Jung Il Lee

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (144)283.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Progression to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the major lethal pathway of prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we demonstrated that tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) kinase is the fundamental molecule provoking progression and metastasis of CRPC. Tpl2 up-regulates CXCR4 and FAK to activate CXCL12/CXCR4 and FAK/Akt signalling pathway. Consequently, EMT and stemness of androgen depletion independent (ADI) PC cells are induced, which is dependent on the kinase activity of Tpl2. In vitro, proliferation, clonogenicity, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of ADI PC cells were enhanced by Tpl2. In vivo, Tpl2 over-expression and down-regulation showed significant stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tumorigenic and metastatic potential of ADI PC cells, respectively. Moreover, the prognostic effects of Tpl2 and expressional correlation between Tpl2 and EMT-related molecules/CXCR4 were validated in clinical PC databases. Since Tpl2 exerts metastatic progression promoting activities in PC, Tpl2 could serve as a novel therapeutic target for metastatic CRPC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most metacarpal neck fractures can be reduced using the close reduction technique. However, if acceptable reduction cannot be achieved by closed reduction, open reduction is indicated. A 37-year-old patient had a third metacarpal neck fracture. We tried to reduce the metacarpal neck fracture by using closed reduction methods, but failed to do so. We performed open exploration and observed that the cause of failure was interposition of the junctura tendinum (JT) connecting the third and fourth extensor digitorum tendons. The JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space can interpose between the fragments in cases of third, fourth, or fifth metacarpal neck fractures, because the JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space is thick and wide (type 2 or 3). The JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space should be considered as a potential obstacle to the reduction in cases of irreducible metacarpal neck fractures.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, but their role in acute viral hepatitis remains elusive. Herein, we investigated alteration in the peripheral blood Treg population during acute hepatitis A (AHA) and its implication in the immune-mediated liver injury.
    Gut 07/2014; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    Jung Il Lee
    Gut and liver. 07/2014; 8(4):337-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like-factor (KLF) 10 is identified as transforming growth factor (TGF) beta inducible early gene and is reported to suppress lipogenic genes. Although previous studies report that TGFbeta plays an important role in progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by regulating liver fibrosis, the association of KLF10 and NASH has never been explored. Thus we evaluated expressions and changes of KLF10 in diet induced NASH and in NASH which was alleviated by ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We also assessed KLF10 in quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
    Journal of translational medicine. 07/2014; 12(1):186.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the antiviral responses and evolution of resistance mutations during adefovir (ADV) plus lamivudine (LMV) therapy in patients with entecavir (ETV)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Twenty chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who had been receiving ETV for more than 6 months and developed virologic breakthrough due to ETV resistance were consecutively enrolled. Results: Patients received ADV plus LMV therapy for 12 months. The baseline mean serum HBV DNA level was 5.59 ± 1.28 log10 IU/ml. The rtT184L/I/A/F (50%), rtS202G (25%) and mixed ETV-resistant mutations (25%) were detected at enrollment. The mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline to 12 months was -2.3 ± 1.06 log10 IU/ml (p < 0.001). Seventeen patients were followed up for the full 12 months, and complete virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/ml) was observed in 4 patients (23.5%). Among the remaining 13 patients who still had detectable HBV DNA, 7 patients showed disappearance of ETV-resistant mutations or reduction of the proportion of ETV-resistant mutants. An ADV- and LMV-resistant mutant (rtA181T) emerged in 2 patients (11.7%). Conclusions: ADV plus LMV combination therapy suppresses ETV-resistant mutants in the viral population and significantly reduces serum HBV DNA levels in ETV-resistant CHB patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 06/2014; 57(5):239-247. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    Jung Il Lee, Jean S Campbell
    Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis is recommended to be treated by a systemic chemotherapeutic agent without local treatment targeting the liver, studies reported that causes of death in these patients were mostly from progression of intrahepatic lesions. Thus, this study investigated prognosis and factors predicting survival in these patients so as to evaluate the role of local treatments against intrahepatic lesions when the patients already had extrahepatic metastasis. This retrospective study evaluated medical records of 277 patients with HCC and extrahepatic metastasis. The median survival was 5.9 months, and 257 patients died during the follow up. Factors affecting survival of HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis were poor response to treatment of hepatic lesions (HR 2.207; 95 % CI; p < 0.001), applying local treatment specifically targeting intrahepatic lesions (HR 0.591; 95 % CI 0.436-0.803; p = 0.001), intrahepatic tumor size larger than 3 cm (HR 2.065; 95 % CI 1.444-2.954; p < 0.001), and ECOG performance status 2 or higher (HR 1.543; 95 % CI 1.057-2.253; p = 0.025). The patients with either complete or partial response to the therapy had 1- and 2-year survival rate of 48.8 and 12.1 % whereas patient with either stable or progressive disease had 1-year survival rate of 11.4 %. These results suggest that even in the HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis, effective local treatment may still be beneficial for the survival especially in patients with acceptable performance status.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2014; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/AimsSorafenib is recommended as a standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib as a first-line therapy in Korean patients with advanced HCC. Methods From 2007 to 2012, 86 patients with advanced HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C) treated with sorafenib as a first-line therapy were enrolled from five tertiary hospitals. Predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. ResultsThe median age was 59.5 years and 71 (82.6%) were males; 57 (66.3%) patients were in Child-Pugh class A. The median OS and PFS were 5.0 (range, 4.0-5.9) and 3.2 (range, 2.6-3.7) months, respectively. Regarding OS, Child-Pugh class A (6.0 vs. 2.8 months), tumor diameter < 5 cm (6.0 vs. 4.3 months), baseline α-fetoprotein (AFP) < 200 ng/mL (5.8 vs. 4.1 months), and the advent of hand-foot-skin reaction (HFSR) of ≥ grade 2 (5.9 vs. 4.0 months) were independent favorable predictors (all P < 0.05). Similarly, regarding PFS, Child-Pugh class A (4.3 vs. 2.1 months), tumor diameter < 5 cm (3.9 vs. 2.8 months), baseline AFP < 200 ng/mL (5.6 vs. 2.8 months) and the advent of HFSR of ≥ grade 2 (4.5 vs. 2.6 months) were independent favorable predictors (all P < 0.05). All toxicities during sorafenib treatment were manageable. Conclusions Because the efficacy of sorafenib seems marginal in Korean patients with treatment-naïve HCC, how to select candidates with favorable outcomes should be further investigated.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microvascular invasion (MVI) is a well-known prognostic factor of postoperative recurrence and of overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We compared the treatment outcomes of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and surgery/radiofrequency ablation (RFA) according to the presence of MVI in patients with early or late recurrent HCC that presented as Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A after curative resection for HCC METHODS: A consecutive 68 patients with recurrent HCC of BCLC stage 0 or A at our institution between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. We compared the outcomes of patients treated by TACE or surgery/RFA. Tumor recurrence after curative resection was classified as early (≤12 months) or late (>12 months) recurrence. Median tumor size was 1.5 cm (range, 1-10 cm), and 67 (98.5%) had HCCs within the Milan criteria. Median post-retreatment follow-up duration was 27 months (range, 1-109 months). Of the 68 patients, 19 (27.9%) underwent surgery/RFA, 47 (69.1%) TACE, and 2 (2.9%) were lost to follow-up. After retreatment, TACE showed significantly higher OS and recurrence free survival rates than surgery/RFA in MVI-positive patients (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively), but not in MVI-negative patients (P=0.95 and P=0.98, respectively). In particular, in early recurred MVI-positive patients, TACE had a significantly higher OS rate than surgery/RFA (P=0.01). TACE may be the more effective treatment option for recurrent HCC of BCLC stage 0 or A than surgery/RFA in MVI-positive patients, especially in those that recur early after curative resection.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication detected before the resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is to be controlled by antiviral agents. However, management strategy for patients with preoperatively undetectable HBV DNA without antiviral therapy is not clearly delineated. This study investigated viral reactivation after the liver resection in non-replicating HBV DNA related HCC patients and its impact on the surgical outcome. From 198 patients that underwent liver resection due to HBV related HCC, 101 patients who had serially checked serum HBV DNA were analyzed. From 101 patients, 33 patients had baseline undetectable HBV DNA. Eleven patients (11/33, 33.3%) had viral replication after the liver resection. The postoperative viral reactivation (HR: 2.144; 95% CI: 1.122-4.097; p=0.021), along with existence of satellite nodules (HR: 3.034; 95% CI: 1.1.376-6.689; p=0.006), existence of microvascular invasion (HR: 2.479; 95% CI: 1.303-4.718; p=0.006), and HBeAg positivity (HR: 2.059; 95% CI: 1.155-3.670; p=0.014) predicted recurrence after the surgery. Quantification of intrahepatic total and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) was done in 14 patients whose baseline serum HBV DNA was undetectable without the use of antiviral agent. Amount of intrahepatic cccDNA expressed as copies/hepatocyte in patients with postoperative viral reactivation showed significantly higher than those in patients with sustained negative serum HBV DNA (p=0.010). This study shows that naturally suppressed preoperative HBV without application of antiviral agent does not ensure undetectable serum HBV after the surgery, and postoperative viral reactivation might be associated with HCC recurrence.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatobiliary complications, such as stone recurrence, recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, secondary biliary cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma may occur after treatment for hepatolithiasis. However, few previous studies have addressed the risk factors and long-term outcomes after initial treatment. Eighty-five patients with newly diagnosed hepatolithiasis, actively treated for hepatolithiasis, constituted the cohort of this retrospective study. Patients were treated by hepatectomy or nonoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy. Long-term complications, such as recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, secondary biliary cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma, and their relationships with clinical parameters were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 57.4 months. The overall hepatobiliary complication rate after the treatment was 17.6%. Multivariate analysis of suspected risk factors showed that complications were associated with age (HR, 1.046; CI, 1.006-1.089), bile duct stricture (HR, 4.894; CI, 1.295-18.495), and residual stones (HR, 3.482; CI, 1.214-9.981). In conclusion, several long-term hepatobiliary complications occur after hepatolithiasis treatment, and regular observation is necessary in patients with concomitant biliary stricture or residual stones.
    Journal of Korean medical science 11/2013; 28(11):1627-1631. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the hepatic fibrosis-reversal effects upon simultaneous administration of lithospermate B (LAB), an anti-oxidant, and nivocasan, a caspase inhibitor, to rats compared with each compound alone. Liver fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by thioacetamide (TAA). Rats were treated with TAA and then given LAB and (or) nivocasan. Fibrotic areas were evaluated quantitatively by computerized morphometry. Apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemical staining for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) was performed to assess oxidative stress levels. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify expression of fibrosis-related genes. The degree of hepatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in rats treated with LAB and nivocasan compared to either treatment alone (P < 0.001). Treatment with each compound significantly decreased expression of fibrosis-related genes, such as type I collagen α1 (col1α1), α-SMA and TGF-β1 (P < 0.05). Co-treatment with LAB and nivocasan further reduced col1α1 expression compared to treatment with either compound. A TUNEL assay revealed that hepatocyte apoptosis was significantly decreased in the group treated with nivocasan compared to other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease in MDA and 4HNE, reflecting amelioration of oxidative stress, when LAB or LAB+nivocasan was administered compared to nivocasan alone (P < 0.01). Nivocasan was found to inhibit caspase-1, -3, -7, -9 and gliotoxin-induced death of rat-derived hepatic stellate cells was inhibited by nivocasan administration without overexpression of α-SMA. Conclusions: Co-incidental administration of LAB and nivocasan suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis, resulting in enhanced reversal of hepatic fibrosis in rat.
    Apoptosis 09/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients that underwent surgery, transarterial embolization (TAE), or supportive care for spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A consecutive 54 patients who diagnosed as spontaneously ruptured HCC at our institution between 2003 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. HCC was diagnosed based on the diagnostic guidelines issued by the 2005 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. HCC rupture was defined as disruption of the peritumoral liver capsule with enhanced fluid collection in the perihepatic area adjacent to the HCC by dynamic liver computed tomography, and when abdominal paracentesis showed an ascitic red blood cell count of > 50000 mm(3)/mL in bloody fluid. Of the 54 patients, 6 (11.1%) underwent surgery, 25 (46.3%) TAE, and 23 (42.6%) supportive care. The 2-, 4- and 6-mo cumulative survival rates at 2, 4 and 6 mo were significantly higher in the surgery (60%, 60% and 60%) or TAE (36%, 20% and 20%) groups than in the supportive care group (8.7%, 0% and 0%), respectively (each, P < 0.01), and tended to be higher in the surgical group than in the TAE group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum bilirubin (HR = 1.09, P < 0.01), creatinine (HR = 1.46, P = 0.04), and vasopressor requirement (HR = 2.37, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with post-treatment mortality, whereas surgery (HR = 0.41, P < 0.01), and TAE (HR = 0.13, P = 0.01) were inversely associated with post-treatment mortality. Post-treatment survival after surgery or TAE was found to be better than after supportive care, and surgery tended to provide better survival benefit than TAE.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 19(28):4537-44. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dissemination of gastric cancer may usually occur by direct spread through the perigastric tissues to adjacent organ, lymphatic spread, and hematogenous spread. We report a rare case of gastric cancer with mucosal metastastic lesion on the upper esophagus that was diagnosed by endoscopy and endosonography. A biopsy of the esophageal mass was performed and the pathologic findings with immunohistochemical stain for Mucin-5AC are proved to be identical to that of gastric adenocarcinoma, suggesting metastasis from main lesion of the gastric cancer. The lesion could not be explained by lymphatic or hematogenous spread, and its metastasis mechanism is considered to be different from previous studies. We suggest that the gastroesophageal reflux of cancer cells could be one of the possible metastatic pathways for metastasis of esophagus from an adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2013; 19(23):3699-3702. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors investigated whether a remote postconditioning (remote post-con) procedure attenuated skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We determined the optimal protocol of remote post-con and investigated its mechanism. Ischemia was induced for 3 hours in rat left hindlimb and three protocols of remote post-con were applied in right hindlimb just before the end of ischemia. The first (10-second group) involved two cycles of 10 seconds of occlusion followed by 10 seconds of reperfusion. The second (5-minute group) involved two cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion/reperfusion. The third (10-minute group) involved two cycles of 10 minutes of occlusion/reperfusion. In 5- and 10-minute groups, wet/dry ratio and muscle fiber edema were significantly lower than control group. Muscle contractility was preserved in 5- and 10-minute groups. An injection of 5-hydroxydecanoate (a specific blocker of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ [mKATP] channels) impaired this effect. This study demonstrates that remote post-con preserves muscle contractility and reduces tissue edema and necrosis, possibly through the activation of mKATP channels. We suggest that two cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion are optimal protocols of remote post-con in skeletal muscle I/R injury.
    Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 06/2013; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is not as prevalent as esophageal variceal bleeding, it is reportedly more serious, with high failure rates of the initial hemostasis (>30%), and has a worse prognosis than esophageal variceal bleeding. However, there is limited information regarding hemostasis and the prognosis for GVB. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the clinical outcomes of GVB in a multicenter study in Korea. The data of 1,308 episodes of GVB (males:females=1062:246, age=55.0±11.0 years, mean±SD) were collected from 24 referral hospital centers in South Korea between March 2003 and December 2008. The rates of initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality within 5 days and 6 weeks of the index bleed were evaluated. The initial hemostasis failed in 6.1% of the patients, and this was associated with the Child-Pugh score [odds ratio (OR)=1.619; P<0.001] and the treatment modality: endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration vs. endoscopic sclerotherapy, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and balloon tamponade (OR=0.221, P<0.001). Rebleeding developed in 11.5% of the patients, and was significantly associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.159, P<0.001) and treatment modality (OR=0.619, P=0.026). The GVB-associated mortality was 10.3%; mortality in these cases was associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.795, P<0.001) and the treatment modality for the initial hemostasis (OR=0.467, P=0.001). The clinical outcome for GVB was better for the present cohort than in previous reports. Initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality due to GVB were universally associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis.
    Clinical and molecular hepatology. 03/2013; 19(1):36-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Management of lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains challenging, as inappropriate choice of treatment may cause multidrug resistance. Until now, randomized trials directly comparing adding adefovir and switching to entecavir monotherapy have not been reported. This multicentre prospective randomized study was designed to compare the efficacy of these two strategies. Two hundred and nineteen lamivudine-resistant CHB patients were randomized to either adefovir-lamivudine combination group or entecavir monotherapy group (n = 110 vs. 109), and followed up for 24 months. One hundred and eighty patients completed this study. At month 24, virological response rate [hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA <60 IU/ml] was higher in the adefovir-lamivudine combination group compared with entecavir group (56.7% vs. 40%, P = 0.025), although biochemical and serological response rates were not significantly different. Genotypic resistance (9.2% vs. 24.6%, P = 0.005) and combined viral breakthrough (2.0% vs. 17.6%, P < 0.001) were more frequent in the entecavir group. However, by subgroup analysis, virological response rates were not significantly different between the two therapies in HBeAg-positive patients (44.9% vs. 35.7%, P = 0.268) or in patients with high baseline HBV DNA (≥7 log IU/ml) (40.7% vs. 31.3%, P = 0.320) at month 24. This study showed that adefovir-lamivudine combination provides significantly higher antiviral efficacy and the lower resistance rate compared with the entecavir monotherapy in the management of lamivudine-resistant CHB. However, it had limited efficacy in HBeAg-positive patients or in patients with high baseline HBV DNA.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 02/2013; 33(2):244-54. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate rapid virologic response (RVR) rate after peginterferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) dual combination therapy in Korean hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 patients whose IL28B polymorphism is generally favorable. This study also assessed the value of RVR in predicting sustained virologic response (SVR). Methods: Treatment-naïve HCV genotype 1 patients who underwent initial treatment with either PegIFN-α-2a or α-2b and RBV were retrospectively evaluated. From 148 patients, 115 met inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Results: Overall RVR rate was 47.8% and SVR rate was 67.8% (78/115). Positive RVR had the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for achieving SVR, whereas it had the lowest negative predictive value (NPV). Undetectable HCV RNA at treatment week 12, namely complete early virologic response (cEVR), had high PPV as well as high NPV. Factors predisposing SVR were absence of liver cirrhosis and achievement of RVR or cEVR. Conclusion: This study showed RVR rate close to 50% in HCV genotype 1 patients treated with dual combination therapy in the region where favorable IL28B polymorphism is reported to be as high as 90%. Even for the patients who failed to achieve RVR, positive cEVR demonstrated a fair chance of achieving SVR.
    Intervirology 01/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: As a rare liver disease, little is known about autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). This study investigated the clinical features and compared two diagnostic criteria of AIH in Korea. METHODS: A nationwide, multicenter, retrospective analysis was done of data of adult patients diagnosed with AIH from January 2005 to December 2009. RESULTS: The enrolled patients (n=343; mean age, 52.8 years; range, 19-87 years; 12% male, 88% female) met diagnostic criteria of AIH according to the revised original criteria (n=311) or the simplified criteria (n=250). At diagnosis, 30.6% were asymptomatic, 22.7% were cirrhotic, and 4.3% displayed hepatic decompensation. The positive results for anti-nuclear antibody, smooth muscle antibody, and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody were 94.2%, 23.0%, and 2.9%, respectively. Definite AIH and probable AIH according to the revised original criteria were 24.8% and 65.6%, respectively, while those according to the simplified criteria were 34.4% and 38.5%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and positive predictive value of simplified criteria in comparison with the revised original criteria were 69.9% and 86.4%, respectively. As an initial therapy, corticosteroid (37.7%) or corticosteroid with azathioprine (36.8%) was administered. Remission, incomplete response, and treatment failure were noted with 85.7%, 10.5%, and 3.9% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AIH in Korea is mostly type I, showing a mean age of 53 years with comparable clinical features to other countries. The concordant rate of the two diagnostic criteria was rather low with modest sensitivity of the simplified criteria. Further studies on the validation of the diagnostic criteria are warranted.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2012; · 3.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

472 Citations
283.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • College of Oriental Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inha University
      • Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Korea University
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2012
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2011
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Opto-Electronic Convergence Systems
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Physics
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea