W M Abraham

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (130)684.77 Total impact

  • T G O'Riordan · M D Weinstein · W M Abraham · R Forteza
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical course of patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation is often complicated by the development of purulent tracheobronchitis. The purpose of this study was to assess whether ventilator-associated hypersecretion is associated with elevated levels of tissue kallikrein (TK) activity. TK can induce marked bronchial inflammation in animal models and TK activity is increased in the airway secretions of symptomatic asthmatics. It has not been studied in conditions with predominantly neutrophilic bronchial secretions, although animal data indicate that neutrophil elastase may stimulate TK activity. We measured TK activity in airway secretions of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 4 weeks (PMV group) and in two comparator groups: patients with cystic fibrosis, who were colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CF group) and patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for less than one week who did not have clinical evidence of purulent airway secretions (acute mechanical ventilation, AMV group). We also compared the level of neutrophil elastase (NE) activity, an index of neutrophil activation, in the three patient groups. TK and NE activity in the sol phase were measured by the degradation of chromogenic substrates (DL Val-Leu-Arg pNA and N-Methoxy Succinyl Ala-Ala-Pro-Val pNA, respectively). Intergroup differences in cell counts were not significant. However, TK activity was significantly less in the AMV group than in the PMV and cystic fibrosis patients (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, p < 0.05). Elastase activity was significantly greater in the CF group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups. Compared to patients undergoing short-term mechanical ventilation (AMV group), TK activity was elevated in patients with purulent tracheobronchitis associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV group). The elevation in TK activity in these patients is comparable to levels in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF group), although the latter had a significantly higher level of NE activity. The observation of increased TK activity in patients with neutrophilic airway inflammation suggests that TK may play a role in modulating inflammation in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis and may be worthy of further study to determine its source and significance.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 02/2003; 181(5):237-44. DOI:10.1007/s00408-003-1019-9 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)-(2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt] is a deoxycytidine-uridine dinucleotide with agonist activity at the P2Y(2) receptor. In primate lung tissues, the P2Y(2) receptor mRNA was located by in situ hybridization predominantly in epithelial cells and not in smooth muscle or stromal tissue. The pharmacologic profile of INS37217 parallels that of UTP, leading to increased chloride and water secretion, increased cilia beat frequency, and increased mucin release. The combined effect of these actions was confirmed in an animal model of tracheal mucus velocity that showed that a single administration of INS37217 significantly enhanced mucus transport for at least 8 h after dosing. This extended duration of action is consistent with the ability of INS37217 to resist metabolism by airway cells and sputum enzymes. The enhanced metabolic stability and resultant increased duration of improved mucociliary clearance may confer significant advantages to INS37217 over other P2Y(2) agonists in the treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2002; 302(3):871-80. DOI:10.1124/jpet.102.035485 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that inhaled porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) causes bronchoconstriction in sheep via a bradykinin-mediated mechanism. Hyaluronic acid (HA), in vitro, binds and inactivates airway tissue kallikrein (TK), the enzyme responsible for kinin generation. Therefore, we hypothesized that in vivo, HA should prevent PPE-induced bronchoconstriction by binding and inactivating TK. To test this, we measured pulmonary resistance (RL) in allergic sheep before and after inhalation of PPE alone (500 microg) and after pretreatment with either inhaled HA at 70 kD, designated low molecular weight (LMW)-HA or 200 kD, designated high molecular weight (HMW)-HA at different concentrations. Inhaled PPE increased RL 147 +/- 8% over baseline values and this effect was associated with a 111 +/- 28% increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) TK activity. HA blocked the PPE-induced bronchoconstriction and the increase in BALF TK activity in a dose- dependent and molecular weight-dependent fashion. HA alone had no effect on RL. Instillation of PPE in the lung increased kinin concentrations in BALF, a result consistent with the PPE-induced increase in BALF TK activity. Our findings show that HA blocks PPE-induced bronchoconstriction in a dose-dependent and molecular weight-dependent fashion by a mechanism that may, in part, be related to inhibition of TK activity and the formation of kinins.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2001; 164(10 Pt 1):1855-9. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.164.10.2011115 · 13.00 Impact Factor
  • R M Forteza · A Ahmed · T Lee · W M Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha(1)-PI) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) are two natural airway serine protease inhibitors. While inhibition of neutrophil elastase is a function common to both alpha(1)-PI and SLPI, we showed previously that they exhibit different patterns of protection against antigen-induced changes in airway function in allergic sheep. Specifically, the protective effect seen with SLPI was similar to the profile of action of synthetic tryptase inhibitors in the model. Based on these data, and the fact that tryptase is a serine protease, we hypothesized that SLPI, but not alpha(1)-PI, would block tryptase-induced bronchoconstriction. To test this, we compared the responses to inhaled tryptase in five sheep without treatment or after treatment with either aerosol alpha(1)-PI (10 mg) or aerosol SLPI (50 mg). The doses of alpha(1)-PI and SLPI selected had been shown to be effective in previous antigen-provocation studies. Treatments were given 30 min before aerosol challenge with tryptase (500 ng). Tryptase alone increased (mean+/-SEM) pulmonary resistance (R(L)) 142 +/- 24% over baseline. Pretreatment with alpha(1)-PI had no effect on the tryptase response (R(L)increased 122 +/- 20%). Pretreatment with SLPI, however, blocked the tryptase-induced response (R(L) increased only 40 +/- 4% P<0.05 vs. tryptase). These are the first studies comparing the inhibitory activity of SLPI and alpha(1)-PI on inhaled tryptase-induced bronchoconstriction. We conclude that, in vivo, SLPI, but not alpha(1)-PI, can block tryptase-induced bronchoconstriction and that this activity may explain the differential effects of these two serine protease inhibitors on antigen-induced airway responses in allergic sheep.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 02/2001; 14(2):107-10. DOI:10.1006/pupt.2000.0276 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil elastase has been linked to inflammatory lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. In guinea pigs, aerosol challenge with human neutrophil elastase causes bronchoconstriction, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely understood. Our laboratory previously showed that human neutrophil elastase releases tissue kallikrein (TK) from cultured tracheal gland cells. TK has been identified as the major kininogenase of the airway and cleaves both high- and low-molecular weight kininogen to yield lysyl-bradykinin. Because inhaled bradykinin causes bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients and allergic sheep, we hypothesized that elastase-induced bronchoconstriction could be mediated by bradykinin. To test this hypothesis, we measured lung resistance (RL) in sheep before and after inhalation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) alone and after pretreatment with a bradykinin B(2) antagonist (NPC-567), the specific human elastase inhibitor ICI 200,355, the histamine H(1)-antagonist diphenhydramine hydrochloride, the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor antagonist montelukast, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Inhaled PPE (125-1,000 microg) caused a dose-dependent increase in RL. Aerosol challenge with a single 500 microg dose of PPE increased RL by 132 +/- 8% over baseline. This response was blocked by pretreatment with NPC-567 and ICI-200,355 (n = 6; P < 0.001), whereas treatment with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, montelukast, or indomethacin failed to block the PPE-induced bronchoconstriction. Consistent with pharmacological data, TK activity in bronchial lavage fluid increased 134 +/- 57% over baseline (n = 5; P < 0.02). We conclude that, in sheep, PPE-induced bronchoconstriction is in part mediated by the generation of bradykinin. Our findings suggest that elastase-kinin interactions may contribute to changes in bronchial tone during inflammatory diseases of the airways.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/2000; 89(4):1397-402. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The leukocyte integrin very late antigen-4 (alpha(4)beta(1), CD49d/CD29) is an adhesion receptor that plays an important role in allergic inflammation and contributes to antigen-induced late responses (LAR) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In this study, we show that single doses of a new small-molecule, tight-binding inhibitor of alpha(4), BIO-1211, whether given by aerosol or intravenously, either before or 1.5 h after antigen challenge blocks allergen- induced LAR and post-antigen-induced AHR in allergic sheep. Multiple treatments with doses of BIO-1211 that were ineffective when given singly, were protective. BIO-1211 also provided dose-dependent inhibition of the early airway response (EAR) to antigen. In conjunction with the functional protection against the antigen-induced LAR and AHR, sheep treated with BIO-1211 before challenge showed significantly reduced: (1) numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), (2) BAL levels of the inflammatory marker tissue kallikrein, and (3) numbers of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, eosinophils, metachromatic staining cells, and neutrophils) in bronchial biopsies obtained after challenge when compared with corresponding biopsies after vehicle treatment. More importantly, we show for the first time that an inhibitor of alpha(4) was able to reverse post-antigen-induced AHR, thereby decreasing the time of recovery from the normal period of > 9 d to 3 d. Our results show that effective inhibition of antigen-induced airway responses can be achieved with single doses of a potent small-molecule inhibitor of alpha(4) and that such agents may be used therapeutically, as well as prophylactically, to alleviate allergen- induced inflammatory events. These data provide further support and extend the evidence for the role of alpha(4) integrins in the pathophysiologic events that follow airway antigen challenge.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2000; 162(2 Pt 1):603-11. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.162.2.9911061 · 13.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Airway mucus is a complex mixture of secretory products that provides a multifaceted defense against pulmonary infection. Mucus contains antimicrobial peptides (e.g., defensins) and enzymes (e.g., lysozyme) although the contribution of these to airway sterility has not been tested in vivo. We have previously shown that an enzymatically active, heme-containing peroxidase comprises 1% of the soluble protein in sheep airway secretions, and it has been hypothesized that this airway peroxidase may function as a biocidal system. In this study, we show that sheep airway peroxidase is identical to milk lactoperoxidase (LPO) and that sheep airway secretions contain thiocyanate (SCN(-)) at concentrations necessary and sufficient for a functional peroxidase system that can protect against infection. We also show that airway LPO, like milk LPO, produces the biocidal compound hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)) in vitro. Finally, we show that in vivo inhibition of airway LPO in sheep leads to a significant decrease in bacterial clearance from the airways. The data suggest that the LPO system is a major contributor to airway defenses. This discovery may have significant implications for chronic airway colonization seen in respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2000; 22(6):665-71. DOI:10.1165/ajrcmb.22.6.3980 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Rosanna Forteza · Isabel Lauredo · William M. Abraham · Gregory E. Conner
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue kallikrein (TK) is secreted by serous cells of tracheobronchial submucosal glands and plays a role in allergic airway responses. To better understand the regulation of TK, we used primary cultures of submucosal gland cells that release TK upon stimulation. Media from cultures stimulated with chymase (10(-7) M) showed increased TK activity (0.50 +/- 0.22 mU/ml mean +/- standard error) in comparison with the control group (0.08 +/- 0.02 mU/ml). The increased TK activity was significantly correlated with increases in the levels of the serous cell marker, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor. Anion exchange chromatography of the conditioned culture media showed that TK activity eluted as a broad peak between 1.6 and 1.8 M NaCl, unlike the reported elution (0.3 to 0.6 M NaCl) of kallikreins from other tissues, suggesting that secreted bronchial TK was bound to a negatively charged molecule. Hyaluronidase digestion increased TK activity in both pre- and post-chymase-stimulated culture media, whereas no such change was seen after samples were digested with heparinase or chondroitinase ABC. Further, after hyaluronidase digestion of media, TK eluted from an anion exchange column between 0.3 and 0.6 M NaCl. Enzymatic detection of TK after nondenaturing gel electrophoresis showed that hyaluronidase digestion also reduced the electrophoretic heterogeneity of TK to a single band, whereas adding back hyaluronic acid (HA) to hyaluronidase-digested samples restored the original heterogeneity. Finally, TK activity bound to HA-Sepharose and could be eluted with HA. These studies show that primary cultures of ovine submucosal gland cells secrete TK in a regulated fashion, and that secreted TK binds to HA. This binding reduces TK enzymatic activity; therefore, factors that affect HA turnover could modify the TK activity in the airway lumen. These events could be important in the regulation of kinin-mediated airway inflammation.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2000; 21(6):666-74. DOI:10.1165/ajrcmb.21.6.3651 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that mast cell tryptase is a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma. The effects of this serine protease are associated with both pathophysiologic pulmonary responses and pathologic changes of the asthmatic airway. In this study, the tryptase inhibitor 1,5-bis-[4-[(3-carbamimidoyl-benzenesulfonylamino)-methyl]-p henoxy]-pentane (AMG-126737) was evaluated for its pharmacologic effects against allergen-induced airway responses. AMG-126737 is a potent inhibitor of human lung mast cell tryptase (Ki = 90 nM), with greater than 10- to 200-fold selectivity versus other serine proteases. Intratracheal administration of AMG-126737 inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergen-challenged guinea pigs with an ED50 of 0.015 mg/kg. In addition, the compound exhibited oral activity in the guinea pig model. The in vivo activity of AMG-126737 was confirmed in a sheep model of allergen-induced airway responses, where the compound inhibited early and late phase bronchoconstriction responses and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. These results support the proposed role of tryptase in the pathology of asthma and suggest that AMG-126737 has potential therapeutic utility in this pulmonary disorder.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 01/2000; 58(12):1989-96. DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00304-4 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • J R Sabater · YM Mao · C Shaffer · M K James · T G O'Riordan · W M Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether aerosolized INS316 (UTP) stimulates lung mucociliary clearance (MCC) in sheep and, if so, to compare its effects with INS365, a novel P2Y(2)-receptor agonist. In the first series of studies, we used a previously described roentgenographic technique to measure tracheal mucus velocity (TMV), an index of MCC, before and for 4 h after aerosolization of INS316 (10(-1) M and 10(-2) M) and INS365 (10(-1) M and 10(-2) M), or normal saline in a randomized crossover fashion (n = 6). In a second series of studies, we compared the ability of these agents to enhance total lung clearance. For these tests, the clearance of inhaled technetium-labeled human serum albumin was measured serially over a 2-h period after aerosolization of 10(-1) M concentration of each agent (n = 7). Aerosolization of both P2Y(2)-receptor agonists induced significant dose-related increases in TMV (P < 0.05) compared with saline. The greatest increase in TMV was observed between 15 and 30 min after drug treatment. The highest dose (10(-1) M) of INS316 produced a greater overall stimulation of TMV than did INS365 (10(-1) M). Both compounds, compared with saline, induced a significant increase in MCC (P < 0.05) within 20 min of treatment. This enhancement in MCC began to plateau at 60 min. Although the response to INS316 started earlier, there was no significant difference between the clearance curves for the two compounds. We conclude that inhaled P2Y(2)-receptor agonists can increase lung MCC in sheep and that for P2Y(2)-receptor stimulation TMV accurately reflects changes in whole lung MCC.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/1999; 87(6):2191-6. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a naturally occurring protein of human airways that exhibits broad spectrum inhibitory activity against mast cell and leukocyte serine proteases implicated in asthma pathology. To assess the potential therapeutic utility of SLPI in this disorder, its effects on antigen-induced pulmonary responses were evaluated. In Ascaris-sensitized sheep, SLPI (3 mg) administered by aerosol daily for 4 days, with the final dose 0.5 h before antigen challenge, reduced the areas under the curve for early- and late-phase bronchoconstriction (73 and 95%, respectively; p <.05 versus control responses). SLPI also inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness to carbachol (84%, p <. 05 versus control response) measured 24 h after antigen challenge. In ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs, intratracheal administration of SLPI daily for 3 days, with the final dose 1 h before antigen challenge, inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine with an ED50 of <0.05 mg/kg. Prolonged pharmacodynamic activity of SLPI was observed in both species. In a murine model of atopic asthma, SLPI inhibited leukocyte influx into the airways after chronic allergen challenge. SLPI administered to sheep by the predosing protocol described above also prevented the antigen-induced decrease of tracheal mucus velocity (p <.05). In addition, a single aerosol administration of SLPI (30 mg) to sheep 1 h after antigen challenge inhibited the subsequent late-phase bronchoconstriction and development of hyperresponsiveness and reversed the stimulated decrease in tracheal mucus velocity. These results suggest that SLPI may provide therapeutic intervention against the pathophysiology of asthma and its underlying pathology.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/1999; 289(2):1007-14. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antigen challenge can elicit an allergic inflammatory response in the airways that involves eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils and that is expressed physiologically as a late airway response (LAR) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Although previous studies have suggested that E-selectin participates in these allergic airway responses, there is little information concerning the role of L-selectin. To address this question, we examined the effects of administering an L-selectin-specific monoclonal antibody, DU1-29, as well as three small molecule selectin binding inhibitors, on the development of early airway responses (EAR), LAR and AHR in allergic sheep undergoing airway challenge with Ascaris suum antigen. Sheep treated with aerosol DU1-29 before antigen challenge had a significantly reduced LAR and did not develop postchallenge AHR. No protective effect was seen when sheep were treated with a nonspecific control monoclonal antibody. Treatment with DU1-29 also reduced the severity of the EAR to antigen. Similar results were obtained with each of the three small molecule selectin inhibitors at doses that depended on their L-, but not necessarily E-selectin inhibitory capacity. The inhibition of the EAR with one of the inhibitors, TBC-1269, was associated with a reduction in histamine release. Likewise, treatment with TBC-1269 reduced the number of neutrophils recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) during the time of LAR and AHR. TBC-1269, given 90 min after antigen challenge also blocked the LAR and the AHR, but this protection was lost if the treatment was withheld until 4 h after challenge, a result consistent with the proposed time course of L-selectin involvement in leukocyte trafficking. These are the first data indicating that L-selectin may have a unique cellular function that modulates allergen-induced pulmonary responses.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/1999; 159(4 Pt 1):1205-14. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.159.4.9806002 · 13.00 Impact Factor
  • I T Lauredo · J R Sabater · A Ahmed · Y Botvinnikova · W M Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Pyocyanin (Pyo) and 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP) are extracellular products of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To test whether these products were capable of producing an inflammatory response in the airways, combinations of Pyo and 1-HP at concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-5) M were instilled into sheep airways, and indexes of inflammation were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 24 h later. Challenge with the phenazines caused a significant dose-dependent increase in the number of cells and neutrophils recovered by BAL. Control challenges produced no such changes. The lung neutrophilia was accompanied by an increased concentration of albumin in BAL. The increases in BAL neutrophils and albumin could be blocked by treating the sheep with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton. Neither 1-HP nor Pyo was chemotactic to neutrophils when tested in vitro, but when alveolar macrophages (AM) were cultured in vitro in the presence of both Pyo and 1-HP (1 microM), the supernatants caused neutrophil chemotaxis. Analysis of AM culture supernatants incubated with the combination of pigments showed significant increases in leukotriene B4 and interleukin-8, and blocking these mediators separately or together reduced AM supernatant-induced neutrophil chemotaxis. We conclude that local instillation of Pyo and 1-HP can initiate an inflammatory response in the airways of sheep in vivo. This effect can be explained, in part, by the release of chemotactic factors produced by AM.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 01/1999; 85(6):2298-304. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • T G O'Riordan · Y Mao · R Otero · J Lopez · J R Sabater · W M Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Airway inflammation characterized by neutrophils and free elastase contributes to allergic mucociliary dysfunction. Glucocorticosteroids are the most important anti-inflammatory agents used in the treatment of asthma, but their effect on allergic mucociliary dysfunction is not known. Therefore, we assessed both the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of the glucocorticosteroid budesonide on antigen-induced mucociliary dysfunction in sheep. Tracheal mucus velocity (TMV), a marker of mucociliary clearance, was measured by using a roentgenographic technique. When budesonide was administered either 30 min before or 1 h after airway challenge with Ascaris suum, the antigen-induced fall in TMV at 6 h was prevented. The effects on TMV at 8 and 24 h after challenge were also determined when budesonide and, for comparative purposes, alpha1-protease inhibitor were given 6 h after antigen challenge. Budesonide treatment improved TMV at 8 h, but TMV was not significantly different from antigen alone at 24 h. Treatment with alpha1-protease inhibitor, however, caused only a significant reversal of the antigen-induced fall in TMV at 24 h after challenge; this indicates a more prolonged effect than budesonide. Our results suggest that antiproteases may have a potential role as a therapeutic approach to mucociliary dysfunction in asthma and provide evidence for another means by which glucocorticosteroids contribute to the control of the disease.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/1998; 85(3):1086-91. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protease inhibition by secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is accelerated by the sulfated polysaccharides. The nature of the SLPI-polysaccharide interaction, explored with affinity chromatography, indicated that this interaction was sensitive to the charge and type of polysaccharide. Dextran and chondroitin had the lowest affinity for SLPI, followed by dermatan, heparan, and dextran sulfates. While heparin bound SLPI tightly, the highest affinity heparin chains unexpectedly contained a lower level of sulfation than more weakly interacting chains. Heparin oligosaccharides, prepared using heparin lyase I were SLPI-affinity fractionated. Surprisingly, undersulfated heparin oligosaccharides bound SLPI with the highest affinity, suggesting the importance of free hydroxyl groups for high affinity interaction. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the thermodynamics of SLPI interaction with a low molecular weight heparin, an undersulfated decasaccharide and a tetrasaccharide. The studies showed 12-14 saccharide units, corresponding to molecular weight of approximately 4,800, were required for a 1:1 (SLPI:heparin) binding stoichiometry. Furthermore, an undersulfated decasaccharide was able to bind SLPI tightly (Kd approximately 13 nM), resulting in its activation and the inhibition of neutrophil elastase and pancreatic chymotrypsin. The in vitro assessment of heparin and the decasaccharide and tetrasaccharide using stopped-flow kinetics suggested that heparin was the optimal choice to study SLPI-based in vivo protease inhibition. SLPI and heparin were co-administered by inhalation in therapy against antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in a sheep bronchoprovocation model. Heparin, in combination with SLPI demonstrated in vivo efficacy reducing early and late phase bronchoconstriction. Heparin also increased the therapeutic activity of SLPI against antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1998; 273(22):13563-9. DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.22.13563 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • W M Abraham · J R Sabater · S Szelenyi · M Bähre
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an eight day treatment with clinically relevant doses of a fixed combination of the beta 2 mimetic reproterol hydrochloride and disodium cromoglycate with each agent given alone against antigen-induced early (EAR) and late airway responses (LAR) as well as post-antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in allergic sheep. Animals were treated in a randomized fashion with either the inhaled combination (n = 6), reproterol hydrochloride alone (n = 6), disodium cromoglycate alone (n = 6), or placebo (n = 8). Treatments (two puffs from a metered dose inhaler) were given three times a day for 7 days and once on the 8th day 1 h before airway challenge with Ascaris suum antigen. In the placebo trial, antigen challenge resulted in EAR and LAR as measured by increases in specific lung resistance; these changes were followed 24h later by AHR to inhaled carbachol. With respect to the placebo trial, treatment with reproterol hydrochloride reduced the EAR (P < 0.05) and blocked the LAR (P < 0.05), but had no effect on the post-challenge AHR. Treatment with disodium cromoglycate also reduced the EAR (P < 0.05), blocked the LAR (P < 0.05), and blocked the post-antigen-induced AHR (P < 0.05). Treatment with the fixed combination reduced the EAR (P < 0.05), blocked the LAR (P < 0.05), and blocked the post-antigen-induced AHR (P < 0.05). Comparison of the different agents indicated that the fixed combination gave significantly increased protection against the EAR than either agent alone, gave slightly better (P < 0.05) protection against the late response than cromolyn sodium and gave better protection against post-antigen-induced AHR than reproterol hydrochloride alone. These results suggest that a fixed combination of a beta 2-mimetic and disodium cromoglycate provides some increased protection against antigen-induced airway responses when compared to either agent alone in a controlled laboratory setting.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 02/1998; 11(4):271-6. DOI:10.1006/pupt.1998.0150 · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • J Martinez-Salas · R Mendelssohn · W M Abraham · B Hsiao · T Ahmed
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled heparin prevents antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and inhibits anti-immunoglobulin E-mediated mast cell degranulation. We hypothesized that the antiallergic action of heparin may be molecular weight dependent. Therefore, we studied the effects of three different low-molecular-weight fractions of heparin [medium-, low-, and ultralow-molecular-weight heparin (MMWH, LMWH, ULMWH, respectively)] on the antigen-induced acute bronchoconstrictor response (ABR) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in allergic sheep. Specific lung resistance was measured in 22 sheep before and after airway challenge with Ascaris suum antigen, without and after pretreatment with inhaled fractionated heparins at doses of 0.31-5.0 mg/kg. Airway responsiveness was estimated before and 2 h postantigen as the cumulative provocating dose of carbachol in breath units that increased specific lung resistance by 400%. All fractionated heparins caused a dose-dependent inhibition of ABR and AHR. ULMWH was the most effective fraction, with the inhibitory dose causing 50% protection (ID50) against ABR of 0.5 mg/kg, whereas ID50 values of LMWH and MMWH were 1.25 and 1.8 mg/kg, respectively. ULMWH was also the most effective fraction in attenuating AHR; the ID50 values for ULMWH, LMWH, and MMWH were 0.5, 2.5, and 4.7 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that 1) fractionated low-molecular-weight heparins attenuate antigen-induced ABR and AHR; 2) there is an inverse relationship between the antiallergic activity of heparin fractions and molecular weight; and 3) ULMWH is the most effective fraction preventing allergic bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 02/1998; 84(1):222-8. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • M Scuri · L Allegra · W M Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, a single dose of zileuton (10 mg/kg, po) given 2 h before antigen challenge, had a minimal effect on the antigen-induced early airway response (EAR), although it was effective in blocking the late airway response (LAR). Because our previous data indicated that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products contribute to the severity of the antigen-induced EAR in these animals, we hypothesized that the lack of effect of zileuton on the EAR may have had to do with inadequate tissue levels. Therefore, in this study, we determined if multiple dosing with zileuton, which theoretically could improve tissue levels, would provide protection against the antigen-induced EAR as well as the LAR. Each sheep was used in each of the three trials (> or = 15 days apart), the order of which was randomized. For trial 1, the sheep were treated with zileuton (10 mg/kg in 0.1% methylcellulose, p.o.) once a day for 4 days; for trials 2, the sheep were treated with zileuton (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 days; and, for trial 3, the animals were treated with vehicle (0.1% methylcellulose) for 4 days as in trial 1. In all trials, antigen challenge followed 1 h after the last treatment. In the placebo trial, antigen challenge resulted in characteristic EAR (407 +/- 102%, increase over baseline) and LAR (335 +/- 75%, increase over baseline). The antigen-induced effects were completely blocked by the 4-day treatment (EAR = 24 +/- 3%; LAR = 17 +/- 3%, P < 0.05 vs. placebo). In the 2-day trial, the immediate increase in R1, after antigen challenge was only partially blocked (EAR = 163 +/- 16%, P < 0.10 vs. placebo and P < 0.05 vs. 4-day trial), but the late response was completely blocked (24 +/- 3%). The protection against the EAR obtained with the 4-day treatment was significantly better (P < 0.05) than that obtained with the 2-day treatment. The results of this study show that multiple dosing with the 5-LO inhibitor, zileuton, provides protection against the antigen-induced EAR as well as LAR. The effect on the EAR is dependent on the treatment time, with dosing 4 days before antigen challenge providing a more significant effect than either dosing 2 days before challenge (this study) or on the same day as antigen challenge as was seen by us previously. This effect may be related to increased tissue levels of the drug.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 02/1998; 11(4):277-80. DOI:10.1006/pupt.1998.0149 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The leukocyte integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) (α4β1, CD49d/CD29) is an adhesion receptor predominantly expressed on lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils, but not on neutrophils. Recent studies with monoclonal antibodies against VLA-4 suggest that antigen-induced late responses and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) may depend on the recruitment and/or activation of VLA-4-expressing leukocytes. To further test this hypothesis, we administered by aerosol either a potent small-molecule inhibitor of VLA-4, which prevents VLA-4-mediated binding to fibronectin (CS- 1 ligand mimic), or an inactive control (30 mg twice daily for 3 d, and on the fourth day 0.5 h before and 4 h after antigen challenge) to six sheep with airway hypersensitivity to Ascaris suum antigen. Treatment with the small-molecule VLA-4 inhibitor resulted in a significant decrease in the early antigen-induced bronchial response (40%, p < 0.05), and almost complete blockade of the late-phase airway response (88%, p < 0.05). Moreover, at 24 h after antigen challenge, AHR to inhaled carbachol was not observed when the animals were dosed with the small-molecule VLA-4 inhibitor. In accord with protection against the functional abnormalities associated with antigen challenge, analysis of biopsy specimens taken 24 h after challenge indicated that the total numbers of VLA-4-positive cells (lymphocytes, eosinophils, and metachromatic-staining cells) in the group treated with the VLA-4 inhibitor did not increase, whereas these cells increased in the control group. The active agent, but not the inactive control, significantly blocked macrophage adherence to fibronectin (FN), indicating that the CS-1 ligand interfered with VLA-4-mediated adhesion in sheep cells. These results support our previous findings with a monoclonal antibody to VLA-4, and demonstrate that a small-molecule VLA-4 inhibitor, when given by aerosol, has a protective effect against antigen-induced late responses and AHR in allergic sheep.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/1997; 156(3 Pt 1):696-703. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.156.3.9609039 · 13.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tryptase, a serine protease released exclusively from activated mast cells, has been implicated as a potential causative agent in asthma. Enzymatically active tryptase is comprised of four subunits, and heparin stabilizes the associated tetramer. Lactoferrin, a cationic protein released from activated neutrophils, binds tightly to heparin, therefore we investigated lactoferrin as an inhibitor of tryptase and found that it is both a potent (Ki' is 24 nM) and selective inhibitor. Size exclusion chromatography studies revealed that lactoferrin disrupted the quaternary structure of active tryptase. Lactoferrin was tested in an allergic sheep model of asthma; aerosolized lactoferrin (10 mg in 3 ml phosphate-buffered saline, 0.5 h before as well as 4 and 24 h after inhalation challenge by Ascaris suum) abolished both late-phase bronchoconstriction (no significant increase in specific lung resistance 4 to 8 h following provocation, p < 0.05 versus vehicle treatment) and airway hyperresponsiveness (no detectable increase in airway sensitivity to carbachol challenge 24 h after antigen challenge, p < 0.05 versus vehicle). These data suggest tryptase involvement in both late-phase bronchoconstriction and airway hyperreactivity and furthermore suggest that a physiological function of neutrophil lactoferrin is the inhibition of tryptase released from mast cells.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/1997; 156(2 Pt 1):375-81. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.156.2.9607012 · 13.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
684.77 Total Impact Points


  • 1980–2003
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1986–2002
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Medicine
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
  • 1999
    • Amgen
      • Department of Inflammation Research
      Thousand Oaks, CA, United States
  • 1986–1998
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 1984–1997
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 1990
    • Universität Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Lung Diseases (DLD)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • University of North Dakota
      Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States