Mina Fogel

Kaplan Medical Center, Kefar Yavne, Central District, Israel

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Publications (44)263.59 Total impact

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    Peter Altevogt · Kai Doberstein · Mina Fogel
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    ABSTRACT: L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is one of the first neural adhesion molecules described with important functions in the development of the nervous system. Subsequent work discovered that L1CAM is expressed in many human cancers and is often associated with bad prognosis. This is most likely due to the motility and invasion promoting function of L1CAM. Here we describe the path L1CAM has taken from a neural adhesion molecule to a recognized tumor antigen. We summarize the literature on L1CAM expression in cancers and pre-cancerous lesions. We focus on the genetic elements required for its re-expression and highlight preclinical studies for targeted therapy. The data suggest that L1CAM is a valuable diagnostic/prognostic marker and an attractive target for the therapy of several human cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 UICC.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ijc.29658 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease displaying distinct molecular features and clinical outcome. The molecular profile of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) overlaps with that of basal-like breast cancers that in turn show similarities with high-grade serous ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. L1CAM is an established biomarker for the latter cancers and we showed before that approximately 18% of primary breast cancers are positive for L1CAM and have a bad prognosis. Here we analysed the expression of L1CAM breast cancer subtypes. We analyzed mRNA and protein expression data from different breast cancer cohorts for L1CAM, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her-2 and Androgen receptor (AR) and correlated the data. We performed Western blot analysis on tumor cell lysates and carried out chromatin-immuno-precipitation (CHIP) after AR overexpression. We find that L1CAM is expressed preferentially though not exclusively in TNBCs. Using the human cancer genome atlas database and two independent breast cancer cohorts we find that L1CAM is inversely correlated with androgen receptor (AR) expression. We found that L1CAMhighARlow primary breast tumors have the worst clinical outcome. Overexpression of AR in MDA-MB436 breast cancer cells decreased L1CAM expression at the protein and mRNA level and CHIP-analysis revealed binding of AR to the L1CAM promoter region. These results suggest that L1CAM in breast cancer is under AR control. The data also strongly advocate the use of L1CAM assessment in breast cancer diagnosis. We suggest that L1CAM expression could be causally related to the bad prognosis of TNBCs.
    BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):958. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-958 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is overexpressed in many human cancers and can serve as a biomarker for prognosis in most of these cancers (including type I endometrial carcinomas). Here we provide an optimized immunohistochemical staining procedure for a widely used automated platform (VENTANA™), which has recourse to commercially available primary antibody and detection reagents. In parallel, we optimized the staining on a semi-automated BioGenix (i6000) immunostainer. These protocols yield good stainings and should represent the basis for a reliable and standardized immunohistochemical detection of L1CAM in a variety of malignancies in different laboratories.
    The International journal of biological markers 11/2013; 29(2). DOI:10.5301/jbm.5000055 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite the excellent prognosis of Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to predict clinical outcome.Methods We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study to determine expression of L1CAM by immunohistochemistry in 1021 endometrial cancer specimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied for survival and multivariable analyses. A machine-learning approach was used to validate variables for predicting recurrence and death.ResultsOf 1021 included cancers, 17.7% were rated L1CAM-positive. Of these L1CAM-positive cancers, 51.4% recurred during follow-up compared with 2.9% L1CAM-negative cancers. Patients bearing L1CAM-positive cancers had poorer disease-free and overall survival (two-sided Log-rank P <. 001). Multivariable analyses revealed an increase in the likelihood of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 16.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.55 to 25.28) and death (HR = 15.01; 95% CI = 9.28 to 24.26). In the L1CAM-negative cancers FIGO stage I subdivision, grading and risk assessment were irrelevant for predicting disease-free and overall survival. The prognostic relevance of these parameters was related strictly to L1CAM positivity. A classification and regression decision tree (CRT)identified L1CAM as the best variable for predicting recurrence (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.91) and death (sensitivity = 0.77; specificity = 0.89).Conclusions To our knowledge, L1CAM has been shown to be the best-ever published prognostic factor in FIGO stage I, type I endometrial cancers and shows clear superiority over the standardly used multifactor risk score. L1CAM expression in type I cancers indicates the need for adjuvant treatment. This adhesion molecule might serve as a treatment target for the fully humanized anti-L1CAM antibody currently under development for clinical use.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 06/2013; 105(15). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djt144 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The targeting of cancer stem cells by monoclonal antibodies offers new options for therapy. CD24 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein with a small protein core and a high level of glycosylation. It is overexpressed in many human carcinomas and is correlated with poor prognosis. CD24 is a marker for pancreatic and ovarian cancer stem cells, whereas breast cancer stem cells are negative for CD24. In cancer cell lines, changes of CD24 expression can alter cellular properties in vitro and tumour growth in vivo. We have shown before that monotherapy with monoclonal antibody (mAb) SWA11 to CD24 effectively retarded tumour growth in xenotransplanted mice. Methods: Here, we have investigated in more detail the molecular mechanisms of mAb SWA11 therapeutic effects in A549 lung and SKOV3ip ovarian carcinoma models in scid/beige and CD1 mice, respectively. We focused on anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic and microenvironmental effects of SWA11 mAb treatment. Results: We find that CD24 targeting is associated with changes in tumour cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The treatment lead to increased infiltration of tumour tissues with immune cells suggesting involvement of ADCC. We found that SWA11 mAb treatment strongly altered the intratumoural cytokine microenvironment. The addition of SWA11 mAb to gemcitabine treatment strongly potentiated its anti-cancer efficacy in A549 lung cancer model. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that targeting of CD24 could be beneficial for the anti-cancer treatment combined with standard chemotherapy regimes.
    British Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 108(7). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.102 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and their prognostic value have been analyzed in various malignancies. Although tissue microarray (TMA) has been used in some of these studies, it is still questionable whether this technique can represent the results of infiltrating CD8 cells obtained from whole-tissue sections (WTS). The aim of this study was to assess and compare the density of tumor-infiltrating CD8 cells in ovarian cancer using TMA and WTS. CD8 lymphocytes were immunohistochemically stained on WTS and TMA cores from 37 ovarian cancer patients and quantified using the image analysis software HistoQuest. Four different areas were selected on the WTS, namely (i) tumor; (ii) stroma; (iii) mixed; and (iv) dense, whereby dense represented areas of most abundant CD8 cells. On the TMA, (i) the whole TMA cores and (ii) areas containing only epithelial tumor tissue were analyzed. The Pearson correlation and principal component analysis was used to estimate the correlation of results from different techniques. CD8 lymphocytes showed highly correlated measurements between tumor, mixed, and dense areas. Moderate correlations were found between each of these 3 measurements and stroma. CD8 cell counts from WTS showed moderate correlation with TMA cell counts. Consistently, principal component analysis showed 3 clusters (i) tumor, dense, mixed; (ii) stroma; and (iii) TMA areas. Taken together, when the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating CD8 cells in ovarian cancer is investigated with TMA technique, a moderate correlation with WTS results has to be considered.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 03/2013; 32(3). DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e31826a63f8 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and their prognostic value have been analyzed in various malignancies. Although tissue microarray (TMA) has been used in some of these studies, it is still questionable whether this technique can represent the results of infiltrating CD8 cells obtained from whole-tissue sections (WTS). The aim of this study was to assess and compare the density of tumor-infiltrating CD8 cells in ovarian cancer using TMA and WTS. CD8 lymphocytes were immunohistochemically stained on WTS and TMA cores from 37 ovarian cancer patients and quantified using the image analysis software HistoQuest. Four different areas were selected on the WTS, namely (i) tumor; (ii) stroma; (iii) mixed; and (iv) dense, whereby dense represented areas of most abundant CD8 cells. On the TMA, (i) the whole TMA cores and (ii) areas containing only epithelial tumor tissue were analyzed. The Pearson correlation and principal component analysis was used to estimate the correlation of results from different techniques. CD8 lymphocytes showed highly correlated measurements between tumor, mixed, and dense areas. Moderate correlations were found between each of these 3 measurements and stroma. CD8 cell counts from WTS showed moderate correlation with TMA cell counts. Consistently, principal component analysis showed 3 clusters (i) tumor, dense, mixed; (ii) stroma; and (iii) TMA areas. Taken together, when the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating CD8 cells in ovarian cancer is investigated with TMA technique, a moderate correlation with WTS results has to be considered.
    International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 01/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD24 is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that is frequently over-expressed in a variety of human carcinomas and is correlated with poor prognosis. In cancer cell lines, changes of CD24 expression can alter several cellular properties in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, little is known about how CD24 mediates these effects. Here we have analyzed the functional consequences of CD24 knock-down or over-expression in human cancer cell lines. Depletion of CD24 reduced cell proliferation and adhesion, enhanced apoptosis, and regulated the expression of various genes some of which were identified as STAT3 target genes. Loss of CD24 reduced STAT3 and FAK phosphorylation. Diminished STAT3 activity was confirmed by specific reporter assays. We found that reduced STAT3 activity after CD24 knock-down was accompanied by altered Src phosphorylation. Silencing of Src, similar to CD24, targeted the expression of prototype STAT3-regulated genes. Likewise, the over-expression of CD24 augmented Src-Y416 phosphorylation, the recruitment of Src into lipid rafts and the expression of STAT3-dependent target genes. An antibody to CD24 was effective in reducing tumor growth of A549 lung cancer and BxPC3 pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice. Antibody treatment affected the level of Src-phosphorylation in the tumor and altered the expression of STAT3 target genes. Our results provide evidence that CD24 regulates STAT3 and FAK activity and suggest an important role of Src in this process. Finally, the targeting of CD24 by antibodies could represent a novel route for tumor therapy.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 07/2012; 69(22):3863-79. DOI:10.1007/s00018-012-1055-9 · 5.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been observed for various carcinomas and correlates with poor prognosis and late-stage disease. In vitro, L1CAM enhances proliferation, cell migration, adhesion and chemoresistance. We tested L1CAM and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression in tumor samples and ascitic fluid from ovarian carcinoma patients to examine its role as a prognostic marker. We investigated tumor samples and ascitic fluid from 232 serous ovarian carcinoma patients for L1CAM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. L1CAM expression was correlated with pathoclinical parameters and patients' outcome. IL-1β levels were measured in tumor cell lysates. Ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed for the contribution of L1CAM to IL-1β production and nuclear factor 'kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells (NF-κB) activation. We observed that L1CAM-expressing tumors show a highly invasive phenotype associated with restricted tumor resectability at primary debulking surgery and increased lymphogenic spread. Soluble L1CAM proved to be a marker for poor progression-free survival and chemoresistance. In ovarian carcinoma cell lines, the specific knock-down of L1CAM reduces IL-1β expression and NF-κB activity. L1CAM expression contributes to the invasive and metastatic phenotype of serous ovarian carcinoma. L1CAM expression and shedding in the tumor microenvironment could contribute to enhanced invasion and tumor progression through increased IL-1β production and NF-κB activation.
    Annals of Oncology 01/2012; 23(7):1795-802. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdr568 · 6.58 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 11/2011; 10(Supplement 1):C59-C59. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.TARG-11-C59 · 6.11 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 07/2011; 71(8 Supplement):4723-4723. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2011-4723 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cells in the body release soluble and membranous factors that manipulate the tumor environment to facilitate growth and survival. Recent years have provided evidence that small microvesicles that are termed exosomes may play a pivotal role in this process. Exosomes are membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by both tumor and normal cells and can be found in various body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes carry functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs and could serve as novel platform for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. However, marker proteins that allow enrichment of tumor-derived exosomes over normal exosomes are less well defined. We used Western blot analysis and antibody coupled magnetic beads to characterize CD24 and EpCAM as markers for exosomes. We investigated ovarian carcinoma ascites, pleural effusions and serum of breast carcinoma patients. As non-tumor derived control we used exosomes from ascites of liver cirrhosis patients. Exosomes could be isolated from all body fluids and contained marker proteins as well as miRNAs. We observed that CD24 and EpCAM were selectively present on ascites exosomes of tumor patients and copurified together on anti-EpCAM or anti-CD24 magnetic beads. In breast cancer patients CD24 was present but EpCAM was absent from serum exosomes. Instead, the intact EpCAM ectodomain was recovered in a soluble form. We provide evidence that EpCAM can be cleaved from exosomes via serum metalloproteinase(s). Loss of EpCAM on serum exosomes may hamper enrichment by immune-affinity isolation. We suggest that CD24 could be an additional marker for the enrichment of tumor-derived exosomes from blood.
    Gynecologic Oncology 05/2011; 122(2):437-46. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.04.035 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial carcinomas (ECs) are classified into type 1 (less aggressive) and type 2 (aggressive) tumours that differ in genetic alterations. So far, reliable immunohistochemical markers that can identify patients with high risk for recurrence are rare. We have defined the expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), a biomarker previously identified for EC, and compared its expression to oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and E-cadherin. We found that L1CAM was absent in normal endometrium and the vast majority of endometrioid ECs (type 1) but was strongly expressed in serous and clear-cell ECs, considered as type 2. 78/272 cases were identified as L1CAM-positive endometrioid ECs that were correlated with a poor prognosis. Strikingly, we observed an inverse relationship between L1CAM and ER/PR/E-cadherin expression in all ECs. In mixed ECs, composed of endometrioid (L1CAM(-) ER/PR(+) E-cadherin(+)) and clear-cell/serous (L1CAM(+) ER/PR(-) E-cadherin(-)), both phenotypes were co-expressed. In some of these cases L1CAM was up-regulated at the leading edge of the tumour, where ER/PR and E-cadherin expression were selectively lost. In EC cell lines treated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer TGFbeta1, L1CAM and vimentin were strongly up-regulated, while E-cadherin expression was reduced. The treatment also resulted in an increased expression of the EMT transcription factor Slug and an enhanced cell invasion. Depletion of Slug by siRNA knockdown prevented both L1CAM up-regulation and enhanced cell invasion. According to our analysis, we suggest that L1CAM is a novel marker for EMT in ECs and that L1CAM-typing could identify endometrioid ECs that have type 2-like features and are at high risk for recurrence.
    The Journal of Pathology 04/2010; 220(5):551-61. DOI:10.1002/path.2673 · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work has identified L1CAM (CD171) as a novel marker for human carcinoma progression. Functionally, L1CAM promotes tumor cell invasion and motility, augments tumor growth in nude mice, and facilitates experimental tumor metastasis. These functional features qualify L1 as an interesting target molecule for tumor therapy. Here, we generated a series of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the L1CAM ectodomain that were characterized by biochemical and functional means. All novel mAbs reacted specifically with L1CAM and not with the closely related molecule CHL1, whereas antibodies to the COOH terminal part of L1CAM (mAb2C2, mAb745H7, pcytL1) showed cross-reactivity. Among the novel mAbs, L1-9.3 was selected and its therapeutic potential was analyzed in various isotype variants in a model of SKOV3ip cells growing i.p. in CD1 nude mice. Only therapy with the IgG2a variant efficiently prolonged survival and reduced tumor burden. This was accompanied by an increased infiltration of F4/80-positive monocytic cells. Clodronate pretreatment of tumor-bearing animals led to the depletion of monocytes and abolished the therapeutic effect of L1-9.3/IgG2a. Expression profiling of tumor-derived mRNA revealed that L1-9.3/IgG2a therapy induced altered expression of cellular genes associated with apoptosis and tumor growth. Our results establish that anti-L1 mAb therapy acts via immunologic and nonimmunologic effector mechanism to block tumor growth. The novel antibodies to L1CAM could become helpful tools for the therapy of L1-positive human carcinomas.
    Cancer Research 03/2010; 70(6):2504-15. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3730 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The balance between inflammation and immunity is cardinal for the outcome of the malignant process. Local attenuated inflammatory responses mediated by innate cells may provide accessory signals for the development of acquired immunity against malignant cells. In contrast, excessive inflammatory responses accompany tumorigenesis and tumor invasiveness, by the induction of immunosuppression. In the present study, we have assessed the role of tumor cell-derived IL-1 in determining the invasive versus immunostimulatory potential of tumor cells. For this purpose, we have used 3-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma cell lines from IL-1 knockout (KO) versus control mice. Cell lines with no IL-1 failed to establish tumors in intact mice, while lines obtained from control mice were invasive and induced a potent angiogenic response. In contrast, cell lines from IL-1KO mice were more immunogenic. SDF-1 and IL-6, each induced by IL-1, were the two major cytokines whose levels differed in cell lines with or without IL-1. We could not detect differences in cell surface markers related to immunogenicity, such as MHC Class I, co-stimulatory, or adhesion molecules between both types of cells. However, more T-cells were observed at the inoculation site of tumor cells devoid of IL-1 and more pronounced parameters related to anti-tumor immunity were observed in the spleen (IL-12 and IFNgamma) of these mice, compared to mice bearing tumors derived from control mice, where host-derived IL-1 is present. In addition, injection of tumor cells devoid of IL-1, which failed to grow in mice, induced an anti-tumor cell immune memory, while in mice injected with tumor cells from control mice; no immune memory could be detected. From the results, it seems that IL-1 is a crucial factor in determining the balance between immunity and inflammation in tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that manipulation of IL-1 could be useful in anti-tumor therapy, by reducing invasiveness and promoting immunity against the malignant cells.
    Journal of Immunotoxicology 12/2009; 7(1):27-38. DOI:10.3109/15476910903405528 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The L1 adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) is associated with impaired prognosis in many carcinomas. However, limited information about its expression in breast cancer tissue is available. Therefore, we carried out an analysis on L1 expression in primary breast cancers using a combination of Western blot, DNA-microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. We observed L1 protein and mRNA overexpression in 14-15% of the carcinomas and this was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. High L1 expression was associated with nodal involvement, high grading, human epidermal growth receptor 2 (Her-2), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and a negative estrogen receptor (ER) status, but not with neuroendocrine markers. Moreover, patients with tumors showing high L1-CAM expression had a shorter disease-free and overall survival. Given the emerging functional role of L1 in promoting tumor cell migration, invasion, tumor growth and metastasis, our results suggest that L1 may have this function in breast cancer as well.
    Oncology Reports 11/2009; 22(5):1109-17. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.SABCS-09-3044 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and angiogenesis are pivotal processes in the progression of many diseases, including malignancies. A hypoxic microenvironment often results in a milieu of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines produced by infiltrating cells. We assessed the role of macrophage-derived hypoxia-associated cytokines in promoting inflammation and angiogenesis. Supernatants of macrophages, stimulated under hypoxia with or without an inflammatory stimulus (LPS), promoted angiogenesis when incorporated into Matrigel plugs. However, neutralization of IL-1 in the supernatants, particularly IL-1beta, completely abrogated cell infiltration and angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels by 85%. Similarly, supernatants from macrophages of IL-1beta knockout mice did not induce inflammatory or angiogenic responses. The importance of IL-1 signaling in the host was demonstrated by the dramatic reduction of inflammatory and angiogenic responses in Matrigel plugs that contained macrophage supernatants from control mice which had been implanted in IL-1 receptor type I knockout mice. Myeloid cells infiltrating into Matrigel plugs were of bone marrow origin and represented the major source of IL-1 and other cytokines/chemokines in the plugs. Cells of endothelial lineage were the main source of VEGF and were recruited mainly from neighboring tissues, rather than from the bone marrow. Using the aortic ring sprouting assay, it was shown that in this experimental system, IL-1 does not directly activate endothelial cell migration, proliferation and organization into blood vessel-like structures, but rather activates infiltrating cells to produce endothelial cell activating factors, such as VEGF. Thus, targeting IL-1beta has the potential to inhibit angiogenesis in pathological situations and may be of considerable clinical value.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 183(7):4705-14. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0901511 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The L1 adhesion molecule (L1-CAM,CD171) is over expressed in ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and other tumors derived from the Mullerian tract. Here we evaluated whether L1-CAM could serve as a novel tumor marker for the diagnosis of metastatic abdominal-pelvic cancers of uncertain origin in women. During a 6-year period we investigated 28 patients with metastatic abdominal or pelvic cancer with uncertain primary-origin. In all these cases a thorough clinical, surgical, pathologic and immunohistochemistry evaluation was performed and correlated to the L1-CAM expression as determined by immunohistochemical staining. In 20 patients where the differential diagnosis was primary ovarian or endometrial cancer and primary or recurrent colon cancer, L1 immunohistochemistry staining allowed or supported the correct diagnosis. In four cases L1 staining allowed the correct diagnosis between breast and ovarian cancer. In two cases vaginal metastases of unknown origin were positive to L1 immunohistochemistry staining implying their mullerian origin and one case each of inguinal lymph node metastases and abdominal wall cancer that were positive for L1-CAM, allowed the correct diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer. In a whole, L1-CAM was of crucial role of delinating the final diagnosis in 17 of the 28 cases described. L1-CAM, a new tumor marker, was found to be specific for metastatic cancer originating from mullerian origin. Its incorporation into the conventional immunohistochemistry analysis in cases of cancer of unknown primary in women, allows a correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment in the majority of cases with abdominal-pelvic carcinomatosis.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 08/2008; 34(7):795-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2007.07.010 · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
263.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Kaplan Medical Center
      Kefar Yavne, Central District, Israel
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem, Israel
  • 1997–2004
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Translational Immunology
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany