[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle forces are necessary for the development and maintenance of a mineralized skeleton. Removal of loads leads to malformed bones and impaired musculoskeletal function due to changes in bone (re)modeling. In the current study, the development of a mineralized junction at the interface between muscle and bone was examined under normal and impaired loading conditions. Unilateral mouse rotator cuff muscles were paralyzed using botulinum toxin A at birth. Control groups consisted of contralateral shoulders injected with saline and a separate group of normal mice. It was hypothesized that muscle unloading would suppress bone formation and enhance bone resorption at the enthesis, and that the unloading-induced bony defects could be rescued by suppressing osteoclast activity. In order to modulate osteoclast activity, mice were injected with the bisphosphonate alendronate. Bone formation was measured at the tendon enthesis using alizarin and calcein fluorescent labeling of bone surfaces followed by quantitative histomorphometry of histologic sections. Bone volume and architecture was measured using micro computed tomography. Osteoclast surface was determined via quantitative histomorphometry of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase stained histologic sections. Muscle unloading resulted in delayed initiation of endochondral ossification at the enthesis, but did not impair bone formation rate. Unloading led to severe defects in bone volume and trabecular bone architecture. These defects were partially rescued by suppression of osteoclast activity through alendronate treatment, and the effect of alendronate was dose dependent. Similarly, bone formation rate was increased with increasing alendronate dose across loading groups. The bony defects caused by unloading were therefore likely due to maintained high osteoclast activity, which normally decreases from neonatal through mature timepoints. These results have important implications for the treatment of muscle unloading conditions such as neonatal brachial plexus palsy, which results in shoulder paralysis at birth and subsequent defects in the rotator cuff enthesis and humeral head.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97375. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic evaluation of rotator cuff muscle quality is important to determine indications for potential operative repair. Ultrasonography has developed into an accepted and useful tool for evaluating rotator cuff tendon tears; however, its use for evaluating rotator muscle quality has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance and observer reliability of ultrasonography in grading fatty degeneration of the posterior and superior rotator cuff muscles.
The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography in eighty patients with shoulder pain. The degree of fatty degeneration on MRI was graded by four independent raters on the basis of the modified Goutallier grading system. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty degeneration was performed by one of three radiologists with use of a three-point scale. The two scoring systems were compared to determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of MRI grading by the four raters were determined. The interobserver reliability of ultrasonography among the three radiologists was determined in a separate group of thirty study subjects. The weighted Cohen kappa, percentage agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated.
The accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty degeneration, as assessed on the basis of the percentage agreement with MRI, was 92.5% for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 87.5% for the teres minor. The sensitivity was 84.6% for the supraspinatus, 95.6% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The specificity was 96.3% for the supraspinatus, 91.2% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The agreement between MRI and ultrasonography was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) and moderate for the teres minor (kappa = 0.47). The interobserver reliability for MRI was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.76 and 0.77, respectively) and moderate for the teres minor (kappa = 0.59). For ultrasonography, the interobserver reliability was substantial for all three muscles (kappa = 0.71 for the supraspinatus, 0.65 for the infraspinatus, and 0.72 for the teres minor).
The diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in identifying and grading fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles was comparable with that of MRI. Ultrasonography can be used as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for fatty changes in rotator cuff muscles.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2012; 94(12):e83. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the complex anatomy surrounding the teres minor muscle. METHODS: Thirty-one cadaveric human shoulders were dissected. Qualitative fascial and neurovascular anatomy were described. Location of motor nerves to teres minor were measured in reference to local anatomy. RESULTS: Fascial anatomy of the posterior shoulder had 2 distinct and equally common variants, 1 of which demonstrated a stout, inflexible fascial compartment enveloping the teres minor muscle. The other had a continuous fascia enveloping both the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. In both variants, the primary nerve to teres minor traveled around a fascial sling, becoming sub-fascial at an average of 44 mm (range, 25-68) medial to the teres minor's insertion. The nerve took its most angulated course as it entered the fascial sling. Smaller accessory innervation of teres minor began, on average, 30 mm (range, 15-48) medial to the muscle's lateral insertion. None of the accessory motor nerves coursed deep to the fascial sling nor to the distinct teres minor fascial compartment. CONCLUSION: A stout fascial sling may be the potential site of greatest compression and tethering of the primary motor nerve to teres minor. Additional lateral accessory motor nerves to teres minor remained extra-fascial and took a less angulated path. Half of the shoulders demonstrated a separate teres minor fascial compartment. An improved understanding of the fascial anatomy and innervation pattern of the teres minor muscle may help clinicians who treat patients with symptomatic isolated teres minor muscle atrophy.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 04/2012; · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irreversible muscle changes after rotator cuff tears is a well-known negative prognostic factor after shoulder surgery. Currently, little is known about the pathomechanism of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles after chronic cuff tears. The purposes of this study were to (1) develop a rodent animal model of chronic rotator cuff tears that can reproduce fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles seen clinically, (2) describe the effects of tear size and concomitant nerve injury on muscle degeneration, and (3) evaluate the changes in gene expression of relevant myogenic and adipogenic factors after rotator cuff tears using the animal model.
Rotator cuff tears were created in rodents with and without transection of the suprascapular nerve. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were examined at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after injury for histologic evidence of fatty degeneration and expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes.
Histologic analysis revealed adipocytes, intramuscular fat globules, and intramyocellular fat droplets in the tenotomized and neurotomized supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Changes increased with time and were most severe in the muscles with combined tenotomy and neurotomy. Adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors and markers were upregulated in muscles treated with tenotomy or tenotomy combined with neurotomy compared with normal muscles.
The rodent animal model described in this study produces fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles similar to human muscles after chronic cuff tears. The severity of changes was associated with tear size and concomitant nerve injury.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 08/2011; 21(7):847-58. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of two of the three transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) isoforms at the healing tendon-to-bone insertion. The supraspinatus tendons of 64 rats were transected at their bony insertions and repaired to the humeral head. One shoulder of each rat received an osmotic pump for sustained delivery of the following factors at the repair site: (1) TGF-β1 and neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β2 and 3 (TGF-β1 group), (2) TGF-β3 and neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1 and 2 (TGF-β3 group), (3) neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1, 2, and 3 (anti-TGF-β group), and (4) saline (saline group). The contralateral shoulders received saline to serve as paired controls. The repairs were evaluated at multiple time points postmortem using histology-based assays and biomechanical testing. Treated shoulders in the TGF-β1 group showed increased type III collagen production compared to the paired control shoulders, indicative of a scar-mediated response. There was a trend toward reduced mechanical properties in the TGF-β1 group, but these changes did not reach statistical significance. The anti-TGF-β group showed no difference in tissue volume, but significantly inferior mechanical properties, compared to the paired control shoulders. The TGF-β3 group did not show any differences compared to the paired control shoulders. Although TGF-β isoforms play important roles in tendon-to-bone development and healing, application of exogenous TGF-β isoforms and neutralizing antibodies to the subacromial space using osmotic pumps did not improve supraspinatus tendon-to-bone healing.
Connective tissue research 04/2011; 52(2):87-98. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanical environment plays an important role in musculoskeletal tissue development. The present study characterized changes in supraspinatus muscle due to removal of mechanical cues during postnatal development. An intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX) was used to induce and maintain paralysis in the left shoulders of mice since birth while the right shoulders received saline and served as contralateral controls. A separate group of animals was allowed to develop normally without any injections. Muscles were examined postnatally at various time points. The maximum isometric tetanic force generated by the muscle was significantly reduced in the BTX group compared to saline and normal groups. The paralyzed muscles were smaller and showed significant muscle atrophy and fat accumulation on histologic evaluation. Myogenic genes myogenin, myoD1, myf5, myf6, and fast type II myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform were significantly upregulated while slow type I MHC isoform was significantly downregulated in the BTX group. Adipogenic genes C/EBPα, PPARγ2, leptin, and lipoprotein lipase were significantly upregulated in the BTX group. Results indicate that reduced muscle loading secondary to BTX-induced paralysis leads to fat accumulation and muscle degeneration in the developing muscle. Understanding the molecular and compositional changes in developing supraspinatus muscles may be useful for identifying and addressing the pathological changes that occur in shoulder injuries such as neonatal brachial plexus palsy.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 02/2011; 29(2):281-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in surgical technique, rotator cuff repairs are plagued by a high rate of failure. This failure rate is in part due to poor tendon-to-bone healing; rather than regeneration of a fibrocartilaginous attachment, the repair is filled with disorganized fibrovascular (scar) tissue. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) has been implicated in fetal development and scarless fetal healing and, thus, exogenous addition of TGF-β3 may enhance tendon-to-bone healing. We hypothesized that: TGF-β3 could be released in a controlled manner using a heparin/fibrin-based delivery system (HBDS); and delivery of TGF-β3 at the healing tendon-to-bone insertion would lead to improvements in biomechanical properties compared to untreated controls. After demonstrating that the release kinetics of TGF-β3 could be controlled using a HBDS in vitro, matrices were incorporated at the repaired supraspinatus tendon-to-bone insertions of rats. Animals were sacrificed at 14-56 days. Repaired insertions were assessed using histology (for inflammation, vascularity, and cell proliferation) and biomechanics (for structural and mechanical properties). TGF-β3 treatment in vivo accelerated the healing process, with increases in inflammation, cellularity, vascularity, and cell proliferation at the early timepoints. Moreover, sustained delivery of TGF-β3 to the healing tendon-to-bone insertion led to significant improvements in structural properties at 28 days and in material properties at 56 days compared to controls. We concluded that TGF-β3 delivered at a sustained rate using a HBDS enhanced tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 01/2011; 29(7):1099-105. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to identify changes in tear dimensions, shoulder function, and glenohumeral kinematics when an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear becomes painful and to identify characteristics of individuals who develop pain compared with those who remain asymptomatic.
A cohort of 195 subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear was prospectively monitored for pain development and examined annually for changes in various parameters such as tear size, fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle, glenohumeral kinematics, and shoulder function. Forty-four subjects were found to have developed new pain, and the parameters before and after pain development were compared. The forty-four subjects were then compared with a group of fifty-five subjects who remained asymptomatic over a two-year period.
With pain development, the size of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear increased significantly, with 18% of the full-thickness tears showing an increase of >5 mm, and 40% of the partial-thickness tears had progressed to a full-thickness tear. In comparison with the assessments made before the onset of pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores for shoulder function were significantly decreased and all measures of shoulder range of motion were decreased except for external rotation at 90° of abduction. There was an increase in compensatory scapulothoracic motion in relation to the glenohumeral motion during early shoulder abduction with pain development. No significant changes were found in external rotation strength or muscular fatty degeneration. Compared with the subjects who remained asymptomatic, the subjects who developed pain were found to have significantly larger tears at the time of initial enrollment.
Pain development in shoulders with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear is associated with an increase in tear size. Larger tears are more likely to develop pain in the short term than are smaller tears. Further research is warranted to investigate the role of prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic shoulders to avoid the development of pain and loss of shoulder function.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 11/2010; 92(16):2623-33. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have demonstrated that flexor tendon repair strength fails to increase in the first three weeks following suturing of the tendon, a finding that correlates closely with the timing of many clinical failures. The application of growth factors holds promise for improving the tendon-repair response and obviating failure in the initial three weeks.
The effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on flexor tendon healing were evaluated with use of a canine model. Operative repair followed by the sustained delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor, at two different doses, was compared with operative repair alone. Histological, biochemical, and biomechanical methods were used to evaluate the tendons twenty-one days after repair.
Vascularity, cellularity, and adhesion formation were increased in the tendons that received basic fibroblast growth factor as compared with the tendons that received operative repair alone. DNA concentration was increased in the tendons that received 1000 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (mean and standard deviation, 5.7 ± 0.7 μg/mg) as compared with the tendons that received 500 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (3.8 ± 0.7 μg/mg) and the matched control tendons that received operative repair alone (4.5 ± 0.9 μg/mg). Tendons that were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor had a lower ratio of type-I collagen to type-III collagen, indicating increased scar formation compared with that seen in tendons that received operative repair alone (3.0 ± 1.6 in the group that received 500-ng basic fibroblast growth factor compared with 4.3 ± 1.0 in the paired control group that received operative repair alone, and 3.4 ± 0.6 in the group that received 1000-ng basic fibroblast growth factor compared with 4.5 ± 1.9 in the paired control group that received operative repair alone). Consistent with the increases in adhesion formation that were seen in tendons treated with basic fibroblast growth factor, the range of motion was reduced in the group that received the higher dose of basic fibroblast growth factor than it was in the paired control group that received operative repair alone (16.6° ± 9.4° in the group that received 500 ng basic fibroblast growth factor, 13.4° ± 6.1° in the paired control group that received operative repair alone, and 29.2° ± 5.8° in the normal group [i.e., the group of corresponding, uninjured tendons from the contralateral forelimb]; and 15.0° ± 3.8° in the group that received 1000 ng basic fibroblast growth factor, 19.3° ± 5.5° in the paired control group that received operative repair alone, and 29.0° ± 8.8° in the normal group). There were no significant differences in tendon excursion or tensile mechanical properties between the groups that were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor and the groups that received operative repair alone.
Although basic fibroblast growth factor accelerated the cell-proliferation phase of tendon healing, it also promoted neovascularization and inflammation in the earliest stages following the suturing of the tendon. Despite a substantial biologic response, the administration of basic fibroblast growth factor failed to produce improvements in either the mechanical or functional properties of the repair. Rather, increased cellular activity resulted in peritendinous scar formation and diminished range of motion.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 10/2010; 92(13):2285-93. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical outcomes after intrasynovial flexor tendon repair have been substantially improved over the past 2 decades through advances in tendon suture techniques and postoperative rehabilitation methods. Nevertheless, complications such as repair site elongation (i.e., gap formation) and rupture continue to occur frequently. Experimental studies have shown that repair site strength fails to increase in the first 3 weeks after tendon suture. After 3 weeks, the strength and rigidity of the repair site improve significantly, a process that continues for several months. Formation of a repair site gap during the early rehabilitation period has been shown to considerably delay the accrual of repair site strength over time. Thus, it is of prime importance that the method of tendon suture achieves and maintains a stiff and strong repair site during the early healing interval by maintaining close approximation of the tendon stumps and by stimulating, where possible, the intrinsic repair response. In this review, we describe recent efforts to enhance the integrity of the immature repair site. We focus on 2 major areas of advancement: surgical technique modifications and manipulation of the biologic and biochemical environment.
The Journal of hand surgery 06/2010; 35(6):1031-7; quiz 1038. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been theorized that degenerative rotator cuff tears most commonly involve the supraspinatus tendon, initiating at the anterior portion of the supraspinatus insertion and propagating posteriorly. The purposes of this study were to determine the most common location of degenerative rotator cuff tears and to examine tear location patterns associated with various tear sizes.
Ultrasonograms of 360 shoulders with either a full-thickness rotator cuff tear (272) or a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (eighty-eight) were obtained to measure the width and length of the tear and the distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior margin of the tear. Tears were grouped on the basis of their size (anteroposterior width) and extent (partial or full-thickness). Each tear was represented numerically as a column of consecutive numbers representing the tear width and distance posterior to the biceps tendon. All tears were pooled to graphically represent the width and location of the tears within groups. Frequency histograms of the pooled data were generated, and the mode was determined for each histogram representing various tear groups.
The mean age (and standard deviation) of the 233 subjects (360 shoulders) was 64.7 +/- 10.2 years. The mean width and length of the tears were 16.3 +/- 12.1 mm and 17.0 +/- 13.0 mm, respectively. The mean distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior tear margin was 7.8 +/- 5.7 mm (range, 0 to 26 mm). Histograms of the various tear groups invariably showed the location of 15 to 16 mm posterior to the biceps tendon to be the most commonly torn location within the posterior cuff tendons. The histograms of small tears (a width of <10 mm) and partial-thickness tears showed similar distributions of tear locations, indicating that the region approximately 15 mm posterior to the biceps tendon may be where rotator cuff tears most commonly initiate.
Degenerative rotator cuff tears most commonly involve a posterior location, near the junction of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. The patterns of tear location across multiple tear sizes suggest that degenerative cuff tears may initiate in a region 13 to 17 mm posterior to the biceps tendon.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2010; 92(5):1088-96. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles may have detrimental effects on both anatomical and functional outcomes following shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tear geometry and muscle fatty degeneration in shoulders with a deficient rotator cuff.
Ultrasonograms of both shoulders of 262 patients were reviewed to assess the type of rotator cuff tear and fatty degeneration in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. The 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear underwent further evaluation for tear size and location. The relationship of tear size and location to fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was investigated with use of statistical comparisons and regression models.
Fatty degeneration was found almost exclusively in shoulders with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Of the 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear, eighty-seven (34.7%) had fatty degeneration in either the supraspinatus or infraspinatus, or both. Eighty-two (32.7%) of the 251 full-thickness tears had a distance of 0 mm between the biceps tendon and anterior margin of the tear. Ninety percent of the full-thickness tears with fatty degeneration in both muscles had a distance of 0 mm posterior from the biceps, whereas only 9% of those without fatty degeneration had a distance of 0 mm. Tears with fatty degeneration had significantly greater width and length than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). Tears with fatty degeneration had a significantly shorter distance posterior from the biceps than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). The distance posterior from the biceps was found to be the most important predictor for supraspinatus fatty degeneration, whereas tear width and length were found to be the most important predictors for infraspinatus fatty degeneration.
Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is closely associated with tear size and location. The finding of this study suggests that the integrity of the anterior supraspinatus tendon is important to the development of fatty degeneration. Patients with full-thickness tears that extend through this area may benefit from earlier surgical intervention if fatty degeneration has not already occurred. Additionally, the findings suggest the importance of secure fixation and healing of the anterior aspect of the supraspinatus with surgical repair.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/2010; 92(4):829-39. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triceps tendon anatomy is important for surgical approaches to the elbow and tendon repair. The purpose of this study is to describe both the qualitative and quantitative anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon insertion.
Thirty-six elbows were dissected from twenty-three cadavers. Dimensions of the triceps tendon proper, lateral triceps expansion, and tendon insertion were measured. The central triceps tendon morphology was described.
All specimens showed a distinct lateral tendon expansion continuous with the anconeus fascia (mean width, 16.8 mm). The mean width of the proper triceps tendon was 23.7 mm. The mean maximum olecranon width was 26.9 mm. The ratio of the triceps tendon width to the olecranon width averaged 0.88. The mean thickness of the central tendon insertion was 6.8 mm. The medial triceps tendon showed a distinct, rolled medial edge and an insertion consistently confluent with the central tendon. The triceps footprint insertion was dome shaped. The mean insertional width and length of the tendon proper were 20.9 mm and 13.4 mm, respectively. The mean distance from the olecranon tip to the tendon was 14.8 mm. The tendon width, thickness, and insertional dimensions correlated with the olecranon width.
The lateral triceps expansion is a consistent anatomic finding with a width that is approximately 70% of the width of the central tendon. The triceps insertion has a broad width and narrow thickness that expands distally and correlates with the size of the olecranon. Knowledge of this anatomy will help the surgeon optimize surgical approaches and triceps repair techniques.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 04/2010; 19(3):399-405. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The developmental course of musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has not been studied extensively. The goals of this study were to: (1) evaluate a new animal model of NBPP, (2) characterize the development of musculoskeletal abnormalities in paralyzed shoulders, and (3) investigate the expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes in paralyzed rotator cuff muscles. Neonatal mice were divided into neurotomy and sham groups. The neurotomy group underwent surgical transection of the superior trunk of the brachial plexus within 24 h of birth. The sham group underwent the same surgical exposure, but the brachial plexus was left intact. Musculoskeletal deformities were evaluated with radiological and histological assays at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 30 weeks after birth. The supraspinatus muscles of a separate group of mice were used to examine expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes at 8 weeks. The neurotomized forelimbs developed deformities similar to those seen in human NBPP. The deformities progressed with age. The denervated supraspinatus muscles showed intramuscular fat accumulation and upregulation of both myogenic and adipogenic genes compared to the normal. The current study presents a useful animal model for future research examining musculoskeletal changes secondary to neonatal nerve injury.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 03/2010; 28(10):1391-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Literature regarding the outcomes of revision rotator cuff repair is limited. The purposes of the present study were to report the tendon repair integrity and clinical outcomes for a cohort of patients following revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and to examine factors related to tendon healing and the influence of healing on clinical outcomes.
Twenty-one of twenty-nine consecutive revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs with a minimum of two years of postoperative follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes were evaluated on the basis of a visual analog pain scale, the range of motion of the shoulder, the Simple Shoulder Test, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and the Constant score. Ultrasonography was used to examine repair integrity at a minimum of one year following surgery. Ten shoulders underwent arthroscopic repair of a recurrent single-tendon posterior rotator cuff tear, whereas eleven shoulders had repair of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus.
The mean age of the twenty-one subjects was 55.6 years; thirteen subjects were male and eight were female. Complete preoperative and postoperative clinical data were available for nineteen subjects after an average duration of follow-up of thirty-three months. Significant improvements were seen in terms of postoperative pain (p < 0.05), the Simple Shoulder Test score (p < 0.05), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons function (p < 0.05) and total scores (p < 0.05), active forward elevation (p < 0.05), and active external rotation (p < 0.05). Postoperative ultrasound data were available for all twenty-one shoulders after a mean duration of follow-up of twenty-five months. Ten (48%) of the twenty-one shoulders had an intact repair. Seven (70%) of the ten single-tendon repairs were intact, compared with three (27%) of the eleven supraspinatus/infraspinatus repairs (p = 0.05). Patient age (p < 0.05) and the number of torn tendons (p = 0.05) had significant effects on postoperative tendon repair integrity. Shoulders with an intact repair had better postoperative Constant scores (p < 0.05) and scapular plane elevation strength (p < 0.05) in comparison with those with a recurrent tear.
Revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repair results in reliable pain relief and improvement in shoulder function in selected cases. Approximately half of the revision repairs can be expected to be intact at a minimum of one year following surgery. Patient age and the number of torn tendons are related to postoperative tendon integrity. The postoperative integrity of the rotator cuff can have a significant influence on shoulder abduction strength and the Constant score.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 03/2010; 92(3):590-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximal humeral migration is commonly seen in rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders. The specific effects of the size of the rotator cuff tear and of pain on glenohumeral kinematics have been poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of cuff tear size and pain, separately, on humeral migration in a series of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears.
Ninety-eight asymptomatic and sixty-two symptomatic shoulders were identified from a cohort of patients with unilateral shoulder pain related to rotator cuff disease. All shoulders underwent ultrasonographic evaluation of the rotator cuff and standardized radiographic evaluation. Humeral migration was measured by three observers using software-enhanced radiographic analysis.
There was no significant difference in rotator cuff tear size between the asymptomatic and symptomatic shoulders, although more tears involved the infraspinatus in the symptomatic group (p = 0.01). Proximal humeral migration was greater in the shoulders with a symptomatic tear than it was in those with an asymptomatic tear (p = 0.03). Tears that involved the infraspinatus resulted in more migration than did isolated supraspinatus tears in both the symptomatic (p = 0.01) and the asymptomatic shoulders (p = 0.03). When the symptomatic tears of > or =175 mm(2) were analyzed separately, the size of the tear was found to correlate strongly with humeral migration (p = 0.01). However, when the symptomatic tears that were <175 mm(2) were analyzed, neither tear size nor pain was found to have a significant relationship with migration. When the analysis was limited to full-thickness symptomatic tears of > or =175 mm(2), both pain (p = 0.002) and tear area (p = 0.0002) were found to have a significant effect on migration. Multivariate analysis showed that tear size (p = 0.01) was the strongest predictor of migration in symptomatic shoulders.
Proximal humeral migration correlates with rotator cuff tear size. Tears extending into the infraspinatus tendon are associated with greater humeral migration than is seen with isolated supraspinatus tears. Humeral migration resulting from symptomatic rotator cuff tears is greater than that resulting from asymptomatic tears. Additionally, there is a critical size for tendon tears resulting in humeral migration in painful shoulders. Although both pain and tear size influence glenohumeral kinematics in symptomatic shoulders, only tear size is an independent predictor of humeral migration.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2009; 91(6):1405-13. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of the mechanical environment on the healing rotator cuff by paralyzing the supraspinatus muscle in the operative shoulder of a rat model of rotator cuff injury and repair.
Unilateral shoulders of rats underwent a supraspinatus injury and repair. Botulinum toxin A was used to paralyze the muscle after repair. Postoperatively, 1 group was immobilized and 1 group was allowed free range of motion. Saline-injected, casted rats were used as the control group. Repairs were evaluated histologically, geometrically, and biomechanically.
Specimens from the saline-injected rats had greater scar volume and cross-sectional area of the repair compared with the paralyzed groups. Structural properties were increased in the saline group compared with the paralyzed groups. Free range of motion (ie, uncasted group) resulted in modest improvements in biomechanical properties but did not obviate the effect of paralysis.
Complete removal of load was detrimental to rotator cuff healing, especially when combined with immobilization.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 06/2009; 18(5):669-75. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injury to the brachial plexus during birth results in paralysis of the upper extremity in as many as one in 250 births and can lead to substantial functional deficits in the shoulder. The goal of this study was to characterize the development of bone and joint deformities in paralyzed neonatal shoulders and to assess the improvement of these deformities after muscle function recovery with use of an animal model.
Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin were used to paralyze the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid of the left shoulders of mice at birth. Seventy mice were divided into three groups: Botox, recovery, and normal. The twenty-five mice in the Botox group received botulinum toxin injections until they were killed. The twenty mice in the recovery group received botulinum toxin injections for different durations and then were allowed injection-free recovery periods until they were killed. The twenty-five mice in the normal group received saline solution injections until they were killed. Radiographs were used to measure shoulder and elbow contractures. Microcomputed tomography was used to examine anatomical parameters of the supraspinatus muscle, humerus, and scapula.
The Botox group showed bone and joint deformities including delayed mineralization and flattening of the humeral head, hypoplasia, and introversion (i.e., anteversion) of the humerus, contractures of the shoulder and elbow, hypoplasia of shoulder muscles, hypoplasia of the scapula, and hypoplasia and retroversion of the glenoid. In the recovery group, a significant trend toward normal properties was observed with longer recovery periods (p<0.05). However, only soft-tissue contractures of the shoulder and elbow were resolved completely with the longest recovery period.
This mouse model successfully simulates human neonatal brachial plexus palsy, reproducing most of the bone and joint deformities found in the human condition. The deformities started to develop early in the postnatal period in the paralyzed shoulders and progressed with longer durations of paralysis. Early restoration of muscle function completely resolved the soft-tissue contractures of the shoulder and elbow. However, osseous deformities of the humerus and scapula were never resolved completely. These findings demonstrate the time-dependence of reversibility of musculoskeletal deformities in developing shoulders with neurological deficits.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/2009; 91(4):879-91. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fibrin/heparin-based delivery system was used to provide controlled delivery of platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) in an animal model of intrasynovial flexor tendon repair. We hypothesized that PDGF-BB, administered in this manner, would stimulate cell proliferation and matrix remodeling, leading to improvements in the sutured tendon's functional and structural properties. Fifty-six flexor digitorum profundus tendons were injured and repaired in 28 dogs. Three groups were compared: (1) controlled delivery of PDGF-BB using a fibrin/heparin-based delivery system; (2) delivery system carrier control; and (3) repair- only control. The operated forelimbs were treated with controlled passive motion rehabilitation. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, and 42 days, at which time the tendons were assessed using histologic (hyaluronic acid content, cellularity, and inflammation), biochemical (total DNA and reducible collagen crosslink levels), and biomechanical (gliding and tensile properties) assays. We found that cell activity (as determined by total DNA, collagen crosslink analyses, and hyaluronic acid content) was accelerated due to PDGF-BB at 14 days. Proximal interphalangeal joint rotation and tendon excursion (i.e., tendon gliding properties) were significantly higher for the PDGF-BB-treated tendons compared to the repair-alone tendons at 42 days. Improvements in tensile properties were not achieved, possibly due to suboptimal release kinetics or other factors. In conclusion, PDGF-BB treatment consistently improved the functional but not the structural properties of sutured intrasynovial tendons through 42 days following repair.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 04/2009; 27(9):1209-15. · 2.88 Impact Factor