[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of death due to the lack of treatment accessibility, HIV coinfection, and drug resistance. Development of new drugs targeting previously unexplored pathways is essential to shorten treatment time and eliminate persistent M. tuberculosis. A promising biochemical pathway which may be targeted to kill both replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis is the biosynthesis of NAD(H), an essential cofactor in multiple reactions crucial for respiration, redox balance, and biosynthesis of major building blocks. NaMN adenylyltransferase (NadD) and NAD synthetase (NadE), the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, were selected as promising candidate drug targets for M. tuberculosis. Here we report for the first time kinetic characterization of the recombinant purified NadD enzyme, setting the stage for its structural analysis and inhibitor development. A protein knockdown approach was applied to validate bothNadD and NadE as target enzymes. Induced degradation of either target enzyme showed a strong bactericidal effect which coincided with anticipated changes in relative levels of NaMN and NaAD intermediates (substrates of NadD and NadE, respectively) and ultimate depletion of the NAD(H) pool. A metabolic catastrophe predicted as a likely result of NAD(H) deprivation of cellular metabolism was confirmed by (13)C biosynthetic labeling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A sharp suppression of metabolic flux was observed in multiple NAD(P)(H)-dependent pathways, including synthesis of many amino acids (serine, proline, aromatic amino acids) and fatty acids. Overall, these results provide strong validation of the essential NAD biosynthetic enzymes, NadD and NadE, as antimycobacterial drug targets.
To address the problems of M. tuberculosis drug resistance and persistence of tuberculosis, new classes of drug targets need to be explored. The biogenesis of NAD cofactors was selected for target validation because of their indispensable role in driving hundreds of biochemical transformations. We hypothesized that the disruption of NAD production in the cell via genetic suppression of the essential enzymes (NadD and NadE) involved in the last two steps of NAD biogenesis would lead to cell death, even under dormancy conditions. In this study, we confirmed the hypothesis using a protein knockdown approach in the model system of Mycobacterium smegmatis. We showed that induced proteolytic degradation of either target enzyme leads to depletion of the NAD cofactor pool, which suppresses metabolic flux through numerous NAD(P)-dependent pathways of central metabolism of carbon and energy production. Remarkably, bactericidal effect was observed even for nondividing bacteria cultivated under carbon starvation conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
A botanical extract from Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity by increasing cellular insulin signaling in in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies suggest that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in insulin signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of this promising botanical extract on the human skeletal muscle phosphoproteome, by evaluating changes in site-specific protein phosphorylation levels in primary skeletal muscle cultures from obese, insulin-resistant individuals stimulated with and without insulin.
Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal or elevated insulin level results in an abnormal biologic response, e.g., glucose uptake. Using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ™) followed by phosphopeptide enrichment and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 125 unique phosphopeptides and 159 unique phosphorylation sites from 80 unique proteins were identified and quantified.
Insulin stimulation of primary cultured muscle cells from insulin-resistant individuals resulted in minimal increase in phosphorylation, demonstrating impaired insulin action in this condition. Treatment with PMI 5011 resulted in significant up-regulation of 35 phosphopeptides that were mapped to proteins participating in the regulation of transcription, translation, actin cytoskeleton signaling, caveolae translocation, and translocation of glucose transporter 4. These data further showed that PMI 5011 increased phosphorylation levels of specific amino acids in proteins in the insulin-resistant state that are normally phosphorylated by insulin (thus, increasing cellular insulin signaling) and PMI 5011 also increased the abundance of phosphorylation sites of proteins regulating anti-apoptotic effects.
This phosphoproteomics analysis demonstrated conclusively that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins and identified novel pathways by which PMI 5011 exerts its insulin-sensitizing effects in skeletal muscle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue fibrosis can lead to organ dysfunction, patient morbidity, and mortality. Adipose-derived Stromal/stem Cells (ASCs) represent a potential therapeutic. Immediately following grafting, ASCs would reside in a lower O2 environment. ASC secretome was examined under 5% O2 ("low O2") and 21% O2 ("ambient O2") culture conditions. ASCs from five female donors were cultured in low or ambient O2 conditions for 3 days and pooled conditioned medium was compared by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS). Of 71 proteins identified, five proteins involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling exhibited ≥2-fold decrease under low O2 culture and were confirmed by Western immunoblot and qRT-PCR: fibronectin 1, TGF-β1-induced protein (βig-h3), osteonectin, and collagens type 1α1 and α2. ELISAs performed using 10 donors also confirmed significant decreases during low O2 culture in 4-6 ASC donors. For low abundant proteins, a 36 cytokine/chemokine array was performed. Fifteen cytokines/chemokines including Type 2 cytokines IL-13, MCP-1, and CD40 ligand were detected in ambient O2 ASC medium. IL-6 was detected in low O2 but not ambient O2 ASC medium. These findings demonstrate that low O2 ASC exposure resulted in reduced ECM protein and Type 2 cytokine secretions that are significant with regard to inflammation in fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue fibrosis can lead to organ dysfunction, patient morbidity, and mortality. Adipose-derived Stromal/stem Cells (ASCs) represent a potential therapeutic. Immediately following grafting, ASCs would reside in a lower O2 environment. ASC secretome was examined under 5% O2 ("low O2") and 21% O2 ("ambient O2") culture conditions. ASCs from five female donors were cultured in low or ambient O2 conditions for 3 days and pooled conditioned medium was compared by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS). Of 71 proteins identified, five proteins involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling exhibited >2-fold decrease under low O2 culture and were confirmed by Western immunoblot and qRT-PCR: fibronectin 1, TGF-β1-induced protein (βig-h3), osteonectin, and collagens type 1α1 and α2 . ELISAs performed using10 donors also confirmed significant decreases during low O2 culture in 4-6 ASC donors. For low abundant proteins, a 36 cytokine/chemokine array was performed. Fifteen cytokines/chemokines including Type 2 cytokines IL-13, MCP-1, and CD40 ligand were detected in ambient O2 ASC medium. IL-6 was detected in low O2 but not ambient O2 ASC medium. These findings demonstrate that low O2 ASC exposure resulted in reduced ECM protein and Type 2 cytokine secretions that are significant with regard to inflammation in fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A data treatment method is presented to detect fluorescence anisotropy (FA) peaks in capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. The data treatment method converts plots of fluorescence anisotropy vs. time that contain no peaks that are distinguishable from the noise of the anisotropy background into plots that show distinct fluorescence anisotropy peaks. The method was demonstrated using laser-induced fluorescence anisotropy data from individual Aβ (1-42) aggregates separated using capillary electrophoresis. Applying this data treatment method enabled the detection of anisotropy peaks for individual Aβ aggregate fluorescence peaks that were not observed prior to the data treatment method. The data treatment method is not specifically designed for Aβ aggregate analysis or capillary electrophoresis, and it should be applicable to other applications and other separation methods with FA detection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust metabolic intervention to extend lifespan and improve healthspan in several species. Using global and targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approaches, here we show that chronic CR prevents age-related changes in specific metabolic signatures. Global metabolomic analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected more than 7,000 metabolites in sera from ad-libitum-fed young, aged, and aged C57BL/6 mice maintained on 40 % CR. Multivariate statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data revealed a clear separation among the young, aged, and aged-CR mice demonstrating the potential of this approach for producing reliable metabolic profiles that discriminate based on age and diet. We have identified 168 discriminating features with high statistical significance (p ≤ 0.001) and validated and quantified three of these metabolites using targeted metabolite analysis. Calorie restriction prevented the age-related alteration in specific metabolites, namely lysophosphatidylcholines (16:1 and 18:4), sphingomyelin (d18:1/12:0), tetracosahexaenoic acid, and 7α-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, in the serum. Pathway analysis revealed that CR impacted the age-related changes in metabolic byproducts of lipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis. Our data suggest that metabolomics approach has the potential to elucidate the metabolic mechanism of CR's potential anti-aging effects in larger-scale investigations.
Age 06/2012; 35(4). DOI:10.1007/s11357-012-9430-x · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report a novel method for the manipulation and concentration of Aβ amyloid fibrils, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, using DC insulating gradient dielectrophoresis (DC-iGDEP). Fibril enrichment was found to be ∼400%. Simulations suggest that capture of the full range of amyloid protein aggregates is possible with optimized device design.
The Analyst 05/2012; 137(14):3227-9. DOI:10.1039/c2an35138b · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concept of "metabolic inflexibility" was first introduced to describe the failure of insulin-resistant human subjects to appropriately adjust mitochondrial fuel selection in response to nutritional cues. This phenomenon has since gained increasing recognition as a core component of the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we identify an essential role for the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), in regulating substrate switching and glucose tolerance. By converting acetyl-CoA to its membrane permeant acetylcarnitine ester, CrAT regulates mitochondrial and intracellular carbon trafficking. Studies in muscle-specific Crat knockout mice, primary human skeletal myocytes, and human subjects undergoing L-carnitine supplementation support a model wherein CrAT combats nutrient stress, promotes metabolic flexibility, and enhances insulin action by permitting mitochondrial efflux of excess acetyl moieties that otherwise inhibit key regulatory enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase. These findings offer therapeutically relevant insights into the molecular basis of metabolic inflexibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a major pathophysiologic abnormality that characterizes metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A well characterized ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown to improve insulin action in vitro and in vivo, but the cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Using differential proteomics, we have studied mechanisms by which PMI 5011 enhances insulin action in primary human skeletal muscle culture obtained by biopsy from obese, insulin-resistant individuals. Using iTRAQ™ labeling and LC-MS/MS, we have identified over 200 differentially regulated proteins due to treatment with PMI 5011 and insulin stimulation. Bioinformatics analyses determined that several metabolic pathways related to glycolysis, glucose transport and cell signaling were highly represented and differentially regulated in the presence of PMI 5011 indicating that this extract affects several pathways modulating carbohydrate metabolism, including translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. These findings provide a molecular mechanism by which a botanical extract improves insulin stimulated glucose uptake, transport and metabolism at the cellular level resulting in enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity.
Journal of proteomics 03/2012; 75(11):3199-210. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.03.024 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The separation and detection of individual amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregates by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was demonstrated. Samples were prepared with either Aβ (1-40) or Aβ (1-42) peptides and were characterized by CE with ultraviolet (UV) absorbance detection and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using thioflavin T (ThT) in the electrophoresis buffer, electrophoresis of aggregate-containing samples (5.0-s injection) produced up to several hundred narrow (< 20 ms FWHM [full width at half maximum]) fluorescence peaks. Injection of Aβ (1-40) monomer samples resulted in no additional peaks compared with controls. The CE-LIF results were validated by bulk ThT fluorescence measurements for the same samples. The potential of laser-induced fluorescence anisotropy (LIFA) with CE to characterize individual Aβ aggregates also was investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological aging alters the metabolism and volume of adipose tissue depots. Recent evidence suggests that circadian mechanisms play a role in promoting adipogenesis, obesity, and lipodystrophy. The current study compared cohorts of younger (5-9 months) and older (24-28 months) C57BL/6 mice as a function of biological age and circadian time. Advanced age significantly reduced the weight of the brown, epididymal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal adipose depots but not total body weight. The older mice reduced their physical activity by >50% and delayed their activity initiation after light offset. The expressed transcriptome in brown and white adipose depots and liver of both cohorts displayed evidence of circadian rhythmicity; however, the oscillating mRNAs differed significantly between age groups and across tissues. The amplitude of Cry1, a component of the negative arm of the circadian apparatus, and downstream regulators such as Rev-erbα were elevated in the older relative to the younger cohorts as a function of circadian time. Overall, transcript levels differed significantly for 557 (inguinal adipose), 1,016 (liver), and 1,021 (brown adipose) expressed sequences between the cohorts as a function of age. These included transcripts encoding proteins within the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways. Since the Wnt pathway regulates adipose stem cell differentiation and shares a critical enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, with the circadian mechanism, the intersection between these two fundamental regulatory mechanisms merits further investigation with respect to biological aging of adipose tissues.
Age 03/2012; 35(3). DOI:10.1007/s11357-012-9389-7 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SIRT1 is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and aging. However, it is not clear how SIRT1 activity is regulated by intracellular kinases in cells. In this study, we investigated SIRT1 phosphorylation and protein degradation in response to JNK1 activation in obese mice. Mouse SIRT1 is phosphorylated by JNK1 at Ser-46 (Ser-47 in human SIRT1), which is one of the four potential residues targeted by JNK1. The phosphorylation induces a brief activation of SIRT1 function and degradation of SIRT1 thereafter by the proteasome. Ubiquitination occurs in SIRT1 protein after the phosphorylation. Mutation of Ser-46 to alanine prevents the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation. In vivo, SIRT1 undergoes an extensive degradation in hepatocytes in obesity as a consequence of persistent activation of JNK1. The degradation leads to inhibition of SIRT1 function, which contributes to development of hepatic steatosis. The degradation disappears in obesity when JNK1 is inactivated in mice. JNK2 exhibits an opposite activity in the regulation of SIRT1 degradation. The JNK1-SIRT1 pathway provides a new molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SIRT1 is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes and aging. However, it is not clear how SIRT1 activity is regulated
by intracellular kinases in cells. In this study, we investigated SIRT1 phosphorylation and protein degradation in response
to JNK1 activation in obese mice. Mouse SIRT1 is phosphorylated by JNK1 at Ser46 (Ser47 in human SIRT1), which is one of the
four potential residues targeted by JNK1. The phosphorylation induces a brief activation of SIRT1 function, and degradation
of SIRT1 thereafter by the proteasome. Ubiquitination occurs in SIRT1 protein after the phosphorylation. Mutation of Ser46
to alanine prevents the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. In vivo, SIRT1 undergoes an extensive degradation
in hepatocytes in obesity as a consequence of persistent activation of JNK1. The degradation leads to inhibition of SIRT1
function, which contributes to development of hepatic steatosis. The degradation disappears in obesity when JNK1 is inactivated
in mice. JNK2 exhibits an opposite activity in the regulation of SIRT1 degradation. The JNK1-SIRT1 pathway provides a new
molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in obesity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue contains a heterogeneous population of mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, immune cells, pericytes, and preadipocytic stromal/stem cells. To date, a majority of proteomic analyses have focused on intact adipose tissue or isolated adipose stromal/stem cells in vitro. In this study, human subcutaneous adipose tissue from multiple depots (arm and abdomen) obtained from female donors was separated into populations of stromal vascular fraction cells and mature adipocytes. Out of 960 features detected by 2-D gel electrophoresis, a total of 200 features displayed a 2-fold up- or down-regulation relative to each cell population. The protein identity of 136 features was determined. Immunoblot analyses comparing SVF relative to adipocytes confirmed that carbonic anhydrase II was up-regulated in both adipose depots while catalase was up-regulated in the arm only. Bioinformatic analyses of the data set determined that cytoskeletal, glycogenic, glycolytic, lipid metabolic, and oxidative stress related pathways were highly represented as differentially regulated between the mature adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction cells. These findings extend previous reports in the literature with respect to the adipose tissue proteome and the consequences of adipogenesis. The proteins identified may have value as biomarkers for monitoring the physiology and pathology of cell populations within subcutaneous adipose depots.
Journal of Proteome Research 04/2011; 10(4):1519-27. DOI:10.1021/pr100887r · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV absorbance detection is presented to characterize synthetic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide preparations at different aggregation states. Aggregation of Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) is closely linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and studying how Aβ peptides self-assemble to form aggregates is the focus of intense research. Developing methods capable of identifying, characterizing and quantifying a wide range of Aβ species from monomers to fully formed fibrils is critical for AD research and is a major analytical challenge. Monomer and fibril samples of Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) were prepared and characterized for this study. The monomer-equivalent concentration for each sample was determined by HPLC-UV, and aggregate formation was confirmed and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The same samples were studied using CE with UV absorbance detection. Analysis by mass spectrometry of collected CE fractions was used to confirm the presence of Aβ for some CE-UV peaks. The CE-UV method reported here clearly indicates that monomeric and aggregated Aβ were electrophoretically separated, and substantial differences in the electrophoretic profiles between samples of Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) were observed. This CE-UV method can differentiate between Aβ monomer, oligomeric intermediates, and mature fibrils.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 02/2011; 879(9-10):627-32. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.01.030 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteomics refers to the analysis of expression, localization, functions, posttranslational modifications, and interactions of proteins expressed by a genome at a specific condition and at a specific time. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methods have emerged as a key technology for unbiased systematic and high-throughput identification and quantification of complex protein mixtures. These methods have the potential to reveal unknown and novel changes in protein interactions and assemblies that regulate cellular and physiological processes. Both gel-based (one-dimensional [1D] gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional [2D] polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2D difference in-gel electrophoresis [DIGE]) and gel-free (liquid chromatography [LC], capillary electrophoresis) approaches have been developed and utilized in a variety of combinations to separate proteins prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Detailed protocols for global proteomic analysis from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) using two central strategies, 2D-DIGE-MS and 2D-LC-MS, are presented here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that HIV antiretroviral drugs, particularly protease inhibitors, frequently elicit a metabolic syndrome that may include hyperlipidemia, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance. Metabolic dysfunction in non-HIV-infected subjects has been repeatedly associated with cognitive impairment in epidemiological and experimental studies, but it is not yet understood if antiretroviral therapy-induced metabolic syndrome might contribute to HIV-associated neurologic decline. To determine if protease inhibitor-induced metabolic dysfunction in mice is accompanied by adverse neurologic effects, C57BL/6 mice were given combined lopinavir/ritonavir (50/12.5-200/50 mg/kg) daily for 3 weeks. Data show that lopinavir/ritonavir administration caused significant metabolic derangement, including alterations in body weight and fat mass, as well as dose-dependent patterns of hyperlipidemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypoleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Evaluation of neurologic function revealed that even the lowest dose of lopinavir/ritonavir caused significant cognitive impairment assessed in multi-unit T-maze, but did not affect motor functions assessed as rotarod performance. Collectively, our results indicate that repeated lopinavir/ritonavir administration produces cognitive as well as metabolic impairments, and suggest that the development of selective aspects of metabolic syndrome in HIV patients could contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
Antiviral research 10/2010; 88(3):334-42. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.10.006 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI 5011) has been observed to decrease glucose and insulin levels in animal models and enhance cellular signaling in cultured cells. To determine the mechanism of action of PMI-5011, we have measured changes in protein expression in human primary skeletal muscle culture (HSMC) from subjects with Type 2 diabetes. After obtaining skeletal muscle biopsies, HSMCs were initiated, grown to confluence, and exposed to 10 microg/mL PMI 5011 overnight. Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins, and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to identify differentially regulated proteins. Additionally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm candidate proteins identified. These data demonstrate that a well characterized botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. significantly modulates proteins involved in regulating inflammatory pathways, particularly the NFkappaB complex system.
Phytotherapy Research 09/2010; 24(9):1278-84. DOI:10.1002/ptr.3093 · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method was developed to characterize and quantify preparations of monomeric beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV absorbance detection. The detection limit for Abeta monomer using this method was 0.5 microM (19 pg). The self-assembly of Abeta to form amyloid fibrils is closely linked to Alzheimer's disease and is the subject of intense investigations. Consistent preparation of Abeta monomer samples at known concentrations and free of aggregates is a significant challenge for researchers studying the mechanism of Abeta fibril formation and searching for small molecules that inhibit Abeta fibril formation. Samples of Abeta monomer are known to sometimes contain pre-existing aggregates that can affect the kinetics and structure of amyloid fibrils. The CE method presented here showed that some of the monomeric Abeta samples prepared for this study contained a species producing a second peak (in addition to the major monomer peak). The aggregation was monitored using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay, and the resulting fibrils were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Monomer samples containing the additional peak based on CE analysis were shown to aggregate more rapidly than monomer samples that were free of this putative Abeta aggregate peak.
The Analyst 07/2010; 135(7):1631-5. DOI:10.1039/c0an00080a · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MIF-1 (Pro-Leu-Gly-NH(2)) has potent therapeutic effects in depression and Parkinson's disease, but its CNS sites of production are not yet clear. In this study, the concentration of MIF-1 in different brain regions was measured by the multiple reaction monitoring technique on a 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer. The limit of quantification was 300 fg of MIF-1, and limit of detection was 60 fg. The low molecular weight fractions of tissue homogenates from different regions of mouse brain were analyzed. The concentration of MIF-1 ranged from 22+/-3 fg/microg protein in cerebral cortex to 930+/-60 fg/microg protein in the hypothalamus. Moderate concentrations were also detected in all other regions tested, including the striatum, thalamus, and hippocampus. By incubation of stable isotope-labeled oxytocin with tissue preparations, it was also confirmed that oxytocin at least partially contributed to the production of MIF-1 in the hypothalamus by action of peptidases. Regional differences were also found. The results are the first to show the ultrasensitive quantification of MIF-1 in different brain regions, and support the neuromodulatory actions of MIF-1 in the striatum.