[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in a cohort from Chile. Material & methods: DNA methylation was analyzed through an ELISA-based technique and quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Results: Global DNA Methylation Index (p = 0.02) and promoter methylation of SSBP2 (p = 0.01) and ESR1 (p = 0.05) were significantly different in GBC when compared with cholecystitis. Receiver curve operator analysis revealed promoter methylation of APC, CDKN2A, ESR1, PGP9.5 and SSBP2, together with the Global DNA Methylation Index, had 71% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 0.97 area under the curve and a positive predictive value of 90%. Conclusion: Global and gene-specific DNA methylation may be useful biomarkers for GBC clinical assessment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of locoregional recurrence (LRR) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often requires a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Survival outcomes are poor and the treatment outcomes are morbid. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at room temperature under laboratory conditions. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a CAP jet device selectively targets cancer cells using in vitro melanoma and in vivo bladder cancer models. In the present study, we wished to examine CAP selectivity in HNSCC in vitro models, and to explore its potential for use as a minimally invasive surgical approach that allows for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue ablation without affecting the surrounding healthy cells and tissues. Four HNSCC cell lines (JHU-022, JHU-028, JHU-029, SCC25) and 2 normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines (OKF6 and NOKsi) were subjected to cold plasma treatment for durations of 10, 30 and 45 sec, and a helium flow of 20 l/min-1 for 10 sec was used as a positive treatment control. We showed that cold plasma selectively diminished HNSCC cell viability in a dose-response manner, as evidenced by MTT assays; the viability of the OKF6 cells was not affected by the cold plasma. The results of colony formation assays also revealed a cell-specific response to cold plasma application. Western blot analysis did not provide evidence that the cleavage of PARP occurred following cold plasma treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that cold plasma application selectively impairs HNSCC cell lines through non-apoptotic mechanisms, while having a minimal effect on normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 07/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By a candidate gene approach, we analyzed the promoter methylation (PM) of 8 genes genes (ARF, TIMP3, RAR-β2, NID2, CCNA1, AIM1, CALCA and CCND2) by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in DNA of 17 non-recurrent and 19 recurrent noninvasive low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) archival tissues. Among the genes tested, by establishing an empiric cutoff value, CCND2, CCNA1, NID2, and CALCA showed higher frequency of methylation in recurrent than in non-recurrent LGPUCC: CCND2 10/19 (53%) vs. 2/17 (12%) (p=0.014); CCNA1 11/19 (58%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%) (p=0.048); NID2 13/19 (68%) vs. 3/17 (18%) (p=0.003) and CALCA 10/19 (53%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%) (p=0.097), respectively. We further analyzed PM of CCND2, CCNA1, and CALCA in urine DNA from UCC patients including LGPUCC and controls. The frequency of CCND2, CCNA1 and CALCA was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in urine of UCC cases [ 38/148 (26%), 50/73 (68%) and 94/148 (63.5%) respectively] than controls [0/56 (0%), 10/60 (17%) and 16/56 (28.5%), respectively)]. Most importantly we found any one of the 3 markers methylation positive in 25 out of 30 (83%) cytology negative LGPUCC cases. We also explored the biological function of CCNA1 in UCC. Prospective confirmatory studies are needed to develop a reliable tool for prediction of recurrence using primary LGPUCC tissues and/or urine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While specific mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) identify tumors that are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), these genetic alterations are present in only a minority of patients. Patients with tumors expressing wild-type (wt) EGFR lack reliable predictive markers of their clinical response to EGFR TKIs. Although epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been inversely correlated with the response of cancers to EGFR-targeted therapy, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this association have not been defined and no specific EMT-associated biomarker of clinical benefit has been identified. Here we show that during transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-mediated EMT, inhibition of the microRNAs 200 (miR200) family results in upregulated expression of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig6), a negative regulator of EGFR. The Mig6-mediated reduction of EGFR occurs concomitantly with a TGFβ-induced EMT-associated kinase switch of tumor cells to an AKT-activated EGFR-independent state. In a panel of 25 cancer cell lines of different tissue origins, we find that the ratio of the expression levels of Mig6 and miR200c is highly correlated with EMT and resistance to erlotinib. Analyses of primary tumor xenografts of patient-derived lung and pancreatic cancers carrying wild type EGFR showed that the tumor Mig6(mRNA)/miR200 ratio was inversely correlated with response to erlotinib in vivo. Our data demonstrate that the TGFβ-miR200-Mig6 network orchestrates the EMT-associated kinase switch that induces resistance to EGFR inhibitors, and identify a low ratio of Mig6 to miR200 as a promising predictive biomarker of the response of tumors to EGFR TKIs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylation alterations of CpG islands, CpG island shores and first exons are key events in the formation and progression of human cancer, and an increasing number of differentially methylated regions and genes have been identified in breast cancer. Recent studies of the breast cancer methylome using deep sequencing and microarray platforms are providing a novel insight on the different roles aberrant methylation plays in molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Accumulating evidence from a subset of studies suggests that promoter methylation of tumor-suppressor genes associated with breast cancer can be quantified in circulating DNA. However, there is a paucity of studies that examine the combined presence of genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with breast cancer using blood-based assays. Dysregulation of DNA repair capacity (DRC) is a genetic risk factor for breast cancer that has been measured in lymphocytes. We isolated plasma DNA from 340 participants in a breast cancer case control project to study promoter methylation levels of five genes previously shown to be associated with breast cancer in frozen tissue and in cell line DNA: MAL, KIF1A, FKBP4, VGF and OGDHL. Methylation of at least one gene was found in 49% of the cases compared to 20% of the controls. Three of the four genes had receiver characteristic operator curve values of ≥0.50: MAL (0.64), KIF1A (0.51) and OGDHL (0.53). KIF1A promoter methylation was associated with breast cancer and inversely associated with DRC. This is the first evidence of a significant association between genetic and epigenetic alterations in breast cancer using blood-based tests. The potential diagnostic utility of these biomarkers and their relevance for breast cancer risk prediction should be examined in larger cohorts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To identify new epigenetic markers and further characterize Urothelial Cell Carcinoma (UCC), we tested the promoter methylation (PM) status of 19 genes previously identified as cancer specific methylated genes in other solid tumors. Methods: We used bisulfite sequencing, methylation specific PCR and quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) to test the PM status of 19 genes in urothelial cancer cell lines. Results: Among the 19 genes tested, VGF was found to be completely methylated in several UCC cell lines. VGF QMSP analysis showed that methylation values of almost all the primary 19 UCC tissues were higher than the paired normal tissues (P=0.009). In another cohort, 12/35 (34.3%) of low grade UCC cases displayed VGF methylation. As a biomarker for non-invasive detection of UCC, VGF showed a significantly higher frequency of methylation in urine from UCC cases (8/20) compared to controls (1/20) (P=0.020). After treatment of cell lines with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, VGF was robustly re-expressed. Forced expression of VGF in bladder cancer cell lines inhibited cell growth. Conclusion: Selection of candidates from genome-wide screening approach in other solid tumors successfully identified UCC specific methylated genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are commonly inactivated by somatic mutation and/or promoter hypermethylation; yet, recent high-throughput genomic studies have not identified key TSGs inactivated by both mechanisms. We pursued an integrated molecular analysis based on methylation binding domain sequencing (MBD-seq), 450K Methylation arrays, whole exome sequencing, and whole genome gene expression arrays in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors and matched uvulopalatopharyngoplasty tissue samples (UPPPs). We uncovered 186 downregulated genes harboring cancer specific promoter methylation including PAX1 and PAX5 and we identified 10 key tumor suppressor genes (GABRB3, HOXC12, PARP15, SLCO4C1, CDKN2A, PAX1, PIK3AP1, HOXC6, PLCB1, and ZIC4) inactivated by both promoter methylation and/or somatic mutation. Among the novel tumor suppressor genes discovered with dual mechanisms of inactivation, we found a high frequency of genomic and epigenomic alterations in the PAX gene family of transcription factors, which selectively impact canonical NOTCH and TP53 pathways to determine cell fate, cell survival, and genome maintenance. Our results highlight the importance of assessing TSGs at the genomic and epigenomic level to identify key pathways in HNSCC, deregulated by simultaneous promoter methylation and somatic mutations.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 05/2014; 9(7). · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent Prostate cancer remains a major problem, where staging, grading and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at the time of surgery are helpful, but still imperfect predictors for recurrence. For this reason, there is an imperative need of additional biomarkers that add to the prediction of the currently used prognostic factors.
We evaluated the extent of promoter methylation of genes previously reported as aberrantly methylated in prostate cancer (PCa) (AIM1, APC, CCND2, GPX3, GSTP1, MCAM, RARβ2, SSBP2 and TIMP3), by quantitative fluorogenic methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) using cancer tissue from a nested case-control study of 452 patients surgically treated for prostate cancer. Recurrence cases and controls were compared and the association between extent of methylation and risk of recurrence was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for prostatectomy age, year, stage, grade, surgical margins, and pre-prostatectomy PSA concentration. All statistical tests were two-sided, and p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
GSTP1 methylation extent was higher in recurrence cases than in controls (p = 0.01), especially in patients with early disease (i.e., organ-confined or limited extra-prostatic extension) (p = 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, having at or above the median extent of GSTP1 promoter methylation was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, including in men with early disease (both p = 0.05).
Greater GSTP1 promoter methylation in cancer tissue was independently associated with risk of recurrence in patient with early prostate cancer, suggesting its testing as a potential tissue-based recurrence marker.
The Journal of urology 04/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KRAS gene mutation is linked to poor prognosis and resistance to therapeutics in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we have explored the possibility of exploiting inherent differences in KRAS mutant cell metabolism for treatment. This study identified a greater dependency on folate metabolism pathways in KRAS mutant compared to KRAS wild type NSCLC cell lines. Microarray gene expression and biological pathway analysis identified higher expression of folate metabolism and purine synthesis related pathways in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells compared to wildtype counterparts. Moreover, pathway analysis and knockdown studies suggest a role for MYC transcriptional activity in the expression of these pathways in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells. Furthermore, KRAS knockdown and overexpression studies demonstrated the ability of KRAS to regulate expression of genes that comprise folate metabolism pathways. Proliferation studies demonstrated higher responsiveness to methotrexate, pemetrexed and other antifolates in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells. Surprisingly, KRAS gene expression is downregulated in KRAS wildtype and KRAS mutant cells by antifolates which may also contribute to higher efficacy of antifolates in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells. In vivo analysis of multiple tumorgraft models in nude mice identified a KRAS mutant tumor among the pemetrexed responsive tumors and also demonstrated an association between expression of folate pathway gene, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2), and antifolate activity. Collectively, we identify altered regulation of folate metabolism in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells that may account for higher antifolate activity in this subtype of NSCLC.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 03/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Current technology permits an unbiased massive analysis of so-matic genetic alterations from tumor DNA as well as the generation of individu-alized mouse xenografts (Avatar models). This work aimed to evaluate our ex-perience integrating these two strategies to personalize the treatment of cancer patients. Methods: We performed whole exome sequencing analysis of 25 patients with advanced solid tumors to identify putatively actionable tumor-specific genomic alterations. Avatar models were used as an in vivo platform to test proposed treatment strategies.
Successful exome sequencing analyses has been obtained for 23 patients. Tumor specific mutations and copy number variations were identified All samples profiled contained relevant genomic alterations. Tumor was implanted to create an Avatar model from 14 patients and 10 succeeded. In occasions actionable alterations such as mutations in NF1, PI3KA and DDR2 failed to provide any benefit when a targeted drug was tested in the Avatar and accordingly treatment of the patients with these drugs was not effective. To date, 13 patients have received a personalized treatment and 6 achieved durable partial remissions. Prior testing of candidate treatments in Avatar models correlated with clinical response and helped to select empirical treatments in some patients with no actionable mutations.
The use of full genomic analysis for cancer care is promising but presents important challenges that will need to be solved for broad clinical application. Avatar models are a promising investigational platform for therapeutic decision making. While limitations still exist, this strategy should be further tested.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of the epigenomic reports in hepatocellular carcinoma have focused on identifying novel differentially methylated drivers or passengers of the oncogenic process. Few reports have considered the technologies in place for clinical translation of newly identified biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify epigenomic technologies that need only a small number of samples to discriminate HCC from non-HCC tissue, a basic requirement for biomarker development trials. To assess that potential, we used quantitative Methylation Specific PCR, oligonucleotide tiling arrays, and Methylation BeadChip assays. Concurrent global DNA hypomethylation, gene-specific hypermethylation, and chromatin alterations were observed as a hallmark of HCC. A global loss of promoter methylation was observed in HCC with the Illumina BeadChip assays and the Nimblegen oligonucleotide arrays. HCC samples had lower median methylation peak scores and a reduced number of significant promoter-wide methylated probes. Promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A, SSBP2, and B4GALT1 quantified by qMSP had a sensitivity ranging from 38% to 52%, a specificity of 100%, and an AUC from 0.58 to 0.75. A panel combining these genes with HCC risk factors had a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 100%, and an AUC of 0.91.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 01/2014; 2014:597164. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOTCH1 mutations have been reported to occur in 10 to 15% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To determine the significance of these mutations, we embarked upon a comprehensive study of NOTCH signaling in a cohort of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 normal mucosal samples through a set of expression, copy number, methylation and mutation analyses. Copy number increases were identified in NOTCH pathway genes including the NOTCH ligand JAG1. Gene set analysis defined a differential expression of the NOTCH signaling pathway in HNSCC relative to normal tissues. Analysis of individual pathway-related genes revealed overexpression of ligands JAG1 and JAG2 and receptor NOTCH3. In 32% of the HNSCC examined, activation of the downstream NOTCH effectors HES1/HEY1 was documented. Notably, exomic sequencing identified 5 novel inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in 4/37 of the tumors analyzed, with none of these tumors exhibiting HES1/HEY1 overexpression. Our results revealed a bimodal pattern of NOTCH pathway alterations in HNSCC, with a smaller subset exhibiting inactivating NOTCH1 receptors mutations but a larger subset exhibiting other NOTCH1 pathway alterations, including increases in expression or gene copy number of the receptor or ligands as well as downstream pathway activation. Our results imply that therapies that target the NOTCH pathway may be more widely suitable for HNSCC treatment than appreciated currently.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of genes acts as a significant mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing in head and neck cancer. In the present study, we assessed the association of epigenetic alterations of a panel of 12 genes [nucleolar protein 4 (NOL4), iroquois homeobox 1 (IRX1), SLC5A8, LRRC3B, FUSSEL18, EBF3, GBX2, HMX2, SEPT9, ALX3, SOCS3 and LHX6] with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) via a candidate gene approach. After the initial screening of methylated CpG islands on the promoter regions by bisulfite sequencing using salivary rinse samples, only two genes had methylated CpG dinucleotides on their promoter regions in tumor samples and absence of methylated CpGs were found in normal salivary rinse samples after bisulfite modification and bisulfite sequencing. We then performed real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) on 16 salivary rinse and 14 normal mucosal samples from healthy subjects and 33 HNSCC tumor samples for the two genes selected. After validation with QMSP, one gene, NOL4, was highly methylated (91%) in tumor samples and unmethylated in normal salivary rinses and minimally methylated in normal mucosal samples demonstrating cancer-specific methylation in HNSCC tissues. Although the IRX1 gene was observed as methylated in normal mucosal and salivary rinse samples, the methylation values of these normal samples were very low (<10%). In conclusion, we identified NOL4 as a highly specific promoter methylated gene associated with HNSCC. IRX1 may have potential as a biomarker for HNSCC and should be assessed in a larger cohort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA-21 (miRNA-21) has proto-oncogenic properties, though no miRNA-21 specific targets have been found in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Further study of miRNA-21 and its specific targets is essential to understanding HNSCC biology.
miRNA expression profiles of 10 HNSCC and 10 normal mucosa samples were investigated using a custom miRNA microarray. 13 HNSCC and 5 normal mucosa primary tissue specimens underwent mRNA expression microarray analysis. To identify miRNA-21 downstream targets, oral keratinocyte cells were subjected to microarray analysis after miRNA-21 transient transfection. miRNA and mRNA expression were validated by RT-qPCR in a separate cohort of 16 HNSCC and 15 normal mucosal samples. Microarray and bioinformatics analyses were integrated to identify potential gene targets. In vitro assays looked at the function and interaction of miRNA-21 and its specific gene targets.
miRNA-21 was upregulated in HNSCC and stimulated cell growth. Integrated analyses identified Clusterin (CLU) as a potential miRNA-21 gene target. CLU was downregulated after forced expression of miRNA-21 in normal and HNSCC cell lines. The activity of a luciferase construct containing the 3'UTR of CLU was repressed by the ectopic expression of miRNA-21. CLU was also found to be downregulated in primary HNSCC and correlated with miRNA-21 over-expression. A CLU variant 1 (CLU-1) was the predominant splice variant in HNSCC, and showed growth suppression function that was reversed by miRNA-21 over-expression.
CLU is a specific, functional target of oncogenic miRNA-21 in HNSCC. CLU-1 isoform is the predominant growth suppressive variant targeted by miRNA-21.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is a major health concern among women in Latin America due to its high incidence and mortality. Therefore, the discovery of molecular markers for cervical cancer screening and triage is imperative. The aim of this study was to use a genome wide methylation approach to identify novel methylation biomarkers in cervical cancer. DNA from normal cervical mucosa and cervical cancer tissue samples from Chile was enriched with Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP), hybridized to oligonucleotide methylation microarray and analyzed with a stringent bioinformatics pipeline to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) as candidate biomarkers. Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR (qMSP) was used to study promoter methylation of candidate DMRs in clinical samples from two independent cohorts. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by Reverse Line Blot analysis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed GGTLA4, FKBP6, ZNF516, SAP130, and INTS1 to be differentially methylated in cancer and normal tissues in the Discovery cohort. In the Validation cohort FKBP6 promoter methylation had 73% sensitivity and 80% specificity (AUC = 0.80). ZNF516 promoter methylation was the best biomarker, with both sensitivity and specificity of 90% (AUC = 0.92), results subsequently found in a Prevalence cohort. Together, ZNF516 and FKBP6 exhibited a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 81%, when considering both cohorts. Our genome wide DNA methylation assessment approach (MeDIP-chip) successfully identified novel biomarkers that differentiate between cervical cancer and normal samples. These biomarkers need to be further explored in case-control and prospective cohorts to validate them as cervical cancer biomarkers.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 11/2013; 9(2). · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a lethal, virus-associated cancer that lacks effective therapies for advanced disease. Agents blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have demonstrated objective, durable tumor regressions in patients with advanced solid malignancies and efficacy has been linked to PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment. To investigate whether MCC might be a target for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, we examined MCC PD-L1 expression, its association with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), and overall survival. Sixty-seven MCC specimens from 49 patients were assessed with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression by tumor cells and TILs, and immune infiltrates were characterized phenotypically. Tumor cell and TIL PD-L1 expression were observed in 49% and 55% of patients, respectively. In specimens with PD-L1(+) tumor cells, 97% (28/29) demonstrated a geographic association with immune infiltrates. Among specimens with moderate-severe TIL intensities, 100% (29/29) demonstrated PD-L1 expression by tumor cells. Significant associations were also observed between the presence of MCPyV DNA, a brisk inflammatory response, and tumor cell PD-L1 expression: MCPyV(-) tumor cells were uniformly PD-L1(-). Taken together, these findings suggest that a local tumor-specific and potentially MCPyV-specific immune response drives tumor PD-L1 expression, similar to previous observations in melanoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In multivariate analyses, PD-L1(-) MCCs were independently associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio 3.12; 95% CI, 1.28-7.61; p=0.012). These findings suggest that an endogenous immune response promotes PD-L1 expression in the MCC microenvironment when MCPyV is present, and provide a rationale for investigating therapies blocking PD-1/PD-L1 for patients with MCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein biomarker discovery for early detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a crucial unmet need to improve patient outcomes. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as a promising tool for identification of biomarkers in different cancer types. Proteins secreted from cancer cells can serve as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis. In the current study, we have used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling methodology coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry to identify and quantitate secreted proteins from a panel of head and neck carcinoma cells. In all, we identified 2,472 proteins, of which 225 proteins were secreted at higher or lower abundance in HNSCC-derived cell lines. Of these, 148 were present in higher abundance and 77 were present in lower abundance in the cancer-cell derived secretome. We detected a higher abundance of some previously known markers for HNSCC including insulin like growth factor binding protein 3, IGFBP3 (11-fold) and opioid growth factor receptor, OGFR (10-fold) demonstrating the validity of our approach. We also identified several novel secreted proteins in HNSCC including olfactomedin-4, OLFM4 (12-fold) and hepatocyte growth factor activator, HGFA (5-fold). IHC-based validation was conducted in HNSCC using tissue microarrays which revealed overexpression of IGFBP3 and OLFM4 in 70% and 75% of the tested cases, respectively. Our study illustrates quantitative proteomics of secretome as a robust approach for identification of potential HNSCC biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor