Kaoru Saigo

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (143)783.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The tubular networks of the Drosophila respiratory system and our vasculature show distinct branching patterns and tube shapes in different body regions. These local variations are crucial for organ function and organismal fitness. Organotypic patterns and tube geometries in branched networks are typically controlled by variations of extrinsic signaling but the impact of intrinsic factors on branch patterns and shapes is not well explored. Here, we show that the intersection of extrinsic hedgehog(hh) and WNT/wingless (wg) signaling with the tube-intrinsic Hox code of distinct segments specifies the tube pattern and shape of the Drosophila airways. In the cephalic part of the airways, hh signaling induces expression of the transcription factor (TF) knirps (kni) in the anterior dorsal trunk (DTa1). kni represses the expression of another TF spalt major (salm), making DTa1 a narrow and long tube. In DTa branches of more posterior metameres, Bithorax Complex (BX-C) Hox genes autonomously divert hh signaling from inducing kni, thereby allowing DTa branches to develop as salm-dependent thick and short tubes. Moreover, the differential expression of BX-C genes is partly responsible for the anterior-to-posterior gradual increase of the DT tube diameter through regulating the expression level of Salm, a transcriptional target of WNT/wg signaling. Thus, our results highlight how tube intrinsic differential competence can diversify tube morphology without changing availabilities of extrinsic factors.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2015; 11(1):e1004929. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004929 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used for target gene silencing in various organisms. We previously showed that 8-nt-long 5' proximal nucleotides, which include seed sequence (positions 2-8 from the 5' end of guide strand), and the complementary sequence of the passenger strand are capable of being simultaneously replaced with cognate deoxyribonucleotides without any substantial loss of gene silencing. In the present study, examination was made of RNA requirements in the non-seed region of siRNA. The non-seed region of siRNA was found to be subdivided into four domains, in which two nucleotide pairs (positions 13 and 14) were replaceable with cognate deoxyribonucleotides without reducing RNAi activity. However, RNA sequences at positions 9-12 and 15-18 were essential for effective gene silencing, and these two double-stranded RNA cores are required for binding of the trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP). The terminal RNA (positions 19-21) provided Argonaute protein binding sites. Argonaute binding was enhanced by the presence of RNAs at positions 15-18. Knockdown experiments showed that, unlike Argonaute and TRBP, Dicer was dispensable for RNAi. Based on these observations, we discuss possible RNA/protein and protein/protein interactions in RNA-induced silencing complex formation.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2014; DOI:10.1093/nar/gku153 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although efforts have been made to develop new drugs for infectious and neoplastic diseases utilizing synthetic small interfering RNA(siRNAs), those intrinsically have undesirable effects, including silencing of unintended genes (off-target effect) and nonspecific cytotoxicity. Off-target effects can be avoided by DNA substitution in the guide strand (GS) seed region of nucleotide positions 1-8 and its complementary part of the passenger strand plus the 3' overhang, which is designated as a double-strand RNA-DNA chimera (dsRDC). In this study, we found that the specificity of potent siRNAs targeting human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 oncogenes, which we previously reported, could be enhanced by short dsRDC modification (first six nucleotides from the 5' end of the GS and its complementary nucleotides of the passenger strand). Such dsRDC modification reduced nonspecific cytotoxicity in two of three siRNAs (497 and 752), although not in the other (573), which correlated with their off-target effects. In addition, silencing activity was marginally impaired in two dsRDCs (497 and 573) and moderately in one (752). Finally, dsRDC-497 induced E6E7-specific growth suppression of cervical cancer cells as well as E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes. Our results show that dsRDC modification enhances the specificity of E6E7 siRNA, which is required for use in in vivo settings.
    Cancer gene therapy 06/2011; 18(8):587-97. DOI:10.1038/cgt.2011.28 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To achieve accurate gene regulation, some homeodomain proteins bind cooperatively to DNA to increase those site specificities. We report a ternary complex structure containing two homeodomain proteins, aristaless (Al) and clawless (Cll), bound to DNA. Our results show that the extended conserved sequences of the Cll homeodomain are indispensable to cooperative DNA binding. In the Al-Cll-DNA complex structure, the residues in the extended regions are used not only for the intermolecular contacts between the two homeodomain proteins but also for the sequence-recognition mechanism of DNA by direct interactions. The residues in the extended N-terminal arm lie within the minor groove of DNA to form direct interactions with bases, whereas the extended conserved region of the C-terminus of the homeodomain interacts with Al to stabilize and localize the third alpha helix of the Cll homeodomain. This structure suggests a novel mode for the cooperativity of homeodomain proteins.
    The EMBO Journal 04/2010; 29(9):1613-23. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2010.53 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that DNA replacement of the seed-containing region of class I siRNAs significantly reduced the off-target effect without substantial loss of target gene silencing activity (Ui-Tei et al, Nucleic Acids Res., 36, 2136-2151, 2008). Separately, we also showed that the level of the off-target effect due to non-modified class I siRNA is determined primarily by the calculated melting temperature (Tm) of the seed-target duplex, indicating that, at least in class I-siRNA-mediated gene silencing, T<sub>m</sub> or thermodynamic stability of the complex between the siRNA seed and target mRNA is the most important factor determining the degree of off-target effects (Ui-Tei et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 36, 7100-7109, 2008). Here, using non-modified siRNAs other than class I siRNAs and DNA-seed-containing siRNAs, we examined the relationship between the thermodynamic stability of the seed-target duplex and the degree of the off-target effect. We found that the degree of the off-target effects is generally determined primarily by the T<sub>m</sub> of the corresponding seed-target duplex, indicating that its thermodynamic stability is the most important general determinant of the degree of the off-target effect in gene silencing.
    Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science, 2009. MHS 2009. International Symposium on; 12/2009
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    ABSTRACT: The genetically amenable organism Drosophila melanogaster has been estimated to have 14,076 protein coding genes in the genome, according to the flybase release note R5.13 (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/static_pages/docs/release_notes.html). Recent application of RNA interference (RNAi) to the study of developmental biology in Drosophila has enabled us to carry out a systematic investigation of genes affecting various specific phenotypes. In order to search for genes supporting cell survival, we conducted an immunohistochemical examination in which the RNAi of 2,497 genes was independently induced within the dorsal compartment of the wing imaginal disc. Under these conditions, the activities of a stress-activated protein kinase JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and apoptosis-executing factor Caspase-3 were monitored. Approximately half of the genes displayed a strong JNK or Caspase-3 activation when their RNAi was induced. Most of the JNK activation accompanied Caspase-3 activation, while the opposite did not hold true. Interestingly, the area activating Caspase-3 was more broadly seen than that activating JNK, suggesting that JNK is crucial for induction of non-autonomous apoptosis in many cases. Furthermore, the RNAi of essential factors commonly regulating transcription and translation showed a severe and cell-autonomous apoptosis but also elicited another apoptosis at an adjacent area in a non-autonomous way. We also found that the frequency of apoptosis varies depending on the tissues.
    Gene regulation and systems biology 02/2009; 3:11-20.
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is mediated by 21 nucleotides of short interfering RNA (siRNA) through sequence-specific cleavage of the cognate transcript. The position-dependent function of ribonucleotide residues in siRNA was analyzed by systematic DNA substitution. The results indicated that eight nucleotides from the 5' end of the guide strand and its complementary sequence are replaceable with DNA counterparts without any substantial loss of gene silencing activity. However, the remaining duplex including the 3' end of the guide strand could not be replaced with DNA, probably because of binding of RNA-binding proteins such as Argonaute and TRBP2. In addition, due to the reduced stability of a DNA-RNA hybrid other than the RNA duplex, previous studies have reported that the guide strand of the DNA-modified siRNA was, in most cases, incapable of exerting unintended off-target gene silencing (Ui-Tei et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 36, 2136-2151, 2008). Argonaute and TRBP2 were found to be necessary for inducing both nonmodified and DNA-modified siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Although the major target cleavage sites by nonmodified and DNA-modified siRNAs were identical to each other, transcript cleavage at minor sites was prevented by the presence of the DNA arm. Unlike the 5' end of the nonmodified-siRNA guide strand, the 5' end of the guide strand of DNA-modified siRNA appeared dispensable for seed positioning on the Argonaute surface.
    Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science, 2008. MHS 2008. International Symposium on; 12/2008
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used method for gene function analyses in a variety of organisms. Establishment of a large-scale, high-throughput platform for analysing gene function may require development of an RNAi microarray system using reverse transfection. Here, we show that shRNA is more effective in microarray gene silencing compared to siRNA. Endogenous mammalian genes are suppressed efficiently if highly functional class I sequences were used for siRNAs produced via shRNAs. Furthermore, the method appears applicable for functional genomics. Indeed, apoptotic cell death induced by staurosporine and actinomycin D was found to be blocked by shRNA against apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 and caspase-3, both of which are required in the cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis cascade.
    Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science, 2008. MHS 2008. International Symposium on; 12/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Short interfering RNA (siRNA) may down-regulate many unintended genes whose transcripts possess complementarity to the siRNA seed region, which contains 7 nt. The capability of siRNA to induce this off-target effect was highly correlated with the calculated melting temperature or standard free-energy change for formation of protein-free seed duplex, indicating that thermodynamic stability of seed duplex formed between the seed and target is one of the major factor in determining the degree of off-target effects. Furthermore, unlike intended gene silencing (RNA interference), off-target effect was completely abolished by introduction of a G:U pair into the seed duplex, and this loss in activity was completely recovered by a second mutation regenerating Watson-Crick pairing, indicating that seed duplex Watson-Crick pairing is also essential for off-target gene silencing. The off-target effect was more sensitive to siRNA concentration compared to intended gene silencing, which requires a near perfect sequence match between the siRNA guide strand and target mRNA.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2008; 36(22):7100-9. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkn902 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hox genes control regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis in various animals. Each region contains morphological characteristics specific to that region as well as some that are shared by several different regions. The mechanism by which one Hox gene regulates region-specific characteristics has been extensively analyzed. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism by which different Hox genes regulate the same characteristics in different regions. Here, we show that two Hox genes in Drosophila, Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax, employ different mechanisms to achieve the same out-put, the absence of sternopleural bristles, in the prothorax and metathorax, respectively. Sternopleural bristles are characteristics of the mesothorax and we found that spineless is involved in their development. Analysis of the regulatory relationship between Hox genes and spineless indicated that ss expression is repressed by Sex combs reduced in the prothorax. Since sole misexpression of ss could induce ectopic sternopleural bristle formation in the prothorax irrespective of the expression of Sex combs reduced, spineless repression appears to be critical for inhibition of sternopleural bristles by Sex combs reduced. In contrast, spineless was expressed in the metathorax independently of Ultrabithorax activity, indicating that Ultrabithorax blocks sternopleural bristle formation through mechanisms other than spineless repression. Our finding indicates that the same characteristics can be achieved in different segments by different Hox genes acting in different ways.
    Mechanisms of development 07/2008; 125(9-10):894-905. DOI:10.1016/j.mod.2008.06.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AzoR is an FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase isolated from Escherichia coli as a protein responsible for the degradation of azo compounds. We previously reported the crystal structure of the enzyme in the oxidized form. In the present study, different structures of AzoR were determined under several conditions to obtain clues to the reaction mechanism of the enzyme. AzoR in its reduced form revealed a twisted butterfly bend of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor and a rearrangement of solvent molecules. The crystal structure of oxidized AzoR in a different space group and the structure of the enzyme in complex with the inhibitor dicoumarol were also determined. These structures indicate that the formation of a hydrophobic part around the isoalloxazine ring is important for substrate binding and an electrostatic interaction between Arg-59 and the carboxyl group of the azo compound causes a substrate preference for methyl red over p-methyl red. The substitution of Arg-59 with Ala enhanced the Vmax value for p-methyl red 27-fold with a 3.8-fold increase of the Km value. This result indicates that Arg-59 decides the substrate specificity of AzoR. The Vmax value for the p-methyl red reduction of the R59A mutant is comparable with that for the methyl red reduction of the wild-type enzyme, whereas the activity toward methyl red was retained. These findings indicate the expansion of AzoR substrate specificity by a single amino acid substitution. Furthermore, we built an authentic model of the AzoR-methyl red complex based on the results of the study.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2008; 283(20):13889-96. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M710070200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-based RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used for target gene knockdown in mammalian cells. To clarify the position-dependent functions of ribonucleotides in siRNA, siRNAs with various DNA substitutions were constructed. The following could be simultaneously replaced with DNA without substantial loss of gene-silencing activity: the seed arm, which occupies positions 2-8 from the 5'end of the guide strand; its complementary sequence; the 5'end of the guide strand and the 3'overhang of the passenger strand. However, most part of the 3' two-thirds of the guide strand could not be replaced with DNA, possibly due to binding of RNA-recognition proteins such as TRBP2 and Ago2. The passenger strand with DNA in the 3'end proximal region was incapable of inducing off-target effect. Owing to lesser stability of DNA-RNA hybrid than RNA duplex, modified siRNAs with DNA substitution in the seed region were, in most cases, incapable to exert unintended gene silencing due to seed sequence homology. Thus, it may be possible to design DNA-RNA chimeras which effectively silence mammalian target genes without silencing unintended genes.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2008; 36(7):2136-51. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkn042 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fgf19 is known to be expressed in the developing chicken eye but its functions during retinal development have remained elusive. Since Fgf19 is expressed in the dorsal portion of the optic cup, it is intriguing to know whether FGF19 is required for expression of dorso-ventral morphogenetic genes in the eye. To clarify this, expression patterns of Tbx5 and Vax were examined in the developing eye after in ovo RNA interference targeted against Fgf19. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeted against Fgf19 could reduce its expression in the eye to less than 50% of a relative amount of mRNA, compared with contralateral or untreated control eyes. However, no obvious alteration in expression domains of Tbx5 or Vax was observed. Misexpression of Tbx5 or Tbx5-RNAi did not alter the Fgf19 expression either. Furthermore, although Fgf19 is expressed in the central retina before neurogenesis occurs, beta3-tubulin, a marker for early retinal differentiation was still detected in the central retina after knockdown of Fgf19. Thus, knockdown of Fgf19 supports no obvious regulations between Fgf19 and Tbx5, or exhibits no phenotypes that perturb early retinal differentiation.
    Embryologia 04/2008; 50(3):159-68. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-169X.2008.00996.x · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent infection by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, with HPV16 the most prevalent, accounting for more than 50% of reported cases. The virus encodes the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is essential for maintenance of the malignant phenotype. To select efficacious siRNAs applicable to RNAi therapy for patients with HPV16+ cervical cancer, E6 and E7 siRNAs were designed using siDirect computer software, after which 10 compatible with all HPV16 variants were selected, and then extensively examined for RNAi activity and specificity using HPV16+ and HPV16-cells. Three siRNAs with the highest RNAi activities toward E6 and E7 expression, as well as specific and potent growth suppression of HPV16+ cancer cells as low as 1 nM were chosen. Growth suppression was accompanied by accumulation of p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1), as well as morphological and cytochemical changes characteristic of cellular senescence. Antitumor activity of one of the selected siRNAs was confirmed by retarded tumor growth of HPV16+ cells in NOD/SCID mice when locally injected in a complex with atelocollagen. Our results demonstrate that these E6 and E7 siRNAs are promising therapeutic agents for treatment of virus-related cancer.
    Cancer gene therapy 04/2008; 15(3):140-53. DOI:10.1038/sj.cgt.7701118 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens play essential roles in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. In the present study, we focused on the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the K(+) currents that regulate neuronal cell excitability and carried out perforated patch-clamp experiments with the GnRH-secreting neuronal cell line GT1-7. We revealed that a 3-d incubation with E2 at physiological concentrations (100 pm to 1 nm) augmented Ca(2+)-activated K(+) [K(Ca)] currents without influencing Ca(2+)-insensitive voltage-gated K(+) currents in GT1-7 cells. Acute application of E2 (1 nm) had no effect on the either type of K(+) current. The augmentation was completely blocked by an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182,780. An ERbeta-selective agonist, 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile, augmented the K(Ca) currents, although an ERalpha-selective agonist, 4,4',4''-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl]tris-phenol, had no effect. Knockdown of ERbeta by means of RNA interference blocked the effect of E2 on the K(Ca) currents. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BK channel subunit mRNAs for alpha and beta4 were significantly increased by incubating cells with 300 pm E2 for 3 d. In conclusion, E2 at physiological concentrations augments K(Ca) currents through ERbeta in the GT1-7 GnRH neuronal cell line and increases the expression of the BK channel subunit mRNAs, alpha and beta4.
    Endocrinology 03/2008; 149(2):774-82. DOI:10.1210/en.2007-0759 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and pluripotency are maintained by several signaling cascades and by expression of intrinsic factors, such as Oct3/4 and Nanog. The signaling cascades are activated by extrinsic factors, such as leukemia inhibitory factor, bone morphogenic protein, and Wnt. However, the mechanism that regulates extrinsic signaling in ES cells is unknown. Heparan sulfate (HS) chains are ubiquitously present as the cell surface proteoglycans and are known to play crucial roles in regulating several signaling pathways. Here we investigated whether HS chains on ES cells are involved in regulating signaling pathways that are important for the maintenance of ES cells. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of HS chain elongation inhibited mouse ES cell self-renewal and induced spontaneous differentiation of the cells into extraembryonic endoderm. Furthermore, autocrine/paracrine Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through HS chains was found to be required for the regulation of Nanog expression. We propose that HS chains are important for the extrinsic signaling required for mouse ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2008; 283(6):3594-606. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M705621200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Dicer contains two RNase III domains (RNase IIIa and RNase IIIb) that are responsible for the production of short interfering RNAs and microRNAs. These small RNAs induce gene silencing known as RNA interference. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C-terminal RNase III domain (RNase IIIb) of human Dicer at 2.0 A resolution. The structure revealed that the RNase IIIb domain can form a tightly associated homodimer, which is similar to the dimers of the bacterial RNase III domains and the two RNase III domains of Giardia Dicer. Biochemical analysis showed that the RNase IIIb homodimer can cleave double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), and generate short dsRNAs with 2 nt 3' overhang, which is characteristic of RNase III products. The RNase IIIb domain contained two magnesium ions per monomer around the active site. The distance between two Mg-1 ions is approximately 20.6 A, almost identical with those observed in bacterial RNase III enzymes and Giardia Dicer, while the locations of two Mg-2 ions were not conserved at all. We presume that Mg-1 ions act as catalysts for dsRNA cleavage, while Mg-2 ions are involved in RNA binding.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2007; 374(1):106-20. DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.08.069 · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • Kenji Nishi, Kaoru Saigo
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    ABSTRACT: VP22 is a structural protein of the herpes simplex virus and has been reported to possess unusual trafficking properties. Here we examined the mechanism of cellular uptake of VP22 using a fusion protein between the C-terminal half of VP22 and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Adsorption of VP22-GFP onto a cell surface required heparan sulfate proteoglycans and basic amino acids, in particular, Arg-164 of VP22. Inhibitor treatment, RNA interference, expression of dominant-negative mutant genes, and confocal microscopy all indicated that VP22-GFP enters cells through an endocytic pathway independent of clathrin and caveolae but dependent on dynamin and Arf6 activity. As with CD59 (a lipid raft marker), cell-surface VP22-GFP signals were resistant to Triton X-100 treatment but only partially overlapped cell-surface CD59 signals. Furthermore, unlike other lipid raft-mediated endocytic pathways, no Rho family GTPase was required for VP22-GFP internalization. Internalized VP22 initially entered early endosomes and then moved to lysosomes and possibly recycling endosomes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2007; 282(37):27503-17. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M703810200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Est1p is a telomerase-associated protein essential for telomere length homeostasis. hEST1A is one of the three human Est1p homologues and is considered to be involved not only in regulation of telomere elongation or capping but also in nonsense-mediated degradation of RNA. hEST1A is composed of two conserved regions, Est1p homology and PIN (PilT N-terminus) domains. The present study shows the crystal structure of the PIN domain at 1.8 A resolution. The overall structure is composed of an alpha/beta fold or a core structure similar to the counterpart of 5' nucleases and an extended structure absent from archaeal PIN-domain proteins and 5' nucleases. The structural properties of the PIN domain indicate its putative active center consisting of invariant acidic amino acid residues, which is geometrically similar to the active center of 5' nucleases and an archaeal PAE2754 PIN-domain protein associated with exonuclease activity.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 09/2007; 68(4):980-9. DOI:10.1002/prot.21351 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms in mammals are orchestrated by a central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Photic input entrains the phase of the central clock, and many peripheral clocks are regulated by neural or hormonal output from the SCN. We established cell lines derived from the rat embryonic SCN to examine the molecular network of the central clock. An established cell line exhibited the stable circadian expression of clock genes. The circadian oscillation was abruptly phase-shifted by forskolin, and abolished by siBmal1. These results are compatible with in vivo studies of the SCN.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2007; 355(2):555-61. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.02.009 · 2.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
783.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2015
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry
      • • Department of Integrated Biosciences
      Tōkyō, Japan
    • The University of Tokushima
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 2009
    • Maebashi Institute of Technology
      Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
  • 2008
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2004
    • University of Franche-Comté
      Becoinson, Franche-Comté, France
  • 2003
    • Soka University
      • Division of Cell Biology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1995
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1987
    • Kyushu University
      • Medical Hospital
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1982
    • St.Mary's Hospital (Fukuoka - Japan)
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan