[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Few population-based data are available on factors associated with pneumonic and ulceroglandular type B tularaemia. We conducted a case-control study during a large epidemic in 2000. Laboratory-confirmed case patients were identified through active surveillance and matched control subjects (age, sex, residency) from the national population information system. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A conditional logistic regression model addressing missing data with Bayesian full-likelihood modelling included 227 case patients and 415 control subjects; reported mosquito bites [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 9·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-22, population-attributable risk (PAR) 82%] and farming activities (aOR 4·3, 95% CI 2·5-7·2, PAR 32%) were independently associated with ulceroglandular tularaemia, whereas exposure to hay dust (aOR 6·6, 95% CI 1·9-25·4, PAR 48%) was associated with pneumonic tularaemia. Although the bulk of tularaemia type B disease burden is attributable to mosquito bites, risk factors for ulceroglandular and pneumonic forms of tularaemia are different, enabling targeting of prevention efforts accordingly.
Epidemiology and Infection 12/2013; · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major cause of mortality, morbidity and medical cost, but few population-based studies have concomitantly evaluated BSI incidence and mortality. Data on BSI episodes reported to national, population-based surveillance by all clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland during 2004-07 were linked to vital statistics. Age-, sex and microbe-specific incidence and mortality rates were calculated. During 2004-07, 33 473 BSI episodes were identified; BSI incidence increased from 147 to 168 per 100 000 population (average annual increase, 4.4%; p <0.001). Rates were highest among persons ≥65 years and <1 year, and higher among male patients than female patients (166 versus 152 per 100 000). The most common aetiologies were Escherichia coli (27%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13%). Among male patients, 52% of BSI were caused by gram-positive bacteria compared with 42% among female patients (p <0.001). The overall 30-day case-fatality was 13%. Of the deaths, 32% occurred within 2 days, 70% were among people aged 65 years or more and 33% were caused by E. coli or S. aureus infections. The BSI mortality rate increased from 19 to 22 per 100 000 (average annual increase: 4.0%, p 0.01). Among people aged 25 years or more, the mortality rate was 1.4-fold higher in men than women (34 versus 25 per 100 000 population). Overall excess annual mortality from BSI in the population was 18 per 100 000. The substantial BSI burden among the elderly and among adult men highlights the need for developing and implementing effective interventions, particularly for BSI caused by E. coli and S. aureus. One-third of BSI deaths occurred early, emphasizing the importance of early identification and treatment.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2012; 18(6):E170-6. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 1997, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for nonelderly adults with certain medical conditions. In 2008, the Committee added asthma and cigarette smoking to the list of indications for PPSV23 vaccination. Using data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey, the authors assessed PPSV23 uptake in people with established and new indications. To identify factors independently associated with receiving PPSV23, they used multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses. In 2009, a total of 35.2 million adults 18-64 years of age (18.6%) had established PPSV23 indications; adding asthma and smoking to the list of indications increased the high-risk population to 71.6 million people (37.9%). Overall, 26.1% of people with established indications for PPSV23 and 17.4% of people with any indication (those previously established, as well as asthma and smoking) had received the vaccine; overall coverage among persons 50-64 years of age was significantly higher than that among persons 18-49 years of age (34.6% vs. 16.7%; P < 0.001) and for all specific indications except cancer. For persons who had asthma or who smoked but had no other indications, rates of coverage were 12.3% and 8.5%, respectively. In persons who had established indications, being older, white, and unemployed and having more physician visits, a prior hospitalization, a regular physician, and health insurance were independently associated with PPSV23 receipt. PPSV23 uptake varies substantially by age and indication but remains low overall, with approximately 59 million unvaccinated high-risk working-age adults. Effective strategies to increase pneumococcal vaccination coverage among at-risk groups are needed.
American journal of epidemiology 03/2012; 175(8):827-37. · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cost-effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) compared with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) among US adults is unclear.
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination strategies in adults.
A Markov state-transition model, lifetime time horizon, societal perspective. Simulations were performed in hypothetical cohorts of US 50-year-olds. Vaccination strategies and effectiveness estimates were developed by a Delphi expert panel; indirect (herd immunity) effects resulting from childhood PCV13 vaccination were extrapolated based on observed PCV7 effects. Data sources for model parameters included Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Active Bacterial Core surveillance, National Hospital Discharge Survey and Nationwide Inpatient Sample data, and the National Health Interview Survey.
Pneumococcal disease cases prevented and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
In the base case scenario, administration of PCV13 as a substitute for PPSV23 in current recommendations (ie, vaccination at age 65 years and at younger ages if comorbidities are present) cost $28,900 per QALY gained compared with no vaccination and was more cost-effective than the currently recommended PPSV23 strategy. Routine PCV13 at ages 50 and 65 years cost $45,100 per QALY compared with PCV13 substituted in current recommendations. Adding PPSV23 at age 75 years to PCV13 at ages 50 and 65 years gained 0.00002 QALYs, costing $496,000 per QALY gained. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios, except when low PCV13 effectiveness against nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia was assumed or when greater childhood vaccination indirect effects were modeled. In these cases, PPSV23 as currently recommended was favored.
Overall, PCV13 vaccination was favored compared with PPSV23, but the analysis was sensitive to assumptions about PCV13 effectiveness against nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and the magnitude of potential indirect effects from childhood PCV13 on pneumococcal serotype distribution.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2012; 307(8):804-12. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes rash and arthritis. In Finland, epidemics occur cyclically, but factors associated with clinical SINV infection are largely unknown. We conducted a population-based case-control study during the epidemic year 2002.
SINV cases were serologically confirmed and reported to the National Infectious Disease Registry. Five control subjects, matched for age, sex, and residence, were selected from the National Population Information System. Data were collected using a self-administered mail survey. Conditional logistic regression models were used to identify independent risk factors; missing data were addressed using Bayesian full-likelihood modeling.
A total of 337 case patients (58% female; age range, 1-94 y) and 934 control subjects were enrolled. Reported exposure to mosquito bites (matched odds ratio [mOR], 16.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-33.4) and spending time in woods or marshland (mOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5) were independently associated with SINV infection in the multivariable model. The population-attributable risk for mosquito bites was 87.2%. There were dose-response relations for increased number of insect bites (mOR, 23.8-72.5) and increased time spent in woods or marshland (mOR, 1.3-2.2).
Educating the public in endemic areas to avoid mosquito exposure and use protective measures remain important prevention measures for SINV infection.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2011; 204(3):459-66. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alaska Native and some American Indian (AI/AN) populations suffer disproportionately high rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both the pediatric and adult populations compared to the general U.S. population. Two pneumococcal vaccines are currently available in the U.S.: a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), available since 1983 and recommended for the elderly and those over 2 years of age with underlying medical conditions, and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), used in the routine infant immunization schedule since 2010. The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP) previously recommended use of PPSV23 for persons living in special environments or social settings, including AN and certain AI persons 2-64 years of age, on the basis of higher disease rates. The recommendation for routine PPSV23 use among AI/AN persons <65 years of age, regardless of underlying conditions, was removed in 2008, although the option for use among those 50-64 years of age living in areas with high pneumococcal disease rates was maintained. The rationale for the revised recommendations lay in the recognition that much of the excess disease burden occurs among those with an existing medical indication for PPSV23. Other considerations for the change were the potential risks of giving multiple PPSV23 doses and the considerable heterogeneity in pneumococcal disease risk among American Indian populations requiring a more tailored approach to local recommendations based on local epidemiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although recent reports suggest that the incidence of parapneumonic empyema has increased in several regions of the USA, national trends in disease burden are unknown. National trends in the incidence of parapneumonic empyema hospitalisations and changes in empyema by associated pathogens were examined.
National hospitalisation data (1996-2008) were analysed and rates estimated using census estimates as denominators. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) compared 2008 with 1996 rates. Discharge diagnosis codes were used to characterise pathogens associated with empyema hospitalisations.
Overall, national parapneumonic empyema-related hospitalisation rates increased from 3.04 per 100,000 in 1996 to 5.98 per 100,000 in 2008, a 2.0-fold increase (95% CI 1.8 to 2.1). The increases were observed among children (IRR 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7)) and adults aged 18-39, 40-64 and ≥65 years (IRR 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.1), 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.1) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.0), respectively). Overall, pneumococcal empyema rates remained relatively stable in all age groups whereas streptococcal- (non-pneumococcal) and staphylococcal-related empyema rates increased 1.9-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively, with consistent increases across age groups. The overall in-hospital case fatality ratio for parapneumonic empyema-related hospitalisations was 8.0% (95% CI 6.4% to 9.5%) in 1996 and 7.2% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.1%) in 2008 (p=0.395). Of the empyemas where study pathogens were listed (37.6%), staphylococcal-related empyema had the largest absolute increases across age groups and was associated with longer hospital stay and higher in-hospital mortality than other empyemas.
Although parapneumonic empyema-related hospitalisations remained relatively rare, they increased substantially during the study period. A number of pathogens, especially staphylococcus, contributed to this increase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older adults are at highest risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and are recommended to receive vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Antibody concentrations decline following vaccination. We evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of revaccination and repeat revaccination.
Adults aged 55-74 years were vaccinated with a 1st to 4th dose of PPV23. Participants were eligible for revaccination if a minimum of 6 years had passed since their last dose of PPV23. Blood collected on the day of vaccination and 30 days later was analyzed by ELISA for IgG to five serotypes. Functional antibody activity was measured using an opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay. Reactions to vaccination were documented.
Subjects were vaccinated with a 1st dose (n=123), 2nd dose (n=121), or 3rd or 4th dose (n=71) of PPV23. The post-vaccination IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were similar among first-time vaccinees and re-vaccinees for all serotypes with the exception of a lower GMC for serotype 1 in re-vaccinees. The post-vaccination OPK geometric mean titers (GMTs) were similar among first-time vaccinees and re-vaccinees with the exception of a higher GMT for serotype 6B in re-vaccinees. Compared to first-time vaccinees, re-vaccinees reported more joint pain (p=0.004), fatigue (p=0.019), headache (p=0.014), swelling (p=0.006), and moderate limitation in arm movement (p=0.025).
Repeat revaccination with PPV23, administered 6 or more years after the prior dose, was immunogenic and generally well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On February 24, 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13 [Prevnar 13, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., marketed by Pfizer Inc.]) was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused among infants and young children by the 13 pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine and for prevention of otitis media caused by serotypes also covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulation (PCV7 [Prevnar, Wyeth]). PCV13 contains the seven serotypes included in PCV7 (serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and six additional serotypes (serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A). PCV13 is approved for use among children aged 6 weeks-71 months and supersedes PCV7, which was licensed by FDA in 2000. This report summarizes recommendations approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on February 24, 2010, for the use of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal disease in infants and young children aged <6 years. Recommendations include 1) routine vaccination of all children aged 2-59 months, 2) vaccination of children aged 60-71 months with underlying medical conditions, and 3) vaccination of children who received ≥1 dose of PCV7 previously (CDC. Licensure of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13] and recommendations for use among children-Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2010. MMWR 2010;59:258-61). Recommendations also are provided for targeted use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23, formerly PPV23) in children aged 2-18 years with underlying medical conditions that increase their risk for contracting pneumococcal disease or experiencing complications of pneumococcal disease if infected. The ACIP recommendation for routine vaccination with PCV13 and the immunization schedules for children aged ≤59 months who have not received any previous PCV7 or PCV13 doses are the same as those published previously for PCV7 (CDC. Preventing pneumococcal disease among infants and young children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2000;49[No. RR-9]; CDC. Updated recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] for use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV7] in children aged 24-59 months who are not completely vaccinated. MMWR 2008;57:343-4), with PCV13 replacing PCV7 for all doses. For routine immunization of infants, PCV13 is recommended as a 4-dose series at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months. Infants and children who have received ≥1 dose of PCV7 should complete the immunization series with PCV13. A single supplemental dose of PCV13 is recommended for all children aged 14-59 months who have received 4 doses of PCV7 or another age-appropriate, complete PCV7 schedule. For children who have underlying medical conditions, a supplemental PCV13 dose is recommended through age 71 months. Children aged 2-18 years with underlying medical conditions also should receive PPSV23 after completing all recommended doses of PCV13.
MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 12/2010; 59(RR-11):1-18.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) has been recommended for all people aged ≥65 years in the U.S. since 1983; consistent surveillance for vaccine coverage has been conducted since 1989.
To assess PPSV23 vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥65 years in the U.S.
The data were analyzed from the 1989, 1991, 1993-1995, and 1997-2008 National Health Interview Surveys in 2009. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with receiving PPSV23 in 2008. Missed opportunities for vaccination were also assessed.
Among people aged ≥65 years, PPSV23 coverage increased from 14.1% in 1989 to 60.1% in 2008. On average, vaccination coverage increased by 3.5% annually during 1989-2000 compared with 1.0% during 2001-2008. In 2008, coverage was significantly higher for people aged 75-84 years (68.8%), and ≥85 years (69.0%) compared with those aged 65-74 years (52.5%). Coverage was significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites (64.3%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (44.6%) and those with Hispanic ethnicity (36.4%). Among people aged ≥65 years who reported never receiving PPSV23, 90.6% reported at least one missed opportunity. Characteristics independently associated with increased likelihood of ever receiving PPSV23 were higher age, female, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, not employed, higher education level, more physician visits in the past year, hospitalized within past year, having Medicare and other supplemental health insurance, and having a chronic medical condition.
National PPSV23 coverage among people aged ≥65 years increased substantially until 2000, but the rate of increase was smaller after 2000 and coverage in 2008 remained well below the national Healthy People 2010 target of 90%. Increased efforts to avoid missed opportunities for pneumococcal vaccination are needed, especially among minority populations.
American journal of preventive medicine 10/2010; 39(4):287-95. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information about the risk of invasive pneumococcal infection (IPI) among adults with asthma is limited and inconsistent. To evaluate this association, a population-based case-control study was conducted.
Cases of IPI (Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid) were identified through national, population-based laboratory surveillance during 1995-2002. To maximise exclusion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the analysis was limited to patients aged 18-49 years and 10 selected age-, sex- and health district-matched controls for each case from the Population Information System. Information on underlying medical conditions was obtained through linking surveillance data to other national health registries. Asthma requiring > or =1 hospitalisation in the past 12 months was defined as high risk asthma (HRA); low risk asthma (LRA) was defined as entitlement to prescription drug benefits and no hospitalisation for asthma in the past 12 months.
1282 patients with IPI and 12 785 control subjects were identified. Overall, 7.1% of cases and 2.5% of controls had asthma (6.0% and 2.4% had LRA whereas 1.1% and 0.1% had HRA, respectively. After adjustment for other independent risk factors in a conditional logistic regression model, IPI was associated with both LRA (matched OR (mOR) 2.8; 95% CI 2.1 to 3.6) and HRA (mOR, 12.3; 95% CI 5.4 to 28.0). The adjusted population-attributable risk was 0.039 (95% CI 0.023 to 0.055) for LRA and 0.01 (95% CI 0.0035 to 0.017) for HRA.
Working age adults with asthma are at increased risk of IPI. In this population, approximately 5% of disease burden could be attributed to asthma. These findings support adding medicated asthma in adults to the list of indications for pneumococcal vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of childhood pneumonia decreased following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the United States. Recent regional reports suggest an increase in the incidence of childhood pneumonia complicated by empyema. We assessed whether early decreases in pneumonia hospitalization rates were sustained and trends in such hospitalizations complicated by empyema in United States children aged <5 years.
Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Census data were used to calculate annual all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates for pre-PCV7 (1996-1999) and post-PCV7 years (2001-2007) and to analyze national trends in total and pathogen-specific pneumonia-associated empyema.
Among children aged <2 years, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations decreased 33% (95% confidence interval, 28%-37%) from 1267 cases per 100,000 children in pre-PCV7 years to 852 cases per 100,000 children in post-PCV7 years. Pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates decreased 61% (95% confidence interval, 55%-67%) post-PCV7, compared with pre-PCV7 years. Pneumonia hospitalizations complicated by empyema increased 2.01-fold from 3.5 cases per 100,000 children in 1996-1998 to 7.0 cases per 100,000 children in 2005-2007. Rates of pneumococcal and streptococcal empyema remained stable, whereas rates of staphylococcal and other or unspecified empyema increased 4.08- and 1.89-fold, respectively. Among children aged 2-4 years, all-cause pneumonia rates remained stable, whereas pneumococcal pneumonia decreased by 26% (95% confidence interval, 16-34). Pneumonia complicated by empyema increased 2.81-fold from 3.7 cases per 100,000 children in 1996-1998 to 10.3 cases per 100,000 children in 2005-2007. In this age group, there were 2.17-, 2.80-, 3.76-, and 3.09-fold increases in rates of pneumococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal, and other or unspecified empyema, respectively.
Decreases in childhood pneumonia hospitalization rates following PCV7 introduction were sustained. Although empyema complicated only a small fraction of pneumonia hospitalizations, its prevalence increased substantially. This increase was due to several pathogens and warrants continuing monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the 1990s, antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) decreased in the United States. The sustainability of those changes is unknown.
To assess trends in antibiotic prescriptions for ARTI.
The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data (1995-2006) were used to examine trends in antibiotic prescription rates by antibiotic indication and class. Annual survey data and census denominators were combined in 2-year intervals for rate calculations.
National annual visit rates and antibiotic prescription rates for ARTI, including otitis media (OM) and non-ARTI.
Among children younger than 5 years, annual ARTI visit rates decreased by 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-24%), from 1883 per 1000 population in 1995-1996 to 1560 per 1000 population in 2005-2006, primarily due to a 33% (95% CI, 22%-43%) decrease in OM visit rates (950 to 634 per 1000 population, respectively). This decrease was accompanied by a 36% (95% CI, 26%-45%) decrease in ARTI-associated antibiotic prescriptions (1216 to 779 per 1000 population). Among persons aged 5 years or older, ARTI visit rates remained stable but associated antibiotic prescription rates decreased by 18% (95% CI, 6%-29%), from 178 to 146 per 1000 population. Antibiotic prescription rates for non-OM ARTI for which antibiotics are rarely indicated decreased by 41% (95% CI, 22%-55%) and 24% (95% CI, 10%-37%) among persons younger than 5 years and 5 years or older, respectively. Overall, ARTI-associated prescription rates for penicillin, cephalosporin, and sulfonamide/tetracycline decreased. Prescription rates for azithromycin increased and it became the most commonly prescribed macrolide for ARTI and OM (10% of OM visits). Among adults, quinolone prescriptions increased.
Overall antibiotic prescription rates for ARTI decreased, associated with fewer OM visits in children younger than 5 years and with fewer prescriptions for ARTI for which antibiotics are rarely indicated. However, prescription rates for broad-spectrum antibiotics increased significantly.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2009; 302(7):758-66. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hospitalizations due to invasive pneumococcal disease decreased after routine vaccination of young children with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) began in 2000, information on the trends in pneumococcal meningitis is limited.
We estimated national trends in rates of hospitalization for pneumococcal meningitis, using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1994-2004. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths were identified on the basis of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification coded primary discharge diagnosis, and rates were calculated using US Census data as denominators. The year 2000 was considered to be a transition year, and the average annualized rate after PCV7 introduction (2001-2004) was compared with that during the baseline years (1994-1999).
During 1994-2004, there were 21,396 hospitalizations and 2684 deaths (12.5%) due to pneumococcal meningitis in the United States. In children aged < 2 years, the average annualized rates of pneumococcal meningitis hospitalizations per 100,000 population decreased from 7.7 in 1994-1999 to 2.6 in 2001-2004 (change, -66.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -73.5% to -56.3%). Among children aged 2-4 years, the hospitalization rate decreased from 0.9 to 0.5 per 100,000 (change, -51.5%; 95% CI, -66.9% to -28.9%). Average rates also decreased by 33.0% (95% CI, -43.4% to -20.9%) among adults aged > or = 65 years. After PCV7 introduction (2001-2004), an estimated 1822 and 573 pneumococcal meningitis hospitalizations were prevented in persons aged < 5 years and > or = 65 years, respectively. Overall, an estimated 3330 pneumococcal meningitis hospitalizations and 394 deaths were prevented in persons of all ages during 2001-2004 in the United States.
After implementation of routine childhood vaccination with PCV7, hospitalizations for pneumococcal meningitis decreased significantly for both children and adults. Most pneumococcal meningitis cases now occur among adults.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routine childhood immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7s) began in 2000 in the United States. Despite vaccine shortages, reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease occurred rapidly during 2000-2002. Age-appropriate PCV7 coverage was estimated and characteristics associated with undervaccination were identified for children in the 1998-2002 birth cohorts.
Data were analyzed for 85,135 children aged 19-35 months in the 2001-2004 National Immunization Surveys. To obtain PCV7 coverage estimates by birth cohorts, a pooled analysis was conducted by combining individual survey years that sampled children with appropriate birth dates. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with age-appropriate vaccination.
The proportion of children receiving the primary 3-dose PCV7 series by age 12 months increased from 45.5% (+/-0.6) among children born in 2000 to 62.1% (+/-0.7) among those born in 2002. By age 24 months, an estimated 30.7% (+/-0.6), 38.0% (+/-0.6), and 49.0% (+/-1.1) of children born in 2000, 2001 and 2002, respectively, had received all four PCV7 doses; however, only 15.0% (+/-0.4), 16.1% (+/-0.4) and 24.4% (+/-0.6) of children were age-appropriately immunized. Among children born in 1998 and 1999, 10.1% +/-0.5) and 37.6% (+/-0.7), respectively, received one or more catch-up doses during their second year of life. Lower age-appropriate PCV7 coverage was independently associated with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, receiving vaccinations from public health providers, and low household income.
The dramatic reductions in pneumococcal-related diseases from direct and indirect vaccine effects occurred when few children had received the recommended complete vaccine schedule, and there were substantial racial and socioeconomic disparities in coverage.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 02/2008; 34(1):46-53. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh year in northern Europe. To gain a better understanding of SINV epidemiology in Finland, we searched for SINV antibodies in 621 resident grouse, whose population declines have coincided with human SINV outbreaks, and in 836 migratory birds. We used hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests for the bird samples and enzyme immunoassays and hemagglutination-inhibition for the human samples. SINV antibodies were first found in 3 birds (red-backed shrike, robin, song thrush) during their spring migration to northern Europe. Of the grouse, 27.4% were seropositive in 2003 (1 year after a human outbreak), but only 1.4% were seropositive in 2004. Among 2,529 persons, the age-standardized seroprevalence (1999-2003) was 5.2%; seroprevalence and incidence (1995-2003) were highest in North Karelia (eastern Finland). Grouse may contribute to the epidemiology of SINV in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal was to estimate the population effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on rates of acute otitis media-related ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions for <2-year-old children enrolled in private insurance plans.
We performed a retrospective analysis of a defined population by using the 1997-2004 MarketScan databases, which included an average of >500,000 person-years of observations for children <2 years of age. Trends in rates of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-coded ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to acute otitis media were evaluated, and the national direct medical expenditures for these outcomes were estimated.
In a comparison of 2004 with 1997-1999 (baseline period), rates of ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to acute otitis media decreased from 2173 to 1244 visits per 1000 person-years (42.7% reduction) and from 1244 to 722 prescriptions per 1000 person-years (41.9% reduction), respectively. Total, estimated, national direct medical expenditures for acute otitis media-related ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions for children <2 years of age decreased from an average of $1.41 billion during 1997 to 1999 to $0.95 billion in 2004 (32.3% reduction).
Acute otitis media-related health care utilization and associated antibiotic prescriptions for privately insured young children decreased more than expected (on the basis of efficacy estimates in prelicensure clinical trials) after the introduction of routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization. Although other factors, such as clinical practice guidelines to reduce antibiotic use, might have contributed to the observed trend, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may play an important role in reducing the burden of acute otitis media, resulting in substantial savings in medical care costs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated regional variation and trends in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI) in Finland by using data from national, population-based laboratory surveillance and number of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures performed by all microbiology laboratories during 1995-2002. The overall annualized IPI incidence was 10.6/100,000 (range by region, 7.9 15.1): 9.9 for bacteraemias (range 7.3-14.2) and 0.6 for meningitis (range 0.4-1.1). The rate in children aged <5 y was 23.5/100,000. Regional pneumococcal bacteraemia rates were correlated with blood culture sampling rates (p =0.015), but meningitis rates did not correlate with CSF culture rates. During 1995-2002, the overall annual IPI rate increased by 35.1%, from 8.2 to 11.5/100,000 (p<0.001). The annual blood culturing rate increased by 29.6% (p=0.015 for the correlation with IPI rate). Temporal increase and higher regional IPI rates were significantly associated with higher blood culturing rates. Pneumococcal serotypes included in the 7- and 10-valent conjugate vaccines caused 69.8% and 85.2% of IPIs among children aged <5 y and 49.5% and 59.3% in adults, respectively. The true incidence of pneumococcal bacteraemia in Finland may be higher than previously estimated. Introduction of universal childhood pneumococcal conjugate immunization would provide substantial health benefits to Finnish children and adults.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Circumpolar Surveillance System is a population-based surveillance network for invasive bacterial disease in the Arctic. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced for routine infant vaccination in Alaska (2001), northern Canada (2002-2006), and Norway (2006). Data for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were analyzed to identify clinical findings, disease rates, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility; 11,244 IPD cases were reported. Pneumonia and bacteremia were common clinical findings. Rates of IPD among indigenous persons in Alaska and northern Canada were 43 and 38 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. Rates in children <2 years of age ranged from 21 to 153 cases per 100,000 population. In Alaska and northern Canada, IPD rates in children <2 years of age caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased by >80% after routine vaccination. IPD rates are high among indigenous persons and children in Arctic countries. After vaccine introduction, IPD caused by non-PCV7 serotypes increased in Alaska.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is recommended for persons aged < 65 years with chronic medical conditions. We evaluated the risk and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among persons with and without the underlying medical conditions which are considered PPV23 indications.
Population-based data on all episodes of IPD (positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture) reported by Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories during 1995-2002 were linked to data in national health care registries and vital statistics to obtain information on the patient's preceding hospitalisations, co-morbidities, and outcome of illness.
Overall, 4357 first episodes of IPD were identified in all age groups (average annual incidence, 10.6/100,000). Patients aged 18-49 and 50-64 years accounted for 1282 (29%) and 934 (21%) of IPD cases, of which 372 (29%) and 427 (46%) had a current PPV23 indication, respectively. Overall, 536 (12%) IPD patients died within one month of first positive culture. Persons aged 18-64 years accounted for 254 (47%) of all deaths (case-fatality proportion, 12%). Of those who died 117 (46%) did not have a vaccine indication. In a survival model, patients with alcohol-related diseases, non-haematological malignancies, and those aged 50-64 years were most likely to die.
In the general population of non-elderly adults, almost two-thirds of IPD and half of fatal cases occurred in persons without a recognised PPV23 indication. Policymakers should consider additional prevention strategies such as lowering the age of universal PPV23 vaccination and introducing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate immunisation which could provide substantial health benefits to this population through indirect vaccine effects.