Jung Il Lee

Yonsei University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (158)316.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) implemented in FibroScan® is reported to be a noninvasive means of detecting steatosis (>10% steatosis). We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of CAP in detecting steatosis among health checkup examinees and to assess its correlation with ultrasonography (US). Consecutive CAP results were retrospectively collected. A total of 280 subjects were included. Fatty liver was detected in 119 subjects (42.5%) by US, whereas it was detected in 160 subjects (57.1%) by the CAP. The numbers of subjects with S0S1S2S3 steatosis according to the CAP value were 120595843, respectively. The mean CAP values were 203.34±28.39 dB/m for S0, 248.83±6.14 dB/m for S1, 274.33±8.53 dB/m for S2, and 322.35±22.20 dB/m for S3. CAP values were correlated with body weight (r=0.404, p<0.001), body mass index (r=0.445, p<0.001), and the fatty liver grade by US (r=0.472, p<0.001). Among the 161 subjects with normal US findings, steatosis was detected in 65 subjects (40.4%) using the CAP. The CAP seems to be useful for detecting very low-grade hepatic steatosis in health checkup examinees. Its role in predicting subjects with a risk of metabolic derangement needs to be evaluated.
    Gut and liver. 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aimsTransient elastography (TE) has become an alternative to liver biopsy (LB). This study investigated the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness (LS) measurement using TE in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC).Methods From April 2006 to June 2014, 916 patients (567 CHB and 349 CHC) who underwent LB and TE at 15 centers were analyzed. The Batts and Ludwig scoring system was used for histologic assessment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)–to–platelet ratio indexes (APRI) were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used.ResultsThe median age, LS value, and APRI score were 45 years, 8.8 kPa, and 0.61, respectively, in CHB patients versus 51 years, 6.8 kPa and 0.55, respectively in CHC patients. TE was significantly superior to APRI in CHB patients (AUROC 0.774 vs. 0.72 for ≥F2, 0.849 vs. 0.812 for ≥F3, and 0.902 vs. 0.707 for F4, respectively; all P<0.05). Furthermore, TE was significantly superior for predicting ≥ F3 stage (AUROC 0.865 vs. 0.840, P=0.009) whereas it was similar for predicting ≥ F2 and F4 stage (AUROC 0.822 vs. 0.796; 0.910 vs. 0.884; all P>0.05) in CHC patients. In CHB patients, optimal cutoff LS values were 7.8 kPa for ≥ F2, 8.2 kPa for ≥ F3, and 11.6 kPa for F4, versus 6.8 kPa, 8.6 kPa, and 14.5 kPa, respectively, in CHC patients.ConclusionsTE can accurately assess the degree of liver fibrosis in Korean patients with CVH. TE was superior to APRI for predicting each fibrosis stage.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 02/2015; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors present clinical and radiographic results of minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Twenty-six patients with three- or four-part proximal humeral fractures treated with the MIPO technique through the deltoid splitting approach were clinically and radiographically evaluated at a minimum of 12 months with an average of 20.1 months. The valgus-impacted type of three-part fracture was excluded to verify the results of the MIPO with unstable multifragmentary fractures of the proximal humerus. Twenty female patients and six male patients were included (mean age 67 years; range 18-90 years). No cases of nonunion were seen. The mean forward flexion, abduction, and external rotation were 145°, 119°, and 48°, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) for pain was 1.47 points. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 14.5 points, and the mean UCLA score was 29.6 points. The mean neck-shaft angle was 134°. Twenty-three patients had adequate medial support, and three patients did not have adequate medial support on initial postoperative radiographs. Five shoulders (19 %) developed complicated results. Two cases of proximal malposition of the plate (7.7 %) and two intra-articular screw penetrations (7.7 %) were observed. One case of osteonecrosis of the humeral head was identified at the final follow-up (3.8 %). The MIPO technique provides reliable radiologic and functional outcomes for three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. Our results might support the use of MIPO for treating unstable multi fragmentary fractures of proximal humerus such as three- or four-part fractures to decrease osteonecrosis of humeral head.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 01/2015; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress into liver cirrhosis; however, no definite treatment is available. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) has been reported to alleviate experimental NASH, although its beneficial effect was not evident when tested clinically. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the additive effect of omega-3 and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on diet-induced NASH in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks, at which point the mice were divided into three groups and fed HFD alone, HFD with omega-3 or HFD with omega-3 in combination with UDCA for another 24 weeks. Feeding mice an HFD and administering omega-3 improved histologically assessed liver fibrosis, and UDCA in combination with omega-3 further attenuated this disease. The assessment of collagen α1(I) expression agreed with the histological evaluation. Omega-3 in combination with UDCA resulted in a significant attenuation of inflammation whereas administering omega-3 alone failed to improve histologically assessed liver inflammation. Quantitative analysis of tumor necrosis factor α showed an additive effect of omega-3 and UDCA on liver inflammation. HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was attenuated by omega-3 and adding UDCA accentuated this effect. In accordance with this result, the expression of sterol regulatory binding protein-1c decreased after omega-3 administration and adding UDCA further diminished SREBP-1c expression. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which may reflect oxidative stress-induced tissue damage, was suppressed by omega-3 administration and adding UDCA further attenuated iNOS expression. These results demonstrated an additive effect of omega-3 and UDCA for alleviating fibrosis, inflammation and steatosis in diet-induced NASH.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 12/2014; 46:e127. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progression to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the major lethal pathway of prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we demonstrated that tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) kinase is the fundamental molecule provoking progression and metastasis of CRPC. Tpl2 up-regulates CXCR4 and FAK to activate CXCL12/CXCR4 and FAK/Akt signalling pathway. Consequently, EMT and stemness of androgen depletion independent (ADI) PC cells are induced, which is dependent on the kinase activity of Tpl2. In vitro, proliferation, clonogenicity, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of ADI PC cells were enhanced by Tpl2. In vivo, Tpl2 over-expression and down-regulation showed significant stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tumorigenic and metastatic potential of ADI PC cells, respectively. Moreover, the prognostic effects of Tpl2 and expressional correlation between Tpl2 and EMT-related molecules/CXCR4 were validated in clinical PC databases. Since Tpl2 exerts metastatic progression promoting activities in PC, Tpl2 could serve as a novel therapeutic target for metastatic CRPC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most metacarpal neck fractures can be reduced using the close reduction technique. However, if acceptable reduction cannot be achieved by closed reduction, open reduction is indicated. A 37-year-old patient had a third metacarpal neck fracture. We tried to reduce the metacarpal neck fracture by using closed reduction methods, but failed to do so. We performed open exploration and observed that the cause of failure was interposition of the junctura tendinum (JT) connecting the third and fourth extensor digitorum tendons. The JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space can interpose between the fragments in cases of third, fourth, or fifth metacarpal neck fractures, because the JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space is thick and wide (type 2 or 3). The JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space should be considered as a potential obstacle to the reduction in cases of irreducible metacarpal neck fractures.
    Hand Surgery 08/2014; 19(03):1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, but their role in acute viral hepatitis remains elusive. Herein, we investigated alteration in the peripheral blood Treg population during acute hepatitis A (AHA) and its implication in the immune-mediated liver injury.
    Gut 07/2014; · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    Jung Il Lee
    Gut and liver 07/2014; 8(4):337-8. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like-factor (KLF) 10 is identified as transforming growth factor (TGF) beta inducible early gene and is reported to suppress lipogenic genes. Although previous studies report that TGFbeta plays an important role in progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by regulating liver fibrosis, the association of KLF10 and NASH has never been explored. Thus we evaluated expressions and changes of KLF10 in diet induced NASH and in NASH which was alleviated by ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We also assessed KLF10 in quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
    Journal of Translational Medicine 07/2014; 12(1):186. · 3.99 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the antiviral responses and evolution of resistance mutations during adefovir (ADV) plus lamivudine (LMV) therapy in patients with entecavir (ETV)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Twenty chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who had been receiving ETV for more than 6 months and developed virologic breakthrough due to ETV resistance were consecutively enrolled. Results: Patients received ADV plus LMV therapy for 12 months. The baseline mean serum HBV DNA level was 5.59 ± 1.28 log10 IU/ml. The rtT184L/I/A/F (50%), rtS202G (25%) and mixed ETV-resistant mutations (25%) were detected at enrollment. The mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline to 12 months was -2.3 ± 1.06 log10 IU/ml (p < 0.001). Seventeen patients were followed up for the full 12 months, and complete virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/ml) was observed in 4 patients (23.5%). Among the remaining 13 patients who still had detectable HBV DNA, 7 patients showed disappearance of ETV-resistant mutations or reduction of the proportion of ETV-resistant mutants. An ADV- and LMV-resistant mutant (rtA181T) emerged in 2 patients (11.7%). Conclusions: ADV plus LMV combination therapy suppresses ETV-resistant mutants in the viral population and significantly reduces serum HBV DNA levels in ETV-resistant CHB patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 06/2014; 57(5):239-247. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    Jung Il Lee, Jean S Campbell
    Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis is recommended to be treated by a systemic chemotherapeutic agent without local treatment targeting the liver, studies reported that causes of death in these patients were mostly from progression of intrahepatic lesions. Thus, this study investigated prognosis and factors predicting survival in these patients so as to evaluate the role of local treatments against intrahepatic lesions when the patients already had extrahepatic metastasis. This retrospective study evaluated medical records of 277 patients with HCC and extrahepatic metastasis. The median survival was 5.9 months, and 257 patients died during the follow up. Factors affecting survival of HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis were poor response to treatment of hepatic lesions (HR 2.207; 95 % CI; p < 0.001), applying local treatment specifically targeting intrahepatic lesions (HR 0.591; 95 % CI 0.436-0.803; p = 0.001), intrahepatic tumor size larger than 3 cm (HR 2.065; 95 % CI 1.444-2.954; p < 0.001), and ECOG performance status 2 or higher (HR 1.543; 95 % CI 1.057-2.253; p = 0.025). The patients with either complete or partial response to the therapy had 1- and 2-year survival rate of 48.8 and 12.1 % whereas patient with either stable or progressive disease had 1-year survival rate of 11.4 %. These results suggest that even in the HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis, effective local treatment may still be beneficial for the survival especially in patients with acceptable performance status.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2014; 31(4). · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/AimsSorafenib is recommended as a standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib as a first-line therapy in Korean patients with advanced HCC. Methods From 2007 to 2012, 86 patients with advanced HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C) treated with sorafenib as a first-line therapy were enrolled from five tertiary hospitals. Predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. ResultsThe median age was 59.5 years and 71 (82.6%) were males; 57 (66.3%) patients were in Child-Pugh class A. The median OS and PFS were 5.0 (range, 4.0-5.9) and 3.2 (range, 2.6-3.7) months, respectively. Regarding OS, Child-Pugh class A (6.0 vs. 2.8 months), tumor diameter < 5 cm (6.0 vs. 4.3 months), baseline α-fetoprotein (AFP) < 200 ng/mL (5.8 vs. 4.1 months), and the advent of hand-foot-skin reaction (HFSR) of ≥ grade 2 (5.9 vs. 4.0 months) were independent favorable predictors (all P < 0.05). Similarly, regarding PFS, Child-Pugh class A (4.3 vs. 2.1 months), tumor diameter < 5 cm (3.9 vs. 2.8 months), baseline AFP < 200 ng/mL (5.6 vs. 2.8 months) and the advent of HFSR of ≥ grade 2 (4.5 vs. 2.6 months) were independent favorable predictors (all P < 0.05). All toxicities during sorafenib treatment were manageable. Conclusions Because the efficacy of sorafenib seems marginal in Korean patients with treatment-naïve HCC, how to select candidates with favorable outcomes should be further investigated.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely accepted nonsurgical modality used for the treatment of multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The careful selection of the candidate is important due to the risk of developing various side effects. Fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and liver enzyme elevation are commonly known side effects of TACE. Hepatic failure, ischemic cholecystitis, and cerebral embolism are also reported, although their incidence might be low. Pulmonary complication after TACE is rare, and the reported cases of lipiodol pneumonitis are even rarer. A 53-year-old man was treated with TACE for ruptured HCC associated with hepatitis B virus infection. On day 19 after the procedure, the patient complained of dyspnea and dry cough. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities in the wholelung fields, suggesting lipiodol-induced pneumonitis. After 2 weeks of conservative management, the clinical symptoms and radiologic abnormalities improved. Reported herein is the aforementioned case of lipiodol-induced pnemonitis after TACE, with literature review.
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine. 01/2014; 31(2):117.
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    ABSTRACT: Microvascular invasion (MVI) is a well-known prognostic factor of postoperative recurrence and of overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We compared the treatment outcomes of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and surgery/radiofrequency ablation (RFA) according to the presence of MVI in patients with early or late recurrent HCC that presented as Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A after curative resection for HCC METHODS: A consecutive 68 patients with recurrent HCC of BCLC stage 0 or A at our institution between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. We compared the outcomes of patients treated by TACE or surgery/RFA. Tumor recurrence after curative resection was classified as early (≤12 months) or late (>12 months) recurrence. Median tumor size was 1.5 cm (range, 1-10 cm), and 67 (98.5%) had HCCs within the Milan criteria. Median post-retreatment follow-up duration was 27 months (range, 1-109 months). Of the 68 patients, 19 (27.9%) underwent surgery/RFA, 47 (69.1%) TACE, and 2 (2.9%) were lost to follow-up. After retreatment, TACE showed significantly higher OS and recurrence free survival rates than surgery/RFA in MVI-positive patients (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively), but not in MVI-negative patients (P=0.95 and P=0.98, respectively). In particular, in early recurred MVI-positive patients, TACE had a significantly higher OS rate than surgery/RFA (P=0.01). TACE may be the more effective treatment option for recurrent HCC of BCLC stage 0 or A than surgery/RFA in MVI-positive patients, especially in those that recur early after curative resection.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication detected before the resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is to be controlled by antiviral agents. However, management strategy for patients with preoperatively undetectable HBV DNA without antiviral therapy is not clearly delineated. This study investigated viral reactivation after the liver resection in non-replicating HBV DNA related HCC patients and its impact on the surgical outcome. From 198 patients that underwent liver resection due to HBV related HCC, 101 patients who had serially checked serum HBV DNA were analyzed. From 101 patients, 33 patients had baseline undetectable HBV DNA. Eleven patients (11/33, 33.3%) had viral replication after the liver resection. The postoperative viral reactivation (HR: 2.144; 95% CI: 1.122-4.097; p=0.021), along with existence of satellite nodules (HR: 3.034; 95% CI: 1.1.376-6.689; p=0.006), existence of microvascular invasion (HR: 2.479; 95% CI: 1.303-4.718; p=0.006), and HBeAg positivity (HR: 2.059; 95% CI: 1.155-3.670; p=0.014) predicted recurrence after the surgery. Quantification of intrahepatic total and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) was done in 14 patients whose baseline serum HBV DNA was undetectable without the use of antiviral agent. Amount of intrahepatic cccDNA expressed as copies/hepatocyte in patients with postoperative viral reactivation showed significantly higher than those in patients with sustained negative serum HBV DNA (p=0.010). This study shows that naturally suppressed preoperative HBV without application of antiviral agent does not ensure undetectable serum HBV after the surgery, and postoperative viral reactivation might be associated with HCC recurrence.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatobiliary complications, such as stone recurrence, recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, secondary biliary cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma may occur after treatment for hepatolithiasis. However, few previous studies have addressed the risk factors and long-term outcomes after initial treatment. Eighty-five patients with newly diagnosed hepatolithiasis, actively treated for hepatolithiasis, constituted the cohort of this retrospective study. Patients were treated by hepatectomy or nonoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy. Long-term complications, such as recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, secondary biliary cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma, and their relationships with clinical parameters were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 57.4 months. The overall hepatobiliary complication rate after the treatment was 17.6%. Multivariate analysis of suspected risk factors showed that complications were associated with age (HR, 1.046; CI, 1.006-1.089), bile duct stricture (HR, 4.894; CI, 1.295-18.495), and residual stones (HR, 3.482; CI, 1.214-9.981). In conclusion, several long-term hepatobiliary complications occur after hepatolithiasis treatment, and regular observation is necessary in patients with concomitant biliary stricture or residual stones.
    Journal of Korean medical science 11/2013; 28(11):1627-1631. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the dosimetric quantities, realistic neutron calibration fields and spectrum-weighted response (SWR) of several neutron-measuring devices to provide guidance to health physicists and dosimetry specialists on the proper selection and use of survey meters in neutron fields of varying energy spectra. To yield the SWR, the detector response functions of 17 neutron-measuring devices were numerically folded with each of the produced calibration neutron spectra through the in-house developed software 'K-SWR'. The detectors' response functions were taken from the IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 403. Eight kinds of calibration neutron fields with high energy and high dose rates were produced using a proton accelerator (MC50 cyclotron) of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The fluence-average energy (Eave) varied from 3.8 to 16.9 MeV, and the ambient-dose-equivalent rate [H(*)(10) h(-1)] varied from 0.99 to 16.5 mSv h(-1).
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 09/2013; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the hepatic fibrosis-reversal effects upon simultaneous administration of lithospermate B (LAB), an anti-oxidant, and nivocasan, a caspase inhibitor, to rats compared with each compound alone. Liver fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by thioacetamide (TAA). Rats were treated with TAA and then given LAB and (or) nivocasan. Fibrotic areas were evaluated quantitatively by computerized morphometry. Apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemical staining for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) was performed to assess oxidative stress levels. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify expression of fibrosis-related genes. The degree of hepatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in rats treated with LAB and nivocasan compared to either treatment alone (P < 0.001). Treatment with each compound significantly decreased expression of fibrosis-related genes, such as type I collagen α1 (col1α1), α-SMA and TGF-β1 (P < 0.05). Co-treatment with LAB and nivocasan further reduced col1α1 expression compared to treatment with either compound. A TUNEL assay revealed that hepatocyte apoptosis was significantly decreased in the group treated with nivocasan compared to other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease in MDA and 4HNE, reflecting amelioration of oxidative stress, when LAB or LAB+nivocasan was administered compared to nivocasan alone (P < 0.01). Nivocasan was found to inhibit caspase-1, -3, -7, -9 and gliotoxin-induced death of rat-derived hepatic stellate cells was inhibited by nivocasan administration without overexpression of α-SMA. Conclusions: Co-incidental administration of LAB and nivocasan suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis, resulting in enhanced reversal of hepatic fibrosis in rat.
    Apoptosis 09/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients that underwent surgery, transarterial embolization (TAE), or supportive care for spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A consecutive 54 patients who diagnosed as spontaneously ruptured HCC at our institution between 2003 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. HCC was diagnosed based on the diagnostic guidelines issued by the 2005 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. HCC rupture was defined as disruption of the peritumoral liver capsule with enhanced fluid collection in the perihepatic area adjacent to the HCC by dynamic liver computed tomography, and when abdominal paracentesis showed an ascitic red blood cell count of > 50000 mm(3)/mL in bloody fluid. Of the 54 patients, 6 (11.1%) underwent surgery, 25 (46.3%) TAE, and 23 (42.6%) supportive care. The 2-, 4- and 6-mo cumulative survival rates at 2, 4 and 6 mo were significantly higher in the surgery (60%, 60% and 60%) or TAE (36%, 20% and 20%) groups than in the supportive care group (8.7%, 0% and 0%), respectively (each, P < 0.01), and tended to be higher in the surgical group than in the TAE group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum bilirubin (HR = 1.09, P < 0.01), creatinine (HR = 1.46, P = 0.04), and vasopressor requirement (HR = 2.37, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with post-treatment mortality, whereas surgery (HR = 0.41, P < 0.01), and TAE (HR = 0.13, P = 0.01) were inversely associated with post-treatment mortality. Post-treatment survival after surgery or TAE was found to be better than after supportive care, and surgery tended to provide better survival benefit than TAE.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 19(28):4537-44. · 2.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

617 Citations
316.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2008–2013
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Korea University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Kyung Hee University
      • College of Oriental Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2011
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Opto-Electronic Convergence Systems
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2010
    • Inha University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Physics
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea