D Zagury

French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (138)909.02 Total impact

  • Medecine sciences: M/S 10/2013; 29(10):836-9. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anticytokine (AC) immune therapies derived from vaccine procedures aim at enhancing natural immune defense mechanisms ineffective to contain abnormally produced cytokines and counteract their pathogenic effects. Given their short half-life, cytokines, the production of which by effector immune cells (T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), natural killer (NK) and endothelial cells) is inducible and controlled by negative feedback regulation, (1) exert locally their signaling to paracrine/autocrine target responder cells carrying high-affinity membrane receptors and (2) are commonly present at minimal concentration in the body fluid (lymph, serum). Aberrant signaling triggered by cytokines, uncontrolly released by effector immune cells or produced by cancer and other pathologic cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases including cancer, viral infections, allergy, and autoimmunity. To block these ectopic cytokine signaling and prevent their pathogenic effects, AC Abs supplied either by injections (passive AC immune therapy) or elicited by immunization with cytokine-derived immunogenes called Kinoids (active AC immune therapy) proved to be experimentally effective and safe. In this review, we detailed the rationale and the requirements for the use of AC immunotherapies in humans, the proof of efficacy of these medications in animal disease models, and their current clinical development and outcome, including adverse side effects they may generate. We particularly show that, to date, the benefit:risk ratio of AC immune therapies is highly positive.
    Advances in Immunology 01/2012; 115:187-227. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune suppressive activities exerted by regulatory T-cell subsets have several specific functions, including self-tolerance and regulation of adaptive immune reactions, and their dysfunction can lead to autoimmune diseases and contribute to AIDS and cancer. Two functionally distinct regulatory T-cell subsets are currently identified in peripheral tissues: thymus-developed natural T regulatory cells (nTregs) controlling self-tolerance and antiinflammatory IL-10-secreting type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1) derived from Ag-stimulated T cells, which regulate inflammation-dependent adaptive immunity and minimize immunopathology. We establish herein that cell contact-mediated nTreg regulatory function is inhibited by inflammation, especially in the presence of the complement C3b receptor (CD46). Instead, as with other T-cell subsets, the latter inflammatory conditions of stimulation skew nTreg differentiation to Tr1 cells secreting IL-10, an effect potentiated by IFN-α. The clinical relevance of these findings was verified in a study of 152 lupus patients, in which we showed that lupus nTreg dysfunction is not due to intrinsic defects but is rather induced by C3b stimulation of CD46 and IFN-α and that these immune components of inflammation are directly associated with active lupus. These results provide a rationale for using anti-IFN-α Ab immunotherapy in lupus patients.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(47):18995-9000. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complex homeostasis of tissues is coordinated by the cytokine network and imbalances in this network may result in chronic immune disorders. Key specific cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-4 or VEGF have been demonstrated to be overproduced or abnormally released in the microenvironment of pathologic tissues. These findings have opened up the way to passive immunotherapy with anticytokine monoclonal antibodies. Even though passive immunotherapy has proved to be efficient, it is hampered by specific limitations. The discovery of a family of immunogens, the kinoids, consisting of inactivated cytokine derivatives, has led some to propose them for active immunotherapy as an alternative to passive immunotherapy. This review focuses on kinoids - on their validation in experimental mouse models and ongoing clinical trials. The advantages offered by this active immune therapy in terms of efficacy, safety and patient compliance will be stressed.
    Immunotherapy 05/2010; 2(3):347-65. · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 01/2010; 69(2). · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major involvement of IFNalpha in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus has been suggested by clinical observations, including the increase of serum levels of this cytokine in patients with active disease. Supporting this hypothesis, we have shown that expression of IFNalpha from a recombinant adenovirus (IFNalpha Adv) precipitates lupus manifestations in genetically susceptible New Zealand Black (NZB) x New Zealand White (NZW)F(1) mice (NZB/W) but not in BALB/c mice. In the present investigation, we have prepared an IFNalpha immunogen, termed IFNalpha kinoid, which, appropriately adjuvanted, induces transient neutralizing antibodies (Abs) but no cellular immune response to the cytokine and without apparent side effects. Using this preparation, we also showed that, in kinoid-vaccinated NZB/W mice, lupus manifestations, including proteinuria, histological renal lesions, and death triggered by IFNalpha Adv challenge were delayed/prevented as long as an effective threshold of anti-IFNalpha inhibitory capacity was present in the serum.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2009; 106(13):5294-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Science 02/2009; 323(5911):206-7. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Passive blockade of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has demonstrated high therapeutic efficiency in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, although some concerns remain such as occurrence of resistance and high cost. These limitations prompted investigations of an alternative strategy to target TNF-alpha. This study sought to demonstrate a long-lasting therapeutic effect on established arthritis of an active immunotherapy to human (h) TNF-alpha and to evaluate the long-term consequences of an endogenous anti-TNF-alpha response. hTNF-alpha transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop arthritides from 8 weeks of age, were immunized with a heterocomplex (TNF kinoid, or TNF-K) composed of hTNF-alpha and keyhole limpet hemocyanin after disease onset. We evaluated arthritides by clinical and histological assessment, and titers of neutralizing anti-hTNF-alpha antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and L929 assay. Arthritides were dramatically improved compared to control mice at week 27. TNF-K-treated mice exhibited high levels of neutralizing anti-hTNF-alpha antibodies. Between weeks 27 and 45, all immunized mice exhibited symptoms of clinical deterioration and a parallel decrease in anti-hTNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies. A maintenance dose of TNF-K reversed the clinical deterioration and increased the anti-hTNF-alpha antibody titer. At 45 weeks, TNF-K long-term efficacy was confirmed by low clinical and mild histological scores for the TNF-K-treated mice. Injections of unmodified hTNF-alpha did not induce a recall response to hTNF-alpha in TNF-K immunized mice. Anti-TNF-alpha immunotherapy with TNF-K has a sustained but reversible therapeutic efficacy in an established disease model, supporting the potential suitability of this approach in treating human disease.
    Arthritis research & therapy 01/2009; 11(6):R195. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect in mice with arthritis of active anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha immunotherapy based on a keyhole limpet haemocyanin-human TNFalpha heterocomplex (hTNFalpha kinoid or TNFK) adjuvanted in incomplete Freund adjuvant. Immunotherapy was evaluated also with methotrexate. Human TNFalpha-transgenic mice received TNFK with or without methotrexate. Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks (short term) to 17 weeks (long term). Arthritis was evaluated clinically and histologically. Monitoring included titration of anti-hTNFalpha antibodies by ELISA and neutralisation assay. Vaccination with TNFK was associated with rapid-onset, long-lasting protection. Long-term results showed significantly milder arthritis in vaccinated animals than in control animals at the peak of the disease. Vaccination was followed by resolution of the clinical evidence of arthritis, contrasting with severe progressive arthritis in the control group. Histological improvements with decreased inflammation and destruction were noted in all immunised groups, even after the shortest follow-up (6 weeks). High titres of neutralising anti-hTNFalpha antibodies were detected as early as the fifth week post immunisation and persisted over time. Methotrexate given concomitantly with the vaccine did not influence either the effect on arthritis or the anti-hTNFalpha antibody titres. Anti-cytokine induction of autoimmune protection against chronic hTNFalpha overproduction is an efficient alternative to TNFalpha blockade in experimental arthritis and can be achieved using a TNFK vaccine.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2008; 67(9):1332-8. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The abnormal cytokine release in the stromal microenvironment of pathologic tissues, contributes to the pathogenesis of viral infections such as AIDS, cancer and auto-immune diseases. Neovacs developed therapeutic vaccines, named Kinoids, which induce anti-cytokine Antibodies. Kinoids are non toxic but immunogenic cytokine derivatives. Kinoid immunizations induce high titre of neutralizing Abs to the corresponding cytokine, is well tolerated and experimentally effective. In transgenic mice expressing huTNFalpha, the TNFalpha kinoid decreases clinical signs of Rheumatoid Arthritis and in mice challenged with syngenic CT26 tumor cell line huVEGF kinoid inhibits lung metastases. After validation by clinical trials, kinoid vaccines could represent a second generation of specific immune therapy to be used to combat ectopic cytokines.
    Medecine sciences: M/S 04/2008; 24(3):306-13. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders is characterized by allergen-induced IgE stimulated by Th2 cytokines including mainly IL-4 overproduction. To counteract IL-4 effects in sensitized-BALB/c mice, we prepared an IL-4 derivative immunogen, made of KLH and murine IL-4 heterocomplex, termed mIL-4 kinoid. Murine IL-4 kinoid immunized mice produced high titer of anti-IL-4 neutralizing Abs. In contrast to KLH control immunization kinoid immunization reversed the allergic IgE:IgG ratio hallmark in rBet v 1a sensitized mice and reduced pulmonary eosinophil recruitment and bronchial hyperreactivity in Ova-sensitized mice. These data pave the way to alternative therapies to combat allergic conditions.
    Vaccine 11/2007; 25(41):7206-16. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor growth depends on blood supply, requiring the development of new vessels, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in neoangiogenic processes. For this reason, VEGF represents a target for the development of new therapeutic antiangiogenic molecules. Clinical trials using anti-VEGF mAbs such as bevacizumab have validated the efficacy of this therapeutic approach but have also revealed adverse effects. Here we report that a VEGF-derived immunogen, consisting of a heterocomplex of a murine (m)VEGF and keyhole limpet hemocyanin, called "mVEGF kinoid," triggered a strong Ab immune response in mice. The anti-VEGF Abs inhibited both the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in the presence of mVEGF and the binding of mVEGF to its receptor-2 Flk-1. In mVEGF kinoid-immunized BALB/c mice challenged with syngeneic CT26 colorectal tumor cells, the number and size of lung metastases were significantly decreased. In human (h)VEGF kinoid-immunized BALB/c mice, high levels of serum Abs to hVEGF were present, and purified IgG from these mice decreased by > or =50% the tumor growth of human A673 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and HT29 colon carcinoma xenografted in Swiss nude and NOD/SCID mice, respectively. Tumor cell growth inhibition was similar to that observed in mice receiving therapeutic doses of bevacizumab. These experiments suggest that a therapeutic vaccine containing VEGF kinoid may represent a strategy for safely combating VEGF-dependent neovascularization and metastases occurring in malignant tumors.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2007; 104(8):2837-42. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha is a potent mediator of septic shock and a therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory pathologies including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. As an alternative to anti-human TNFalpha (hTNFalpha) mAbs and other hTNFalpha blocker approved drugs, we developed an active anti-hTNFalpha immunotherapy, based on a vaccine comprised of a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-hTNFalpha heterocomplex immunogen (hTNFalpha kinoid) adjuvanted in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. In mice transgenic for hTNFalpha (TTg mice), hTNFalpha kinoid vaccination elicited high titers of Abs that neutralized hTNFalpha bioactivities but did not result in a cellular response to hTNFalpha. The vaccine was safe and effective in two experimental models. Kinoid-immunized but not control TTg mice resisted hTNFalpha-driven shock in one model and were prevented from spontaneous arthritis, inflammatory synovitis, and articular destruction in a second model. These data demonstrate an anti-cytokine induction of autoimmune protection against both acute and chronic hTNFalpha exposure. They show that active vaccination against a human cytokine can be achieved, and that the immune response can be effective and safe.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 103(51):19442-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the production of clones of human killer T cells grown in the presence of TCGF4 following sensitization in MLC against (1) allogeneic cells, (2) autologous Bebv+ lymphocytes, or (3) autologous lymphoma cells. Sensitization against the tumor cells required the addition of macrophages. The expression of the cytotoxic activity of the cloned T lymphocytes required re-stimulation with the specific stimulator cells. The cytotoxic activity seemed to be MHC-restricted, since (1) cloned allosensitized CTL lysed their corresponding allogeneic targets, but did not lyse autologous Bebv+ cells or K562 cells; (2) cloned CTL sensitized against autologous Bebv+ cells lysed their autologous targets but not allogeneic Bebv+ targets or K562 cells; and (3) cloned CTL sensitized against autologous Burkitt lymphoma cells lysed their corresponding lymphoma targets or autologous Bebv+ targets but did not lyse allogeneic lymphoma cells or Bebv+ cells from the same allogeneic donors. The cloned CTL were homogeneous in expressing the OK T8 molecules and in being negative for T4, T10 or M1. At any given time, 25-45% of the cloned cells manifested lytic activity. The ultrastructural properties and cell surface OK T markers were different from those of cloned human NK cells. Emphasis is focused on the differences between the structural, functional and culture characteristics of CTL clones produced by direct isolation of MLC responder cells forming conjugates with specific target cells and those of clones from transformed T-cell lines or from T hybridomas.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2006; 31(4):427 - 432. · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Revue Du Rhumatisme - REV RHUM. 01/2006; 73(10):1025-1026.
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    Retrovirology 01/2006; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isolation and characterization of individual functionally reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been achieved. Peritoneal exudate cytotoxic lymphocytes were obtained from BALB/c mice injected with EL4 tumor cells. Lymphocyte tumor cell conjugation was promoted by centrifugation. Individual conjugates comprised of one lymphocyte bound to one tumor cell were isolated with a micropipette. The ultrastructure of isolated killer lymphocytes and the lysis of conjugated target cells were analyzed. The cytotoxic lymphocytes are small cells with an indented nucleus which is poor in peripheral chromatin and rich in rough nuclear sap. The cytoplasm contains one-membrane-bound lysosome-like granules and clusters of ribosomes, but no rough endoplasmatic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus is well developed. Direct evidence obtained at the single cell level shows that a single effector lymphocyte is required and sufficient for the destruction of a single target cell and that killer cells which have been responsible for the lysis of a given target cell can lyse a second and even a third time.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/2005; 5(12):818 - 822. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 01/2005; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus Tat regulatory protein is essential for virus replication and pathogenesis. From human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three Tat toxoid-immunized volunteers, we isolated five Tat-specific human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs): two full-length immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and three single-chain fragment-variable (scFv) antibodies. The two IgGs were mapped to distinct epitopes within the basic region of Tat, and the three scFvs were mapped to the N-terminal domain of Tat. The three scFvs were highly reactive with recombinant Tat in Western blotting or immunoprecipitation, but results were in contrast to those for the two IgGs, which are sensitive to a particular folding of the protein. In transactivation assays, scFvs were able to inhibit both active recombinant Tat and native Tat secreted by a transfected CEM cell line while IgGs neutralized only native Tat. These HMAbs were able to reduce viral p24 production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain IIIB chronically infected cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.
    Journal of Virology 05/2004; 78(7):3792-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Daniel Zagury, Robert C Gallo
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    ABSTRACT: Allergy, autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of some chronic diseases are dependent on host innate and adaptative immune responses. Both responses are associated with abnormal cytokine production within pathologic tissues. Over the past two decades, the availability of purified cytokines and cytokine antibodies (Abs) has prompted a therapeutic approach that aims to supply neutralizing Abs against deleterious cytokines, through either passive immunization (administration of large quantities of high affinity Abs, prepared ex vivo) or active immunization (induction of specific Abs, using immunogenic cytokine derivatives). Both passive and active immunization can safely, transiently and effectively be used, as has been documented by animal experimentation and confirmed by clinical trials. Novel anti-cytokine therapeutic compounds, based on passive Ab immunization, are now available to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and have been shown to help control neoangiogenesis in cancer patients. Clinical trials using Abs to treat allergic disorders are also underway. However, the induction of anti-idiotypic Abs may restrict the long-term use of anti-cytokine immunotherapy using allogenic or humanized/chimeric Abs. We propose that greater consideration should be given to active immunization protocols.
    Drug Discovery Today 02/2004; 9(2):72-81. · 6.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
909.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2011
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008–2009
    • Université Paris 13 Nord
      Île-de-France, France
  • 1978–2007
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • • Laboratoire de Physiologie et Physiopathologie
      • • Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire des Plantes (PCMP)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2000–2002
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Institute of Human Virology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • CILEA Interuniversity Consortium
      Segrate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1996
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 1988
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Metabolism Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 1976–1988
    • Institut Jean-Godinot
      Rheims, Champagne-Ardenne, France
  • 1987
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States