[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAZ51 is an indolinone-based molecule originally synthesized as a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 tyrosine kinase. This study shows that exposure of two glioma cell lines, rat C6 and human U251MG, to MAZ51 caused dramatic shape changes, including the retraction of cellular protrusions and cell rounding. These changes were caused by the clustering and aggregation of actin filaments and microtubules. MAZ51 also induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. This led to an inhibition of cellular proliferation, without triggering significant cell death. These alterations induced by MAZ51 occurred with similar dose- and time-dependent patterns. Treatment of glioma cells with MAZ51 resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β through the activation of Akt, as well as increased levels of active RhoA. Interestingly, MAZ51 did not affect the morphology and cell cycle patterns of rat primary cortical astrocytes, suggesting it selectively targeted transformed cells. Immunoprecipitation-western blot analyses indicated that MAZ51 did not decrease, but rather increased, tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-3. To confirm this unanticipated result, several additional experiments were conducted. Enhancing VEGFR-3 phosphorylation by treatment of glioma cells with VEGF-C affected neither cytoskeleton arrangements nor cell cycle patterns. In addition, the knockdown of VEGFR-3 in glioma cells did not cause morphological or cytoskeletal alterations. Furthermore, treatment of VEGFR-3-silenced cells with MAZ51 caused the same alterations of cell shape and cytoskeletal arrangements as that observed in control cells. These data indicate that MAZ51 causes cytoskeletal alterations and G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells. These effects are mediated through phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β and activation of RhoA. The anti-proliferative activity of MAZ51 does not require the inhibition of VEGFR-3 phosphorylation, suggesting that it is a potential candidate for further clinical investigation for treatment of gliomas, although the precise mechanism(s) underlying its effects remain to be determined.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e109055. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor with diverse and cell type-specific functions and is associated with a variety of pathophysiological processes. Recently, it has been proposed that the regulation of KLF4 is critical to neuronal differentiation and that neural progenitors overexpressing KLF4 take on a glial identity. The present study aimed to determine whether KLF4 is involved in the astroglial reaction induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in the brain. No specific KLF4 immunoreactivity was observed in resting astrocytes of the control hippocampus, but significant induction was detected in reactive astrocytes preferentially located in the CA1 and dentate hilar regions of the hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Astroglial KLF4 expression was induced in the nuclei and cytoplasm within 3 days of ischemia and persisted for at least 4 weeks. This pattern was reproduced in an in vitro astrogliosis model of rat primary cortical astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Furthermore, immunoblot assay showed that nuclear and cytosolic extracts from cortical astrocytes subjected to OGD had significantly higher levels of KLF4 protein compared to normoxic extracts. Thus, our data demonstrate that KLF4 expression was induced in astroglia by ischemic injury both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that KLF4 may act as a transcription factor linked to the regulation of the astroglial reaction following ischemic injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that nestin facilitates cellular structural remodeling in vasculature-associated cells in response to ischemic injury. The current study was designed to investigate the potential role of post-ischemic nestin expression in parenchymal astrocytes. With this aim, we characterized ischemia-induced nestin expression in the CA1 hippocampal region, an area that undergoes a delayed neuronal death, followed by a lack of neuronal generation after transient forebrain ischemia. Virtually all of the nestin-positive cells in the ischemic CA1 hippocampus were reactive astrocytes. However, induction of nestin expression did not correlate simply with astrogliosis, but rather showed characteristic time- and strata-dependent expression patterns. Nestin induction in astrocytes of the pyramidal cell layer was rapid and transient, while a long-lasting induction of nestin was observed in astrocytes located in the CA1 dendritic subfields, such as the stratum oriens and radiatum, until at least day 28 after ischemia. There was no detectable expression in the stratum lacunosum moleculare despite the evident astroglial reaction. Almost all of the nestin-positive cells also expressed a transcription factor for neural/glial progenitors, i.e., Sox-2 or Sox-9, and some cells were also positive for Ki-67. However, all of the nestin-positive astrocytes expressed the calcium-binding protein S100β, which is known to be expressed in a distinct, post-mitotic astrocyte population. Thus, our data indicate that in the ischemic CA1 hippocampus, nestin expression was induced in astroglia that were becoming reactive, but not in a progenitor/stem cell population, suggesting that nestin may allow for the structural remodeling of these cells in response to ischemic injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to provide a detailed characterization of the cellular phenotypes of nestin-positive cells in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Nestin-positive cells included reactive astrocytes in the peri-infarct region. In the ischemic core, in which astrocytes had virtually disappeared, nestin expression was exclusively associated with the vasculature, including the microvasculature and larger caliber vessels. Induction of nestin expression in the ischemic core occurred by 3 days post-ischemia. Nestin expression continued through at least 28 days post-ischemia but the cellular profiles of nestin-positive cells changed over this period. In the ischemic core at day 3, nestin-positive cells frequently had long processes that ran parallel along the longitudinal axis of the vasculature. These cells were highly proliferative and expressed the transcription factor for neural/glial progenitors, Sox9. Based on their morphological characteristics and on a double-labeling study, most nestin-positive cells were clearly distinguishable from vasculature-associated cells including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and microglia/macrophages. Immunoelectron microscopic findings demonstrated that most nestin-positive cells lay in the perivascular space and had macrophage-like features, indicating morphological similarity to perivascular macrophages. Nestin expression was still associated with the vasculature 14 days after ischemia but appeared in fibroblast-like cells. Thus, our data indicated that, in the ischemic core, nestin expression was not limited to a progenitor/stem cell population but was induced in the vasculature-associated cells. These cell types included perivascular macrophages and fibroblast-like cells that appeared to undergo dynamic structural changes. These results suggest that nestin facilitates cellular structural remodeling in response to ischemic injury.
Cell and Tissue Research 12/2012; · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the spatiotemporal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) in the spinal cord of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. VEGFR-3 mRNA and protein were constitutively expressed in gray matter neurons and in a few white matter astrocytes. Induction of VEGFR-3 occurred predominantly in perivascular infiltrated macrophages in the spinal cord white matter during the inductive phase of EAE. VEGFR-3 expression was also induced in activated microglial cells in the gray and white matter, mainly in the peak phase. In addition, reactive astrocytes in the white matter, but not in the gray matter, expressed VEGFR-3 as disease severity increased. These data suggest that VEGFR-3 is involved in the recruitment of monocytic macrophages and in glial reactions during EAE.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, a receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, has recently been reported to be induced within vessel-like structures in the ischemic brain. The purpose of the present study was to characterize and define further the cellular phenotypes of vascular-associated cells that manifest induced VEGFR-3 expression in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Vessel-associated cells expressing VEGFR-3 were found to be perivascular astrocytes in the peri-infarct region, whereas in the ischemic core, where astrocytes had virtually disappeared, induction of VEGFR-3 mRNA and protein was still prominent in vascular structures 3-7 days after reperfusion. VEGFR-3 and nestin expression were colocated in almost all cells associated with the vasculature in the ischemic core, and most (∼82%) of the VEGFR-3/nestin double-labeled cells were proliferative. A subpopulation of these VEGFR-3-expressing cells appeared to be included in two immunophenotypically distinct perivascular cells: NG2-positive pericytes and ED2- or OX6-perivascular macrophages. However, most of these cells did not show markers for vasculature-associated cell types such as endothelial cells, microglia/macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. Thus, our data indicated that vasculature-associated VEGFR-3-expressing cells in the ischemic core may represent a heterogeneous population of cells with functional diversity, rather than a uniform cell type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate the extent and topography of osteopontin (OPN) protein expression in the rat hippocampus 4 to 12 weeks following transient forebrain ischemia, and to compare OPN expression patterns with those of calcium deposits and astroglial and microglial reactions. Two patterns of OPN staining were recognized by light microscopy: 1) a diffuse pattern of tiny granular deposits throughout the CA1 region at 4 weeks after ischemia and 2) non-diffuse ovoid to round deposits, which formed conglomerates in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer over the chronic interval of 8 to 12 weeks. Immunogold-silver electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis demonstrated that OPN deposits were indeed diverse types of calcium deposits, which were clearly delineated by profuse silver grains indicative of OPN expression. Intracellular OPN deposits were frequently observed within reactive astrocytes and neurons 4 weeks after ischemia but rarely at later times. By contrast, extracellular OPN deposits progressively increased in size and appeared to be gradually phagocytized by microglia or brain macrophages and some astrocytes over 8 to 12 weeks. These data indicate an interaction between OPN and calcium in the hippocampus in the chronic period after ischemia, suggesting that OPN binding to calcium deposits may be involved in scavenging mechanisms.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 04/2012; 60(7):550-9. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN), an adhesive glycoprotein, has recently been proposed to act as an opsonin that facilitates phagocytosis of neuronal debris by macrophages in the ischemic brain. The present study was designed to elucidate the process whereby OPN binds to neuronal cell debris in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Significant co-localization of the OPN protein and calcium deposits in the ischemic core were observed by combining alizarin red staining and OPN immunohistochemistry. In addition, electron microscopy (EM) using the osmium/potassium dichromate method revealed that electron-dense precipitates, typical of calcium deposits, were localized mainly along the periphery of putative degenerating neurites. This topical pattern of calcium precipitates resembled the distribution of OPN as detected by immunogold-silver EM. Combining immunogold-silver EM and electron probe microanalysis further demonstrated that the OPN protein was localized at the periphery of cell debris or degenerating neurites, corresponding with locally higher concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, and that the relative magnitude of OPN accumulation was comparable to that of calcium and phosphorus. These data suggest that calcium precipitation provides a matrix for the binding of the OPN protein within the debris or degenerating neurites induced by ischemic injury. Therefore, OPN binding to calcium deposits may be involved in phagocytosis of such debris, and may participate in the regulation of ectopic calcification in the ischemic brain.
Journal of neurotrauma 11/2011; 29(7):1530-8. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3/Flt4 binds VEGF-C and VEGF-D with high affinity. It has been suggested to be involved in neurogenesis and adult neuronal function. However, little is known about the localization of VEGFR-3 in the adult central nervous system (CNS). The present study presents, to our knowledge, the first detailed mapping of VEGFR-3 mRNA expression in adult rat brain and spinal cord by using in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR). Varying VEGFR-3 expression intensity was detected in functionally diverse nuclei, with the highest levels in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, several nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the brainstem cranial nerve nuclei. VEGFR-3 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the ventral motor neurons of the spinal cord and in some circumventricular organs such as the median eminence and the area postrema. Moreover, the locus coeruleus and some of the nuclei of the reticular formation showed moderate-to-high hybridization signals. VEGFR-3 expression appeared to be localized mostly within neurons, but weak labeling was also found in some astrocytes. In particular, VEGFR-3 was highly expressed in ependymal cells of the ventral third ventricle and the median eminence, which were co-labeled with vimentin but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein, suggesting that these cells are tanycytes. RT-PCR analysis revealed similar levels of VEGFR-3 expression in all regions of the adult rat CNS. The specific but widespread distribution of VEGFR-3 mRNA in the adult rat CNS suggests that VEGFR-3 functions more broadly than expected, regulating adult neuronal function playing important roles in tanycyte function.
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 06/2011; 42(1):56-64. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reaction of neuroactive substances to ischemic conditions in the rat retina evoked by different methods was immunochemically evaluated in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Ocular ischemic conditions were unilaterally produced by elevating intraocular pressure (EIOP) or by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two EF-hand calcium binding proteins, calbindin D28K (CB) and calretinin (CR), in the normal retina showed similar immunolocalization, such as the amacrine and displaced amacrine cells, the ganglion cells, and their processes, particularly CB in horizontal cells. CB immunoreactive neurons in the ganglion cell layer in both types of ischemic retinas were more reduced in number than CR neurons compared to those in a normal retina. The CB protein level in both ischemic retinas was reduced to 60-80% of normal. The CR protein level in MCAO retinas was reduced to about 80% of normal but increased gradually to the normal value, whereas that in the EIOP showed a gradual reduction and a slight recovery. SMI32 immunoreactivity, which detects a dephosphorylated epitope of neurofilaments-M and -H, appeared in the axon bundles of ganglion cells in the innermost nerve fiber layer of normal retinas. The reactivity in the nerve fiber bundles appeared to only increase slightly in EIOP retinas, whereas a moderate increase occurred in MCAO retinas. The SMI32 protein level in MCAO retinas showed a gradual increasing tendency, whereas that in the EIOP showed a slight fluctuation. Interestingly, the MCAO retinas showed additional SMI32 immunoreactivity in the cell soma of presumed ganglion cells, whereas that of EIOP appeared in the Müller proximal radial fibers. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity appeared in the astrocytes located in the nerve fiber layer of normal retinas. Additional GFAP immunoreactivity appeared in the Müller glial fibers deep in EIOP retinas and at the proximal end in MCAO retinas. These findings suggest that the neurons in the ganglion cell layer undergo degenerative changes in response to ischemia, although EIOP retinas represented a remarkable Müller glial reaction, whereas MCAO retinas had only a small-scaled axonal transport disturbance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is an adhesive glycoprotein linked to a variety of pathophysiological processes. We investigated whether OPN might act as an opsonin in the diseased brain by studying the postischemic expression and localization of OPN mRNA and protein in a rat model of ischemic stroke. In addition, we characterized the subcellular localization of OPN protein in the ischemic brain core. Induction of OPN mRNA occurred in activated microglia/macrophages in the ischemic core on days 3-7 after reperfusion and this was sustained up to day 28, at least. OPN protein was synthesized and secreted by brain macrophages, which first surrounded damaged striatal white matter tracts and then infiltrated into them. Punctate OPN-immunoreactive profiles were scattered throughout the infarction core except in white matter bundles. Electron microscopy showed the localization of OPN protein along the membranes lining what appeared to be the debris of dead neurons. These were located in the extracellular space and within the cytoplasm of brain macrophages, indicating that the OPN protein accumulated selectively on the surface of dead cells, most of which were phagocytosed subsequently by brain macrophages. However, no significant induction of OPN occurred in degenerating striatal white matter tracts or in brain macrophage-engulfed axonic or myelin debris. These data suggest that OPN secreted by brain macrophages in this rat model of stroke might be involved in the phagocytosis of fragmented cell debris and possibly not in the phagocytosis of axonic or myelin debris.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify whether vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, a receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, is involved in pathophysiology of stroke, we investigated the spatiotemporal regulation of VEGFR-3 mRNA after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Most of the increase in VEGFR-3 expression in the ischemic core could be attributed to brain macrophages, whereas VEGFR-3 in the peri-infarct penumbra region was predominantly expressed in reactive astrocytes. A subpopulation of VEGFR-3-expressing brain macrophages was positive for NG2 proteoglycan and showed proliferative activity. In addition, in vitro model of stroke revealed no significant induction of VEGFR-3 in activated microglial cells, indicating that infiltrating exogenous macrophages expressed VEGFR-3 after focal ischemia. These data suggest that VEGFR-3 may be involved in the glial reaction and possibly in the recruitment of monocytic macrophages during ischemic insults.
Journal of neuroimmunology 12/2010; 229(1-2):81-90. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, a receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, has recently been suggested to play an important role during neuronal development. To characterize its potential role in CNS ontogenesis, we investigated the spatiotemporal and cellular expression of VEGFR-3 in developing and mature rat cerebellum using in situ hybridization. VEGFR-3 expression appeared as early as E15, and was restricted to the ventricular zone of the cerebellar primordium, the germinative neuroepithelium, but was absent by E20. Instead, the expression area of VEGFR-3 in the cerebellum grew in parallel with cerebellar development. From E20 on, two populations of VEGFR-3-expressing cells can be clearly distinguished in the developing cerebellum: a population of differentiating and postmitotic neurons and the Bergmann glia. VEGFR-3 expression in neurons occurred during the period of neuronal differentiation, and increased with maturation. In particular, the expression of VEGFR-3 mRNA revealed different temporal patterns in different neuronal populations. Neurons generated early, Purkinje cells, and deep nuclear neurons expressed VEGFR-3 mRNA during late embryonic stages, whereas VEGFR-3 transcription in local interneurons appeared by P14 with weaker expression. In addition, Bergmann glia expressed VEGFR-3 throughout cerebellar maturation into adulthood. However, receptor expression was absent in the progenitors in the external granular layer and during further migration. The results of this study suggest that VEGFR-3 has even broader functions than previously thought, regulating both developmental processes and adult neuronal function in the cerebellum.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 11/2010; 31(1):7-16. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heterodimeric sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3, have recently been proposed to be associated with the brain glucose sensor. To identify whether sweet taste signaling is regulated in response to an ischemic injury inducing acute impairment of glucose metabolism, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of the sweet taste receptors and their associated taste-specific G-protein α-gustducin in the rat hippocampus after ischemia. The expression profiles of both receptor subunits and α-gustducin shared overlapping expression patterns in sham-operated and ischemic hippocampi. Constitutive expression of both receptors and α-gustducin was localized in neurons of the pyramidal cell and granule cell layers, but their upregulation was detected in reactive astrocytes in ischemic hippocampi. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the immmunohistochemically determined temporal patterns of sweet-taste signaling proteins. These results suggest that the expression of sweet taste signaling proteins in astrocytes might be regulated in response to altered extracellular levels of glucose following an ischemic insult.
Neurochemical Research 10/2010; 35(10):1628-34. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, a receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, is expressed in neural progenitor cells, but there has been no comprehensive study of its distribution in the developing brain. Here, the temporal and cell-specific expression of VEGFR-3 mRNA was studied in the developing rat forebrain and eye. Expression appeared along the ventricular and subventricular zones of the lateral and third ventricles showing ongoing neurogenesis as early as embryonic day 13 but was progressively down-regulated during development and remained in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult forebrain. VEGFR-3 expression was also detectable in some differentiating and postmitotic neurons in the developing cerebral cortex, including Cajal-Retzius cells, cortical plate neurons, and subplate neurons. Expression in the subplate increased significantly during the early postnatal period but was absent by postnatal day 14. It was also highly expressed in nonneural tissues of the eye during development, including the retinal pigment epithelium, the retinal ciliary margin, and the lens, but persisted in a subset of cells in the pigmented ciliary epithelium of the adult eye. In contrast, there was weak or undetectable expression in the early neural retina, but a subset of retinal neurons in the postnatal and mature retina showed intense signals. These unique spatiotemporal mRNA expression patterns suggest that VEGFR-3 might mediate the regulation of both neurogenesis and adult neuronal function in the rat forebrain and eye.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology 04/2010; 518(7):1064-81. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the temporal changes and cellular localization of osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures subjected to ischemia-like oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The sequential induction pattern response consisted of neuronal and microglial OPN upregulation, followed by a later extended phase of expression in reactive astrocytes. OPN immunoreactivity after OGD matched the mRNA induction patterns. Activated microglia revealed OPN staining in focal deposits, whereas neurons and reactive astrocytes showed perinuclear staining with a punctate cytosolic pattern of OPN, typical of secreted proteins. These data demonstrated that the temporal and cellular patterns of OPN induction in reactive glial cells in this in vitro model closely correlated with that in the in vivo model, suggesting that OPN has a multifunctional role in the pathogenesis of ischemic injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, a receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, has recently been proposed to be involved in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in response to cerebral ischemia. To identify whether VEGFR-3 is involved in poststroke neurogenesis, we investigated the temporal regulation of VEGFR-3 mRNA expression in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of rats with transient focal cerebral ischemia by in situ hybridization analysis, and identified the phenotypes of cells expressing VEGFR-3 by double- and triple-labeling techniques. In sham-operated rats, hybridization signals for VEGFR-3 mRNA were evident at a weaker intensity in the SVZ of the lateral ventricle. VEGFR-3 was transiently increased in the dorsolateral SVZ of the infarcted hemisphere on days 3-7 after reperfusion. Almost all VEGFR-3-expressing cells in the ipsilateral SVZ were colabeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein and the neural progenitor marker nestin, and were highly proliferative. In addition, a subset of VEGFR-3-labeled cells in the ipsilateral SVZ expressed the immature neuronal marker, polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule. These data indicate that VEGFR-3 is upregulated in SVZ astrocytes and immature neurons after focal ischemia, suggesting that VEGFR-3 might mediate the adult neurogenesis after ischemic stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 (SOCS-2) has recently been identified as an important regulator involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation. However, the role of SOCS-2 in ischemia-induced hippocampal neurogenesis remains to be clarified. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of SOCS-2 in the rat hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia, and particular attention was paid to changes in the dentate gyrus. SOCS-2 mRNA was constitutively expressed in hippocampal neurons and astrocytes in control animals. However, its upregulation occurred specifically in reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus proper, in particular the CA1 and dentate hilar regions, at day 3 after reperfusion, and was sustained for more than 2 weeks. In addition to the CA1 and hilar regions, SOCS-2 was transiently increased in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus on days 3-7 after reperfusion. This correlated with the post-ischemic upregulation of SOCS-2 in the CA1 or dentate gyrus subfield, including the SGZ detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The majority of the SOCS-2-expressing cells in the SGZ were co-labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and a subpopulation of GFAP/SOCS-2 double-labeled cells in the SGZ co-expressed the neural progenitor marker nestin, or the proliferation marker proliferating cellular nuclear antigen. In addition, a subset of SOCS-2-labeled cells in the SGZ expressed the immature neuronal marker polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule. These data suggest that SOCS-2 may be involved in glial reactions, and possibly adult hippocampal neurogenesis during ischemic insults.
Journal of neurotrauma 06/2009; 26(11):2097-106. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bis (Bcl-2 interacting death suppressor) has been reported to contribute to the differentiation and maturation of specific neuronal populations in the developing rat forebrain, in addition to its well-established functions as a stress or survival-related protein. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression of Bis in the rat brainstem and cervical spinal cord during development by using immunohistochemistry. Bis immunoreactivity was detected in radial glial cells flanking the midline from embryonic day 14. During embryonic and early postnatal development, Bis expression persisted in differentiating radial glia at the midline but disappeared first in the spinal cord by postnatal day 7 (P7) and later also in the brainstem by P14. Bis expression was restricted to a subpopulation of the midline radial glia, i.e., the dorsal midline of the midbrain and spinal cord and the ventral midline of the hindbrain, which were double- or triple-labeled with vimentin and nestin, markers for radial glia, and S100B. However, these markers also labeled all radial glia including the ventral midline glia in the midbrain and spinal cord, with Bis being absent from these structures. In addition, the dorsal midline glia in the midbrain and spinal cord expressed Bis prior to the timing of expression for radial glial markers. Therefore, our results demonstrate the early and transient expression of Bis in the subpopulation of midline glia in the developing brainstem and spinal cord, suggesting that Bis has a unique role in association with the radial glial cells in the developing central nervous system.
Cell and Tissue Research 06/2009; 337(1):27-36. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the spatiotemporal regulation of CD44 and the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin subunits, which have been identified as receptors for osteopontin (OPN), in the rat hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Immunoreactivity for CD44 and the integrin subunits, alpha(v) and beta(3), showed characteristic time- and cell-dependent patterns in the ischemic hippocampus. CD44 immunoreactivity was induced at day 1 after reperfusion, reached a peak at day 3, and returned to basal levels by day 7. CD44 was induced in a subset of activated microglial cells within sites of intense neural damage, and the concomitant induction of OPN and CD44 was observed in the same cells in the ischemic hippocampus. In contrast, increased immunoreactivity for alpha(v) and beta(3), which shared overlapping expression patterns in the ischemic hippocampus, occurred in the majority of reactive astrocytes and only a few microglia at day 3 after reperfusion, and was sustained for more than 2 weeks. Immunoreactivity for both integrin subunits colocalized with OPN immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes, and OPN immunoreactivity was also diffusely localized over the extracellular matrix around the reactive astrocytes. These data indicated that the rapid and transient induction of CD44 and OPN occurred in activated microglia/macrophages, whereas the long-lasting induction of alpha(v) and beta(3) integrin subunits and OPN occurred in reactive astrocytes, suggesting that the multifunctional role of OPN in the ischemic brain may be attributed, in part, to a time- and cell-dependent interaction with CD44 or integrin alpha(v)beta(3).
Brain Research 09/2008; 1228:208-16. · 2.88 Impact Factor