[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variations and alterations of copy numbers (CNVs and CNAs) carry disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness implications. Although there are many molecular methods to measure copy numbers, sensitivity, reproducibility, cost, and time issues remain. In the present study, we were able to solve those problems utilizing our modified real competitive PCR method with cloned competitors (mrcPCR). First, the mrcPCR for ERBB2 copy number was established, and the results were comparable to current standard methods but with a shorter assay time and a lower cost. Second, the mrcPCR assays for 24 drug-target genes were established, and the results in a panel of NCI-60 cells were comparable to those from real-time PCR and microarray. Third, the mrcPCR results for FCGR3A and the FCGR3B CNVs were comparable to those by the paralog ratio test (PRT), but without PRT's limitations. These results suggest that mrcPCR is comparable to the currently available standard or the most sensitive methods. In addition, mrcPCR would be invaluable for measurement of CNVs in genes with variants of similar structures, because combination of the other methods is not necessary, along with its other advantages such as short assay time, small sample amount requirement, and applicability to all sequences and genes.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69414. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to effective cancer therapy. The membrane transporter MDR-1 (P-gp, ABCB1), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, effluxes anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells. Increased activity of MDR-1 is known to be the main mechanism for multidrug resistance. MDR-1 is known to be localized in the cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomains, known as lipid rafts. Disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion alters lipid raft functions, indicating that cholesterol is critical for raft function. Because ginsenosides are structurally similar to cholesterol, in this study, we investigated the effect of Rp1, a novel ginsenoside derivative, on drug resistance using drug-sensitive OVCAR-8 and drug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cells. Rp1 treatment resulted in an accumulation of doxorubicin or rhodamine 123 by decreasing MDR-1 activity in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Rp1 synergistically induced cell death with actinomycin D in DXR cells. Rp1 appeared to redistribute lipid rafts and MDR-1 protein. Moreover, Rp1 reversed resistance to actinomycin D by decreasing MDR-1 protein levels and Src phosphorylation with modulation of lipid rafts. Addition of cholesterol attenuated Rp1-induced raft aggregation and MDR-1 redistribution. Rp1 and actinomycin D reduced Src activity, and overexpression of active Src decreased the synergistic effect of Rp1 with actinomycin D. Rp1-induced drug sensitization was also observed with several anti-cancer drugs, including doxorubicin. These data suggest that lipid raft-modulating agents can be used to inhibit MDR-1 activity and thus overcome drug resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acquisition of tamoxifen resistance is a major therapeutic problem in breast cancer. We developed a tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (TRM-7) cell line to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and factors associated with acquisition of such resistance. We demonstrated that phosphorylation of STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705) and RANTES expression are increased in response to tamoxifen in human breast cancer cells. Based on these results, we hypothesize that upregulated STAT3 phosphorylation and RANTES may be correlated with the development of drug resistance. Here, we demonstrated that STAT3 and RANTES contribute to the maintenance of drug resistance. STAT3 phosphorylation is constitutively retained via a RANTES autocrine loop, which in turn upregulates antiapoptotic signals in TRM-7 cells. STAT3-RANTES autocrine signaling affected expression of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family genes and prevented TRM-7 cells from undergoing programmed cell death by inhibiting PARP and caspase-9 cleavage. Subsequently, blockade of STAT3 and RANTES in TRM-7 cells resulted in reduction of antiapoptotic signals, which was rescued by exogenous RANTES treatment; drug resistance was also restored. Taken together, our results suggested that STAT3-RANTES autocrine signaling is essential for maintenance of drug resistance and inhibition of programmed cell death. These mechanisms of STAT3-RANTES autocrine signaling suggest a novel strategy for management of patients with tamoxifen-resistant tumors.
Molecular Cancer Research 10/2012; · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-established target for cancer treatment. EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors, such as gefinitib and erlotinib, have been developed as anti-cancer drugs. Although non-small cell lung carcinoma with an activating EGFR mutation, L858R, responds well to gefinitib and erlotinib, tumors with a doubly mutated EGFR, T790M-L858R, acquire resistance to these drugs. The C. elegans EGFR homolog LET-23 and its downstream signaling pathway have been studied extensively to provide insight into regulatory mechanisms conserved from C. elegans to humans. To develop an in vivo screening system for potential cancer drugs targeting specific EGFR mutants, we expressed three LET-23 chimeras in which the TK domain was replaced with either the human wild-type TK domain (LET-23::hEGFR-TK), a TK domain with the L858R mutation (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]), or a TK domain with the T790M-L858R mutations (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R]) in C. elegans vulval cells using the let-23 promoter. The wild-type hEGFR-TK chimeric protein rescued the let-23 mutant phenotype, and the activating mutant hEGFR-TK chimeras induced a multivulva (Muv) phenotype in a wild-type C. elegans background. The anti-cancer drugs gefitinib and erlotinib suppressed the Muv phenotype in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]-expressing transgenic animals, but not in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] transgenic animals. As a pilot screen, 8,960 small chemicals were tested for Muv suppression, and AG1478 (an EGFR-TK inhibitor) and U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) were identified as potential inhibitors of EGFR-mediated biological function. In conclusion, transgenic C. elegans expressing chimeric LET-23::hEGFR-TK proteins are a model system that can be used in mutation-specific screens for new anti-cancer drugs.
PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e42441. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) is an intermediate filament that is known to be a prognostic marker in several types of cancer. However, little is known about CK20 expression and tumor metastasis in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (TRM-7) breast cancer cells. TRM-7 cells overexpress CK20, resulting in enhanced invasiveness in vitro. CK20 silencing reduced the invasiveness of TRM-7 cells. Moreover, CK20 expression in MCF-7 cells was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Our findings suggest that PPARγ-dependent CK20 expression enhances the metastatic potential of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and may be a potential therapeutic target in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.
Anticancer research 04/2012; 32(4):1221-8. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a multistep process including dissociation of cancer cells from primary sites, survival in the vascular system, and proliferation in distant target organs. As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo an apoptotic process known as "anoikis," a form of cell death due to loss of contact with the extracellular matrix or neighboring cells. Cancer cells acquire anoikis resistance to survive after detachment from the primary sites and travel through the circulatory and lymphatic systems to disseminate throughout the body. Because recent technological advances enable us to detect rare circulating tumor cells, which are anoikis resistant, currently, anoikis resistance becomes a hot topic in cancer research. Detailed molecular and functional analyses of anoikis resistant cells may provide insight into the biology of cancer metastasis and identify novel therapeutic targets for prevention of cancer dissemination. This paper comprehensively describes recent investigations of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying anoikis and anoikis resistance in relation to intrinsic and extrinsic death signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, growth factor receptors, energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species, membrane microdomains, and lipid rafts.
International Journal of Cell Biology 02/2012; 2012:306879.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP), also known as interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-8, is a member of the interferon (IFN)-γ regulatory transcription factors. Studies have suggested a connection between TGF-β signaling and IRFs. Thus, we investigated the effect of ICSBP on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling in HL-60, an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Stable expression of ICSBP in HL-60 cells resulted in strong induction of TGF-β receptor expression and activation of non-Smad as well as Smad pathways. ICSBP expression also augmented cell growth. ICSBP knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated cell growth and decreased TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI) expression. In addition, reduction of TGF-βRI using siRNA or pharmacological inhibitor reduced growth of ICSBP-expressing cells. ICSBP expression also led to increased phosphorylation and activation of Akt and p38 MAPK. However, p38 MAPK, but not PI3K-Akt, inhibition abrogated ICSBP-mediated proliferation. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of either ICSBP or TGF-βRI resulted in decreased p38 activation. Intriguingly, TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1), which phosphorylates p38, was activated in ICSBP-expressing cells and its activity was reduced by TGF-βRI inhibition. Finally, siRNA knockdown of ICSBP or TGF-βRI reduced TAK-1 phosphorylation. This study identifies a novel role for ICSBP in regulating cell growth via TGF-β receptor upregulation and subsequent activation of the TGF-β receptor/TAK-1/p38 pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initiation and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are closely linked to chronic inflammation. Not only is cyclin D1 overexpressed, but it is also related to aggressive progression in HCC. However, the mechanism of expression cyclin D1, a cell-cycle regulator of paramount importance, in the tumor microenvironment remains unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanism of cyclin D1 expression induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and whether 3-[3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl]-acrylic acid 2-[3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl]-ethyl ester (CADPE), a derivate of caffeic acid, suppresses cyclin D1 expression. CADPE significantly inhibited IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity in the Huh7 HCC cell line and attenuated IL-6-induced cyclin D1 transcription. Moreover, overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 increased cyclin D1 transcriptional activity and protein expression, whereas overexpression of a dominant-negative STAT3 deletion mutant (STAT3 (1-588)) reduced cyclin D1 transcriptional activity. In addition, CADPE effectively deacetylated histone 4 and prevented STAT3 recruitment to the cyclin D1 promoter, consistent with a role for the CADPE target, STAT3, in the regulation of cyclin D1 transcription. Collectively, these results indicate that CADPE suppresses cyclin D1 expression in HCC cells by blocking both IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation and recruitment of STAT3 to the cyclin D1 promoter.
Anticancer research 02/2010; 30(2):481-8. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma membrane microdomains, lipid rafts, are involved in regulation of cellular functions such as cell survival and adhesion. Cholesterol is a critical component of lipid rafts in terms of their integrity and functions and rafts disruption by cholesterol depletion can induce detachment-induced cell death. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha is stabilized in hypoxia and transactivates numerous genes required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia. It is also induced by non-hypoxic stimuli and contributes to cell survival. Because hypoxia inhibits cholesterol synthesis and HIF-1alpha plays a role in this process, we here explored a possible connection between lipid rafts and HIF-1alpha. We investigated whether HIF-1alpha is regulated during cholesterol depletion/rafts disruption in A431 cells in normoxic conditions. Methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), which induces cholesterol depletion, upregulated HIF-1alpha even under normoxic conditions and this upregulation required epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 activation, but not Akt activation. MbetaCD treatment induced HIF-1alpha upregulation at both the transcriptional and translational levels but not at the posttranslational levels. In addition, MbetaCD robustly induced vascular endothelial growth factor production and stimulated an hypoxia response element-driven luciferase reporter activity under normoxic conditions, indicating that MbetaCD-induced HIF-1alpha is functionally activated. Both EGFR activity and HIF-1alpha expression were higher in the attached cells than in the detached cells after MbetaCD treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of HIF-1alpha by RNA interference accelerated cell detachment, thus increasing cell death, indicating that HIF-1alpha expression attenuates MbetaCD-induced anoikis-like cell death. These data suggest that, depending on cholesterol levels, lipid rafts or membrane fluidity are probably to regulate HIF-1alpha expression in normoxia by modulating rafts protein activities such as EGFR, and this connection between lipid rafts and HIF-1alpha regulation may provide cell survival under membrane-disturbing stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae (lipid rafts), microdomains of the plasma membrane, are known to contain various signalling molecules and consequently are involved in the regulation of many biological functions. To investigate the role of the caveolae in cell survival and adhesion, we disrupted the caveolae by depletion of cholesterol, a major lipid component of the caveolae, with methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) treatment of A431 cells. We found that cholesterol depletion induced an anoikis-like cell death involving actin reorganization, resulting in a decrease in cell spreading and an increase in cell detachment, which was reversed by cholesterol addition. Disruption of caveolae led to the down-regulation of FAK, Src activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and mobilization of caveolae markers, GM1 and caveolin-1, from the cell surface to the cytoplasm, which were also recovered by cholesterol addition. The expression of dominant-active FAK was able to delay caveolae internalization and apoptosis and attenuated Akt inactivation by MbetaCD, whereas dominant-negative FAK expression resulted in enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, FAK down-regulation by si-RNA resulted in Akt inactivation and thus increased cell death by MbetaCD treatment. Our results suggest that the cholesterol content and/or surface levels of the caveolae affect the activity of FAK, which in turn regulates caveolae internalization and cell survival.
The Journal of Pathology 02/2009; 218(3):337-49. · 7.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27), a member of the small heat-shock protein family, is a molecule involved in cellular protection in response to a variety of stresses such as heat shock, toxicants, and oxidative stress. HSP27 is also known to modulate cell functions via interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. To elucidate the functions of HSP27 in adhesion and invasion in more detail, we examined NIH3T3 cells overexpressing HSP27. HSP27 overexpression affected FAK phosphorylation and focal adhesion formation, depending on integrin-mediated actin cytoskeleton polymerization. In addition, the HSP27-overexpressing cells showed a retarded cell migration and invasion in wound-healing assays. Such HSP27-mediated retarded wound healing was correlated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. The transcription factor for MMP-2 expression, signal transducer and activator or transcription 3 (STAT3), was correspondingly less phosphorylated. When a phosphomimetic form of HSP27 was transiently transfected, migration and invasion were similarly decreased via the regulation of the FAK/STAT3/MMP-2 signaling pathway, whereas a non-phosphorylatable form of HSP27 blocked HSP27-mediated phenotypes probably due to a dominant-negative effect on phosphorylation of endogenous HSP27. Altogether, our results suggest that HSP27 can enhance cell adhesion and modulate cell migration and invasion via the coordination of FAK-dependent actin organization and STAT3-dependent MMP-2 expression, and that phosphorylation of HSP27 is indispensable to regulate this signal pathway.
European Journal of Cell Biology 07/2008; 87(6):377-87. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is rapidly de- graded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway under normoxic conditions. Ubiquitination of HIF-1 α is medi- ated by interaction with von Hippel-Lindau tumor sup- pressor protein (pVHL). In our previous report, we found that hypoxia-induced active signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3) accelerated the accumulation of HIF-1 α protein and prolonged its half-life in solid tumor cells. However, its specific mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we exam- ined the role of STAT3 in the mechanism of pVHL-medi- ated HIF-1 α stability. We found that STAT3 interacts with C-terminal domain of HIF-1α and stabilizes HIF-1α by inhibition of pVHL binding to HIF-1α. The binding between HIF-1
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 01/2008; 40(5). · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis is required for tumor development and is stimulated by angiogenic inducers like VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). Our previous study demonstrated that STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) up-regulates HIF-1alpha (hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha) protein stability and enhances HIF-1-mediated VEGF expression in hypoxic solid tumor cells, thus suggesting that the inhibition of STAT3 signaling may have clinical applications. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo, whether caffeic acid (CA) or its derivative CADPE [3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl ester] exert anticancer activity by targeting STAT3. It was found that CA or CADPE significantly inhibit STAT3 activity, and that this in turn down-regulates HIF-1alpha activity. Consequently, sequential blockade of STAT3 and HIF-1alpha resulted in the down-regulation of VEGF by inhibiting their recruitment to the VEGF promoter. In mice bearing a Caki-I carcinoma, both CA and CADPE retarded tumor growth and suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation, HIF-1alpha expression, vascularization and STAT3-inducible VEGF gene expression in tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CA and CADPE are potential inhibitors of STAT3 and that they suppress tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting the activity of STAT3, the expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-cell contacts play important roles in the homeostasis of normal epithelium and in the steps of metastasis of tumor cells, although signaling mechanisms to regulate cell-cell contacts are unclear. In this study, we observed that phenotype of no cell-cell contacts in rat intestinal epithelial cell subline (RIE1-Sca) correlated with increased Erk1/2 signaling activity, compared to that of parental RIE1 cells growing in colonies. Furthermore, cell-cell contacts between RIE1-Sca cells were reformed by treatment with a specific MEK inhibitor (U0126), with translocation of ZO1 and beta-catenin to cell-cell contacts, without changes of their expression levels. U0126 treatment also increased EGFR phosphorylation in a ligand-independent manner. Pretreatment with EGFR kinase inhibitor abolished U0126 treatment-mediated EGFR phosphorylation, and expression of dominant negative H-Ras N17 allowed EGFR phosphorylation and cell-cell contacts even without U0126 treatment. Furthermore, the expression of a nonphosphorylatable EGFR Y5F mutant abolished U0126-mediated cell-cell contacts. U0126 treatment also caused less efficient wound healing by keeping monolayer integrity intact, compared to control untreated cells. This U0126-mediated reduction in wound healing was further altered either by pretreatment of EGFR kinase inhibitor or expression of H-Ras N17 or EGFR Y5F. Taken together, this study supports a unique mechanism of cell-cell contact formation through MEK/Erks inhibition-mediated EGFR phosphorylation.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2007; 1773(6):833-43. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts/caveolae are membrane platforms for signaling molecules that regulate various cellular functions, including cell survival. To better understand the role of rafts in tumor progression and therapeutics, we investigated the effect of raft disruption on cell viability and compared raft levels in human cancer cell lines versus their normal counterparts. Here, we report that cholesterol depletion using methyl-beta cyclodextrin caused anoikis-like apoptosis, which in A431 cells involved decreased raft levels, Bcl-xL down-regulation, caspase-3 activation, and Akt inactivation regardless of epidermal growth factor receptor activation. Cholesterol repletion replenished rafts on the cell surface and restored Akt activation and cell viability. Moreover, the breast cancer and the prostate cancer cell lines contained more lipid rafts and were more sensitive to cholesterol depletion-induced cell death than their normal counterparts. These results indicate that cancer cells contain increased levels of rafts and suggest a potential use of raft-modulating agents as anti-cancer drugs.
American Journal Of Pathology 05/2006; 168(4):1107-18; quiz 1404-5. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than half of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) are associated with chromosomal translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) that leads to the expression of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) oncoprotein. NPM-ALK activates the antiapoptotic phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in cell survival and apoptosis. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway has been considered as a therapeutic target for cancer where PI3K/Akt activation is a causative factor. Genistein, a natural isoflavonoid found in soy products, has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cell lines. Here, we demonstrated that treatment of two t(2;5) ALCL cell lines, SUDHL-1 and Karpas299, with genistein induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, these cells exhibited a decrease in Akt protein levels and subsequent downregulation of Akt activity (Akt phosphorylation). Furthermore, genistein treatment induced mitochondrial membrane potential change, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. From these results, we conclude that inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway and induction of apoptosis by genistein could be used as a new treatment modality for the prevention and/or treatment of t(2;5) ALCL and other hematopoietic malignancies.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2005; 56(3):271-8. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the mechanisms and factors involved in the regulation of mouse IL-2Rbeta gene expression, we isolated the 5'-flanking region of IL-2Rbeta gene and investigated the promoter activity. Here we elucidated the positive regulatory regions, the most potent of which are located between -50 to -30bp and -164 to -135bp. These regions contain a potentially functional Ets and Egr-1-binding sites whose mutations abrogate promoter activity. Data from electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicate that Ets and Egr-1, but not Sp1, bind to the positive regulatory regions, -50 to -30bp and -164 to -135bp, respectively. Furthermore, recruitment of Ets and Egr-1 at endogenous IL-2Rbeta promoter segments in an IL-2-dependent F7 cells was verified by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. This study for the first time delineates the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of mouse IL-2Rbeta gene transcription by Ets family proteins, partially with Egr-1, and thereby further elucidates the molecular basis of lymphocyte activation and differentiation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2005; 329(3):1094-101. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that anti-apoptotic Bfl-1 is converted to a pro-apoptotic protein following fusion at its N-terminus with green fluorescent protein (GFP) (GFP-Bfl-1). In this study, we performed a Bfl-1 deletion study in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of GFP-Bfl-1-induced cell death. We found that the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains in Bfl-1 are dispensable with respect to cell death and that GFP fusion with the 29 amino acids of the C-terminal region of Bfl-1 (GFP-BC) is sufficient to induce cell death. Moreover, when BC was fused with other tagging partners like GST or MBP, little cell death was observed, implying that the GFP region is as important as the BC region for GFP-BC-induced cell death. Further deletion analysis defined a region of GFP as a determinant of GFP-BC-induced cell death. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that GFP-chimeras containing the BC region of Bfl-1 are located mainly in mitochondria. The GFP-BC-induced cell death accompanied cellular caspase activation, and treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, Boc-D-FMK, partially inhibited GFP-BC-induced cell death. However, the over-expression of anti-apoptotic molecules, such as Bcl-x(L) and CrmA, did not block GFP-BC-induced cell death. In summary, GFP-BC induces cell death with caspase activation through mitochondria dependent process.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/2005; 94(6):1234-47. · 3.37 Impact Factor