our data indicate that by restricting H3K4me3 modification at core promoters, Kdm5c dampens transcription, but at enhancers Kdm5c stimulates their activity. Remarkably, an impaired enhancer function activates the intrinsic promoter activity of Kdm5c-bound distal elements. Our results demonstrate that the Kdm5c demethylase plays a crucial and dynamic role in the functional discrimination between enhancers and core promoters.
    Cell Reports 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.02.030 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: DNA methylation is part of the epigenetic regulatory mechanism present in all normal cells. It is tissue-specific and stably maintained throughout development, but often abnormally changed in cancer. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most deadly type of cancer, involving different tumor subtypes. This heterogeneity is a challenge for correct diagnosis and patient treatment. The stability and specificity make of DNA methylation a very suitable marker for epigenetic phenotyping of tumors. METHODS:: To identify candidate markers for use in NSCLC diagnosis, we used genomewide DNA methylation maps that we had previously generated by MethylCap and next-generation sequencing and listed the most significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The 25 DMRs with highest significance in their methylation scores were selected. The methylation status of these DMRs was investigated in 61 tumors and matching control lung tissues by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:: We found 12 novel DMRs that showed significant differences between tumor and control lung tissues. We also identified three novel DMRs for each of the two most common NSCLC subtypes, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. We propose a panel of five DMRs, composed of novel and known markers that exhibit high specificity and sensitivity to distinguish tumors from control lung tissues. CONCLUSION:: Novel markers will aid the development of a highly specific epigenetic panel for accurate identification and subtyping of NSCLC tumors.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2013; 8(5). DOI:10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182863ed2 · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    Steven Henikoff, Frank Grosveld
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    ABSTRACT: On 11 to 13 March 2013, BioMed Central will be hosting its inaugural conference, Epigenetics & Chromatin: Interactions and Processes, at Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA. Epigenetics & Chromatin has now launched a special article series based on the general themes of the conference.
    Epigenetics & Chromatin 02/2013; 6(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1756-8935-6-2 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung development occurs under relative hypoxia and the most important oxygen-sensitive response pathway is driven by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF). HIFs are heterodimeric transcription factors of an oxygen-sensitive subunit, HIFα, and a constitutively expressed subunit, HIF1β. HIF1α and HIF2α, encoded by two separate genes, contribute to the activation of hypoxia inducible genes. A third HIFα gene, , is subject to alternative promoter usage and splicing, leading to three major isoforms, HIF3α, NEPAS and IPAS. HIF3α gene products add to the complexity of the hypoxia response as they function as dominant negative inhibitors (IPAS) or weak transcriptional activators (HIF3α/NEPAS). Previously, we and others have shown the importance of the Hif1α and Hif2α factors in lung development, and here we investigated the role of Hif3α during pulmonary development. Therefore, HIF3α was conditionally expressed in airway epithelial cells during gestation and although HIF3α transgenic mice were born alive and appeared normal, their lungs showed clear abnormalities, including a post-pseudoglandular branching defect and a decreased number of alveoli. The HIF3α expressing lungs displayed reduced numbers of Clara cells, alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. As a result of HIF3α expression, the level of Hif2α was reduced, but that of Hif1α was not affected. Two regulatory genes, Rarβ, involved in alveologenesis, and Foxp2, a transcriptional repressor of the Clara cell specific Ccsp gene, were significantly upregulated in the HIF3α expressing lungs. In addition, aberrant basal cells were observed distally as determined by the expression of Sox2 and p63. We show that Hif3α binds a conserved HRE site in the Sox2 promoter and weakly transactivated a reporter construct containing the Sox2 promoter region. Moreover, Hif3α affected the expression of genes not typically involved in the hypoxia response, providing evidence for a novel function of Hif3α beyond the hypoxia response.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57695. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057695 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

28k Citations
3,928.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2015
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1985–2015
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • National Hellenic Research Foundation
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2003–2012
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 1996–2008
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Tsukuba
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2006
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Pathology
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • Netherlands Cancer Institute
      • Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1994–2000
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Tartu
      • Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Dorpat, Tartu County, Estonia
  • 1981–1996
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–1991
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1988
    • McGill University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1984
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Laboratory of Genetics
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1979
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands