Dennis J. O'Kane

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (108)367.29 Total impact

  • Rajeswari Avula · Dennis O'Kane · John L Black ·
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    ABSTRACT: 5' nuclease assays for allelic discrimination use both a wild-type and a mutant probe. Here we present a new method for genotyping by 5' nuclease assays that dispenses with the mutant probe, using the wild-type probe together with a probe for a reference gene known to be present in two copies to determine the copy number of the wild type allele relative to the reference gene. The copy number of the wild-type allele then determines the genotype: two copies indicates homozygous wild-type; one copy indicates heterozygous; and zero copies indicates homozygous mutant. We were able to use our method to correctly genotype three alleles of the thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) gene: TPMT *2 (c.G238C), *3B (c.G460A) and *3C (c.A719G). Our approach can be used as an alternate allelic discrimination strategy that is cost effective when multiple TaqMan assays are performed on a sample.
    BioTechniques 08/2014; 57(2):88-90. DOI:10.2144/000114199 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Tumor marker analysis in ascites has been proposed as a measure to aid in the diagnosis of malignancy. The objectives of this study were to establish tumor marker cut-offs and determine the diagnostic performance of measuring CEA, CA 19-9 and AFP in ascites for differentiating between non-malignant and malignant etiologies. Design and methods: Ascites from 137 patients (83 non-malignant, 54 malignant) was assayed for CEA, CA 19-9 and AFP concentrations by immunoassay. Diagnostic cut-offs were established via ROC curve analysis. Performance was compared to cytology findings and patient history following medical chart review. Analysis based on cytological findings in combination with tumor marker testing, as well as subset analysis by tumor marker secretion was also performed. Results: Concentrations of CEA, CA 19-9 and AFP were significantly higher in patients with malignant ascites versus non-malignant etiologies. The diagnostic cut-off, sensitivity and specificity for CEA were 3.5 ng/mL, 31% and 95%, respectively; for CA 19-9 were 72 U/mL, 30% and 95%; and for AFP were 5 ng/mL, 17% and 95%. Using cytological findings in conjunction with tumor marker results improved the sensitivity of CEA, CA 19-9 and AFP to 57.4%, 64.8%, and 59.3%, respectively. Improvement in sensitivity was seen when subset analysis by causative malignancy was performed. Conclusions: Tumor marker analysis in ascites, especially in subset analysis by type of malignancy, demonstrated utility for differentiating non-malignant from malignant etiologies. This analysis should not replace cytology, but offers potential for differentiation in situations where cytology is inconclusive, or in patients with suspected malignancies known to secrete these markers.
    Clinical biochemistry 02/2013; 46(9). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.02.010 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the clinical utility of UGT1A1 genetic testing and describe the spectrum and prevalence of UGT1A1 variations identified in pediatric unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (UCH), and to characterize specific genotype-phenotype relationships in suspected Gilbert and Crigler-Najjar syndromes. Study design: A retrospective study was conducted to review clinical information and UGT1A1 genotyping data from 181 pediatric patients referred for UCH. In silico analyses were performed to aid in the assessment of novel UGT1A1 variants. Results: Overall, 146/181 pediatric patients had at least one heterozygous UGT1A1 functional variant. Identified UGT1A1 variants included 17 novel variants, 7 rare star alleles, and 1 rare variant. There were 129 individuals who possessed the TA7 (*28) promoter repeat and 15 individuals who possessed the *6 (c.211G > A) variation. Out of the 104 individuals with accompanying bilirubin levels, 41 individuals did not have identifiable UGT1A1 variants that explained their UCH, although glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and other causes of UCH could not be ruled out. Conclusion: Much of the observed UCH could be attributed to variation at the UGT1A1 locus, and UGT1A1 testing helped to substantiate a genetic diagnosis, thereby aiding in individual and family disease management. Although UGT1A1 variation plays a large role in UCH, genetic assessment of UGT1A1 alone may not be comprehensive. Assessment of additional genes may also be useful to evaluate genetic causes for UCH.
    The Journal of pediatrics 01/2013; 162(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.042 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CYP2D6 is genotyped clinically for prediction of response to tamoxifen, psychotropic drugs and other medications. Phenotype prediction is dependent upon accurate genotyping. The CYP Allele Nomenclature Committee maintains the allelic nomenclature for CYP2D6; however, in some cases, the list of polymorphisms associated with a given allele is incomplete. Clinical laboratories and in vitro diagnostic manufacturers rely upon this nomenclature, in addition to the literature, to infer allelic function and haplotypes and when they design CYP2D6-testing platforms. This article provides more complete sequencing data for the CYP2D6*11 allele and describes the difficulties encountered in genotyping CYP2D6 when incomplete data are available. The CYP Allele Nomenclature Committee should provide clear information about the completeness of the original data used to define each allele.
    Pharmacogenomics 06/2012; 13(8):951-4. DOI:10.2217/pgs.12.56 · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    John Logan Black · Denise L Walker · Dennis J O'Kane · Maria Harmandayan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is highly polymorphic. CYP2D6-2D7 hybrid genes can be present in samples containing CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*10 alleles. CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid genes can be present in samples with duplication signals and in samples with homozygous genotyping results. The frequency of hybrid genes in clinical samples is unknown. We evaluated 1390 samples for undetected hybrid genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, PCR fragment analysis, TaqMan copy number assays, DNA sequencing, and allele-specific primer extension assay. Of 508 CYP2D6*4-containing samples, 109 (21.5%) harbored CYP2D6*68 + *4-like, whereas 9 (1.8%) harbored CYP2D6*4N + *4-like. Of 209 CYP2D6*10-containing samples, 44 (21.1%) were found to have CYP2D6*36 + *10. Of 332 homozygous samples, 4 (1.2%) harbored a single CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid, and of 341 samples with duplication signals, 25 (7.3%) harbored an undetected CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid. Phenotype before and after accurate genotyping was predicted using a method in clinical use. The presence of hybrid genes had no effect on the phenotype prediction of CYP2D6*4- and CYP2D6*10-containing samples. Four of four (100%) homozygous samples containing a CYP2D7-2D6 gene had a change in predicted phenotype, and 23 of 25 (92%) samples with a duplication signal and a CYP2D7-2D6 gene had a change in predicted phenotype. Four novel genes were identified (CYP2D6*13A1 variants 1 and 2, CYP2D6*13G1, and CYP2D6*13G2), and two novel hybrid tandem structures consisting of CYP2D6*13B + *68×2 + *4-like and CYP2D6*13A1 variant 2 + *1×N were observed.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 06/2012; 40(1):111-9. DOI:10.1124/dmd.111.040832 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 11/2011; 14(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2011.08.788 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    R Avula · A Rand · J L Black · D J O'Kane ·
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    ABSTRACT: The serotonin transporter, called SLC6A4, SERT or 5-HTT, modulates neurotransmission by removal of serotonin from the synapse of serotonergic neurons, facilitating serotonin reuptake into the presynaptic terminus. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors block the action of the serotonin transporter and are used to treat depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Three polymorphisms in the 5-HTT gene have been implicated in treatment response and neuropsychiatric disorders. A 44-bp promoter ins/del polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) produces primarily long and/or short alleles due to either 14 (short) or 16 (long) repeats of variably conserved 20-23 bp units. Also implicated, a 17-18 bp variable number tandem repeat found in intron2 (StIn2) is expressed as triallelic content with 9, 10, or 12 repeats (StIn2.9, StIn2.10 or StIn2.12). Finally, a single nucleotide polymorphism rs25531 located within the promoter polymorphic-linked region alters the function of the long promoter allele. We developed a PCR-based fragment analysis assay, which is analyzed on an ABI sequencer, whereby we are able to detect all three genotypes simultaneously. Using this technique, we identified novel sequences, which demonstrate promoter repeat regions containing (1) a 17 repeat with rs25531 A/G polymorphism, (2) two with 18-repeat units, (3) one with 20-repeat units and (4) a 24-repeat sequence. The novel repeats were confirmed by direct sequencing of gel-purified amplicons.
    Translational Psychiatry 08/2011; 1(8):e32. DOI:10.1038/tp.2011.34 · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CYP2B6, CYP2C19, ABCC4, and SOD2 have been implicated in adverse drug reactions and survival after cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment. 110 BMT patients who received high dose CPA treatment were genotyped for variants in these genes and the results were correlated with toxicity and relapse. CYP2B6 genotype significantly influenced overall toxicity suggesting active CYP2B6 alleles led to higher rates of overall toxicity. The p.R487C deficiency allele was significantly associated with a lower rate of overall toxicity and a higher rate of relapse. SOD2 rs4880 V16A polymorphism was associated with significantly less CPA-related overall toxicity and significantly lower relapse rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis although the SOD2 finding regarding relapse was not significant when evaluated by the cumulative incidence function.
    Leukemia research 07/2011; 36(1):59-66. DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2011.06.020 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fundamental to definitively identifying neonates at risk of developing significant hyperbilirubinemia is a better understanding of the genetic factors associated with early bilirubin rise. Previous genetic studies have focused on the UGT1A1 gene, associating common variation in the coding or promoter regions with qualitative assessments of bilirubin (i.e. significantly elevated or not). These studies have had conflicting results and limited success. We chose to approach the problem by focusing on the quantitative (absolute) change in bilirubin levels early in post-natal life. We apply this approach to the UGT1A1 gene--exploring the contribution of both rare and common variants to early bilirubin changes. We sequenced the exons, PBREM, 5'-, and 3'- regions of the UGT1A1 gene in 80 otherwise healthy term neonates who had repeat bilirubin levels measured within the first five days of life. Three novel coding variants were observed, but there was no clear relationship between rare coding variants and bilirubin rise. Adjusted linear regression models fit to evaluate the relationship between changing bilirubin levels and common UGT1A1variants found that among 39 neonates whose bilirubin was resampled within 33 hours, individuals homozygous for the mutant allele of a 3'UTR SNP had significantly smaller changes in bilirubin (P=0.003) than individuals carrying the wild-type allele. Collectively, rare UGT1A1 coding variants do not appear to play a prominent role in determining early bilirubin levels; however common variants in the 3' UTR of UGT1A1 may modulate the early bilirubin rise. A quantitative approach to evaluating early bilirubin kinetics provides a more robust framework in which to better understand the genetics of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
    BMC Medical Genetics 04/2011; 12:57. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-12-57 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    Article: Reply.

    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2011; 57(6):756-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.10.016 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship between blood concentrations of venlafaxine and its active metabolite, O-desmethyl venlafaxine (ODV), and genetic variants of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in human subjects. Trough blood concentrations were measured at steady state in patients treated with venlafaxine extended release in a clinical practice setting. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes were converted to activity scores based on known activity levels of the two alleles comprising a genotype. After adjusting for drug dose and gender effects, higher CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 activity scores were significantly associated with lower venlafaxine concentrations (P < 0.001 for each). Only CYP2D6 was associated with the concentration of ODV (P < 0.001), in which genotypes with more active alleles were associated with higher ODV concentrations. The sum of venlafaxine plus ODV concentration showed the same pattern as venlafaxine concentrations with CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes with higher activity scores being associated with a lower venlafaxine plus ODV concentration (2D6 P = 0.01; 2C19 P < 0.001). Because allelic variants in both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 influence the total concentration of the active compounds venlafaxine and ODV, both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes should be considered when using pharmacogenomic information for venlafaxine dose alterations.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring 02/2011; 33(1):14-20. DOI:10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181fcf94d · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes have been shown to be associated with both accelerated and delayed pharmacokinetic clearance of many psychotropic medications. Citalopram is metabolized by three CYP enzymes. CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 play a primary role in citalopram metabolism, whereas CYP2D6 plays a secondary role. The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression sample was used to examine the relationship between variations in the CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes and remission of depressive symptoms and tolerance to treatment with citalopram. The primary analyses were of the White non-Hispanic patients adherent to the study protocol (n= 1074). Generally, patients who had CYP2C19 genotypes associated with decreased metabolism were less likely to tolerate citalopram than those with increased metabolism, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). However, patients with the inactive 2C19*2 allele had significantly lower odds of tolerance (P = 0.02). Patients with the poor metabolism CYP2C19 genotype-based category who were classified as citalopram tolerant were more likely to experience remission (P = 0.03). No relationship between CYP2D6 genotype-based categories and either remission or tolerance was identified, although exploratory analyses identified a potential interaction between CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 effects. Despite several limitations including the lack of serum drug levels, this study showed that variations in CYP2C19 were associated with tolerance and remission in a large sample of White non-Hispanic patients treated with citalopram.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 01/2011; 21(1):1-9. DOI:10.1097/FPC.0b013e328340bc5a · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate cyst fluid carcinoembyronic antigen (CEA) and amylase in differentiating (1) nonmucinous from mucinous pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs), (2) benign mucinous from malignant mucinous PCLs, and (3) pseudocysts from nonpseudocysts (amylase only). A retrospective analysis of patients with histologically confirmed PCLs from February 1996 to April 2007 was performed. Cyst fluid CEA (n=124) and/or amylase (n=91) were measured and correlated to cyst type. Carcinoembyronic antigen levels (P=0.0001), but not amylase, were higher in mucinous versus nonmucinous cysts. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of CEA 200 ng/mL or greater for the diagnosis of mucinous PCLs were 60%, 93%, and 72%, respectively. Carcinoembyronic antigen levels did not differentiate benign from malignant mucinous cysts. Whereas amylase levels were higher in pseudocysts than nonpseudocysts (P=0.009), 54% of noninflammatory PCLs had a level greater than 250 IU/L, including mucinous cystic neoplasms (median, 6800 IU/L; interquartile range, 70-25,295 IU/L). Malignant mucinous cysts had lower amylase levels than benign mucinous cysts (P=0.0008). Cyst fluid CEA and amylase levels are suggestive but not diagnostic in differentiating PCLs. Unlike CEA, amylase may help differentiate benign from malignant mucinous cysts. Novel biomarkers are needed.
    Pancreas 10/2010; 40(1):42-5. DOI:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3181f69f36 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antithrombotic benefits of warfarin are countered by a narrow therapeutic index that contributes to excessive bleeding or cerebrovascular clotting and stroke in some patients. This article reviews the current literature describing warfarin sensitivity genotyping and compares the results of that review to the findings of our study in 189 patients at Mayo Clinic conducted between June 2001 and April 2003. For the review of the literature, we identified relevant peer-reviewed articles by searching the Web of Knowledge using key word warfarin-related adverse event. For the 189 Mayo Clinic patients initiating warfarin therapy to achieve a target international normalized ratio (INR) in the range of 2.0 to 3.5, we analyzed the CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450 2C9) and VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) genetic loci to study the relationship among the initial warfarin dose, steady-state dose, time to achieve steady-state dose, variations in INR, and allelic variance. Results were compared with those previously reported in the literature for 637 patients. The relationships between allelic variants and warfarin sensitivity found in our study of Mayo Clinic patients are fundamentally the same as in those reported by others. The Mayo Clinic population is predominantly white and shows considerable allelic variability in CYP2C9 and VKORC1. Certain of these alleles are associated with increased sensitivity to warfarin. Polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have a considerable effect on warfarin dose in white people. A correlation between steady-state warfarin dose and allelic variants of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 has been demonstrated by many previous reports and is reconfirmed in this report. The allelic variants found to most affect warfarin sensitivity are CYP2C9*1*1-VKORC1BB (less warfarin sensitivity than typical); CYP2C9*1*1-VKORC1AA (considerable variance in INR throughout initiation); CYP2C9*1*2-VKORC1AB (more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*3-VKORC1AB (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*2-VKORC1AB (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*3-VKORC1AA (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); and CYP2C9*2*2-VKORC1AB (much more sensitivity to warfarin than typical). Although we were unable to show an association between allelic variants and initial warfarin dose or dose escalation, an association was seen between allelic variant and steady-state warfarin dose. White people show considerable variance in CYP2C9 allele types, whereas people of Asian or African descent infrequently carry CYP2C9 allelic variants. The VKORC1AA allele associated with high warfarin sensitivity predominates in those of Asian descent, whereas white people and those of African descent show diversity, carrying either the VKORC1BB, an allele associated with low warfarin sensitivity, or VKORC1AB or VKORC1AA, alleles associated with moderate and high warfarin sensitivity, respectively.
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings 12/2009; 84(12):1079-94. DOI:10.4065/mcp.2009.0278 · 6.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 10/2009; 19(10):813-22. DOI:10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283317b95 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variability in drug-metabolizing enzymes and signaling pathways affects chemotherapy-related toxicity and treatment outcome in cancer. In breast and colorectal cancer, polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes involved in tamoxifen and irinotecan therapies has led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to address genetic factors relevant to patient consideration of treatment with these compounds. Tamoxifen therapeutic failure in breast cancer has been associated with reduced CYP2D6 activity due to inefficient activation of tamoxifen. Irinotecan toxicity in colorectal cancer is more common in patients with reduced-activity UGT1A alleles, resulting in excessive exposure to the potent SN-38 metabolite. In colorectal and lung cancers, somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signaling molecules have been associated with the therapeutic outcome of epidermal growth factor receptor-directed therapies. This review discusses the current knowledge regarding the utility of single gene-UGT1A1, CYP2D6, EGFR, and KRAS-or multigene analysis, for optimizing breast, colorectal, and lung cancer therapy. Current advances in these areas highlight how pharmacogenetics help personalized decision-making for patient management.
    The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 08/2009; 11(5):381-9. DOI:10.2353/jmoldx.2009.090003 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Christine L H Snozek · Ranjan C Mascarenhas · Dennis J O'Kane ·
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    ABSTRACT: The study goals were development of reference intervals and an interpretive algorithm for pancreatic cyst fluid tumor markers. 442 pancreatic cyst fluids were tested for CEA, CA19-9, and amylase. CEA>30 ng/mL discriminates mucinous from non-mucinous cysts. After CEA analysis, amylase and CA19-9 segregate non-mucinous and mucinous subtypes, respectively. Pancreatic cyst fluid tumor markers supplement other diagnostic measures. This study provides estimated reference intervals and an algorithm for interpretation.
    Clinical biochemistry 08/2009; 42(15):1585-8. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.06.020 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of genetic variations in SLC6A4 (serotonin transporter gene) on citalopram treatment of depression using the Sequenced Treatment to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) sample was assessed. Of primary interest were three previously studied polymorphisms: 1) the VNTR variation of the second intron, 2) the indel promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR or SERT), and 3) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs25531. Additionally, SLC6A4 was resequenced to identify new SNPs for exploratory analyses. DNA from 1914 subjects in the STAR*D study were genotyped for the intron 2 VNTR region, the indel promoter polymorphism, and rs25531. Associations of these variants with remission of depressive symptoms were evaluated following citalopram treatment. In white non-Hispanic subjects, variations in the intron 2 VNTR (point-wise P = 0.041) and the indel promoter polymorphism (point-wise P = 0.039) were associated with remission following treatment with citalopram. The haplotype composed of the three candidate loci was also associated with remission, with a global p-value of 0.040 and a maximum statistic simulation p-value of 0.0031 for the S-a-12 haplotype, under a dominant model. One SNP identified through re-sequencing the SLC6A4 gene, Intron7-83-TC, showed point-wise evidence of association, which did not remain significant after correction for the number of SNPs evaluated in this exploratory analysis. No associations between these SLC6A4 variations and remission were found in the white Hispanic or black subjects. These findings suggest that multiple variations in the SLC6A4 gene are associated with remission in white non-Hispanic depressed adults treated with citalopram. The mechanism of action of these variants remains to be determined.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 04/2009; 150B(3-3):341-51. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30816 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variability in drugmetabolizing enzymes affects the toxicity and efficacy of many compounds, including the chemotherapeutic agents irinotecan and tamoxifen. The correlation of clinical response to polymorphisms in enzymes associated with metabolism of these two drugs has led to the recommendation that patients who receive them undergo genotyping analysis. Irinotecan toxicity in patients who have colorectal cancer has been linked to reduced activity of uridine diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). Reduced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 activity leads to therapeutic failure of tamoxifen in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, as a result of absence of conversion of the prodrug to its active forms. This article discusses current knowledge of the usefulness of UGT1A1 and CYP2D6 genotyping in the context of cancer chemotherapy and highlights the need for additional studies to clarify the many issues remaining.
    Clinics in laboratory medicine 01/2009; 28(4):553-67. DOI:10.1016/j.cll.2008.05.004 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disclaimer: American College of Medical Genetics statements and guidelines are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other health care professionals to help them provide quality medical genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These statements and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the health care professional should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. It may be prudent, however, to document in the patient's record the rationale for any significant deviation from these standards and guidelines.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 03/2008; 10(2):139-50. DOI:10.1097/GIM.0b013e318163c35f · 7.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
367.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2014
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1997-2011
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Psychiatry and Psychology
      Рочестер, Michigan, United States
  • 1983-2008
    • University of Georgia
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 1991
    • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
      • Department of Biology
      FMH, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990
    • Wageningen University
      • Laboratory of Biochemistry
      Wageningen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1989
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada